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Milan Cathedral. 






It is difficult to make but one tour in Italy ; and he who has no 
wish to return is scarcely worthy to have been there at all. I have 
visited it four times. Though there are many and ingenious works 
on Italy, it appears to me that none of them can serve as a guide to 
travellers of the present day. The Travels ofLalande, full of infor- 
mation once correct, now belong to the past; and since the epoch 
of their publication, the history of art has made undeniable progress : 
the opinions of M. Cochin, which he perpetually thrusts forward, 
appeared of doubtful accuracy to a great artist, more than forty 
years ago 1 . The description which I publish has profited by this 
progress , and is supported by the recent and best authorities , 
Lanzi for painting, and Cicognara and Quatremere for sculpture and 
architecture; the impressions and research of facts alone are mine. 
If it have no other merit, this book may become a kind of portable 
library , and be of service as a methodical catalogue of the vast 
museum of Italy. The literary effect is occasionally diminished by 
these indications, but I have thought it my duty to prefer accuracy 
and usefulness. I have found it impossible to pass over in silence 
the names of so many noble painters , full of elegance and variety , 
in the second rank of the Italian schools , but who assuredly would 
be in the first of any other. The fire-side reader may skip this no- 
menclature of paintings and statues, a kind of recitative that I have 

1 Letter of Girodet written from Florence, May, 1790. See his OEu vres posthumesi 
torn, 11 , p. 363. 




at least endeavoured to enliven by incidental details relating to th 
artist and the anecdotical history of the art. 

As to the historical and literary part , for which a life past in the j 
midst of books had better prepared me, I have written under th< u«hk 
belief that the reform effected in history in our days, that the systen «$$ 
of the true, the painting of particulars, might be likewise extendec 
to a traveller's narrative, to which the principles of the picturesque 
school seemed to me peculiarly applicable. The memorable events rljourn 
the great personages, the poetical reminiscenses of Italy, are therel vri t, 
fore interwoven with my account of places and monuments. WheroLjt 
incriptions were characteristic, 1 have not shrunk from giving them 
many a time have they revealed to me some touching misfortune , 
or some superior talent left in obscurity and neglect. In examining 
libraries, 1 have endeavoured to make the history of books bear on 
the history of men, and to render bibliography instructive and phi- 
losophical. The statistical data are drawn from local and official 
sources, and without going to excess, 1 thought they might present 
new views , and sometimes supply the place of longer dissertations 
on the country. Welcomed by my colleagues the librarians, acquaint 
ed with most of the Italian literati, I have derived invaluable assis- 
tance from their obliging answers to my different inquiries. In fine, 
I have attempted to restore to the poets, the artists, the literati, and 
all the persons I have introduced , their true Italian physiognomy, 
too often distorted by the idle fancies of the English, the sentimen- 
tality of the Germans, or the philosophical spirit of the French. 

Twelve years' unintermitted sludy of Italy, from the period of 
my first journey, has procured me such a mass of facts, that I have 
been compelled to omit a considerable number less intimately 
connected with my description, to prevent my book assuming an 
inconvenient size. These facts, these details, these pictures of 
manners will find a place in a volume of Varietes italiennes, about 
to appear , and will form a supplement to the Travels for sedentary 


Italy , which was before so easy of access by the new roads , has 
ecently become still more so by the starting of numerous steam- 
boats; which will be for that country like the cheap public con- 
/eyances which afford a rapid communication between the different 
^quarters of large cities and thus destroy the distance. This in- 
teresting tour, in which study is a pleasure, and pleasure a study, is 
now no more than an easy promenade. I devoutly wish that my 
journal, which has swelled into a laborious work, after having been 
written under the glorious sky of that country, in places illustrated 
by its great men, within sight of its chefs-d'oeuvre, may help others 
to see it better and love it more; for without loving, it is impossible 
to know it well. 

»u™ « C t.,.^u 6Ut a«u j-uiiip-iiie-ijoio, i mis om apology Tor letters did not suit 
which were formerly at the Chartreuse. | the paradoxical (raptures of Rousseau 

raptures of Rousseau. 





Privilege or the earlier travellers.— Dijon.— Tombs 
of the dukes of Burgundy. — House of Bossuet. — 
Dissertation proposed by the Academy of Dfjoii on 
the revival of the arts and sciences.— Dole. — Saint 

Had I (ravelled in the days of Mon- 
taigne, I might have been allowed, like 
him , from the beginning of my journey, to 
give the particulars of every stage and of 
my several resting-places ; to speak with- 
out offence even of the cheer I had met 
with and the wine I had drunk ; as well 
as to relate the news, incidents, stones, 
and marvels 1 had learned on the way. 
But the prodigies of modern civilisation, 
the great roads and the newspapers, no 
longer permit, and have in fact almost 
proscribed, this part of a traveller's nar- 
rative. My adventures would appear 
common-place, my news out of date, and 
my astonishment ridiculous. This pecu- 
liarity of the olden limes cannot be tole- 
rated now ; at the present day, to keep 
faith wilh the public, a voyage must be 
indeed a book. It has been attempted, 
but in vain, to make the delicacy of 
French taste conform to the frivolous 
gossip and puerilities of certain English 
travellers. I will, however, confess that, 
during my first journey, such was my 
curiosity to see and know, that I often 
lost the diligence dinner, notwithstand- 
ing its importance, that I might visit the 
monuments of the place. 

At Dijon, I went to the museum to see 
the tombs of the two dukes of Burgundy, 
John Fearnought and Philip-the-Buld, 
which were formerly at the Chartreuse. 

Each mausoleum is surrounded by a 
basso-relievo in marble, on which the 
obsequies of the princes are represented. 
In spite of the painful emotions intended 
to be excited by such a ceremony, it is 
easy to trace, under the frock and in the 
features of these monks, all the passions 
and feelings of the human breast por- 
trayed with a truth and reality altoge- 
ther admirable. 

I sought the house in which Bossuet 
was born, and was somewhat disappoint- 
ed when I found it to have all the ap- 
pearance of being recently built. It is 
occupied by a small booksel!er ; and is 
covered with placards like the columns in 
the Palais-Royal. The house ofCrehil- 
lon, on the contrary, is very extensive, 
and serves at present as bread-depot for 
the troops. In the interior was a mill, 
of I know not what kind, which made 
almost as much noise as the thunderclap 
of Atre'e. As to Piron's house, I did not 
look for it; there is a certain degrada- 
tion of talent that produces an absolute 
indifference for the memory of an author. 

Independently of the learning forwhich 
the society of Dijon has always been dis- 
tinguished, this town is, as it were, the 
mightiest source of French eloquence : 
Bossuet belongs to it by birth, and Rous- 
seau by talent. It is well known that 
the program of its Academy, on the ef- 
fects of the revival of the arts and scien- 
ces, fired the genius of this writer ; yet 
Diderot gave him a good hint, if the anec- 
dute told by Marmontel be true : the af- 
firmative was the pons asinor.m, and 
this old apology for letters did not suit 
the paradoxical raptures of Rousseau. 


[ Book I. 

Ddle reminded me of a pleasing inci- 
dent, related in the interesting Memoirs 
of Brienne ; it is a battle scene in which 
French honour and bravery are beauti- 
fully displayed. "At the period of the 
king's conquest of Frauche-Comte," says 
Brienne, " the great Conde" standing with 
Villeroi on the bank of the ditch of Dole, 
where their fathers in the preceding wars 
had not been very successful, this prince 
said to Villeroi :— 'Marquis, we must 
here retrieve the honour of your father 
and of mine.' The ditch was wide and 
dry, and the passage consequently very 
dangerous. The attack was fierce and 
bloody. The marquis, who commanded 
the Lyonnese regiment, passed first, and 
gained the top of the bastion; he effected 
a lodgment there, and cried out from 
afar : ' Prince, my father is satisfied ; what 
says yours? '— ' We will endeavour to 
content him,' said the prince laughing 
in the midst of the fire, and in a moment 
after he was on the rampart." 

On this road to Italy are Montbar, 
Genlis/ Dijon, Coppet, Ferney, Geneva, 
places with which are associated the 
names and reminiscences of some of the 
brightest ornaments of literature, and 
which seem naturally placed in the way 
to such a country. 

The sudden appearance of the lake 
and the Alps from the height of Saint 
Cergues, at three leagues from Geneva, 
is one of the finest views of nature that 
I have ever seen. It is impossible not to 
be dazzled by the magnificence, bril- 
liancy, and grandeur of such a spectacle. 
At times long lines of clouds overtop 
the mountains, of which they have the 
form and almost the colour, seeming like 
other Alps suspended, extending and 
surmounting them. 


Geneva; ils merit and distinction. 

I had intended only to pass through 
Geneva, but I was induced to stay; for 
I found in that city literary acquaintance, 

' The estate from which Madame de Cenlis took 
her name is in Picaidy, near Noyon ; the chateau 
is now demolished. 

* It is proved by the passport returns that twenty- 
live thousand foreiyuers pass through Geneva every 

3 Within the last ten years the aspect of Geneva 
has been almost entirely renovated. The city has 

a relish of civilisation, a kind of moral 
dignity and general good sense, in short, 
a certain gravity that pleased me. I 
loved its public spirit without pride, its 
patriotism without hatred, and even ils 
stiff originality of character in the midst 
of such crowds of foreigners.* 

The town is small, black, old, and 
indifferently built; the population is only* 
twenty-eight thousand souls, yet I could 
not perceive the slightest trace of pro- 
vincialism in tone or manner. 3 

This singular attraction of Geneva, 
combined with the beauties ofits position, 
appears moreover to have been felt by 
persons whose pursuits and destinies were 
widely different : fallen princesses, sons 
of kings, powerful ministers, court ladies 
overcome by ennui, and men noted for 
success in courts, have successively so- 
journed at Geneva. I myself have met 
elegant women there who might have 
occupied some of the grand mansions of 
the Maine or Normandy, and who pre- 
ferred to live at an inn or hire apartments 
at Geneva, disregarding the smallness of 
the rooms, the simplicity of the furniture, 
the absence of an antechamber, and the 
horrors of the staircase. This distin- 
guishing feature, this indisputable su- 
periority of Geneva, proceeds, in my 
opinion, from its being placed in the 
centre of the most polished nations, 
from its being a kind of European tho- 
roughfare for the travellers who visit 
them, and from its social state. This 
scientific, commercial, and manufactur- 
ing city must naturally escape the dis- 
agreeables of small towns : neither the 
same aristocratic haughtiness, nor the 
equally noisome self-importance of wealth 
can exist there; and the upstart vanity 
of our authorities would be difficult in a 
state where the civil list granted to 
the chief does not exceed a hundred louis 
d'or. This first magistrate of the republic 
is chosen from the citizens indiscrimi- 
nately, and the admirable example of 
professor Delarive has been pointed out 
to me, who, a short time after having 
been first syndic, gave a gratuitous course 

been enlarged in the interior by two suburbs re- 
claimed from the lake : the houses have risen three 
or four stories; and there are some of seven or eight 
which overtop the chapels and steeples. The popu- 
lation has increased to thirty-one thousand Inhabi- 
tants, a great number or whom are Intruders and 

foreigners who have corrupted the national cha- 
racter and even the accent. 

Chap. III.] 


of lectures on chemistry as applicable to 
the industrious arts, which were attended 
by the manufacturing population of Ge- 

The opulence of the Genevese has 
covered the banks of the lake with charm- 
ing abodes ; but I prefer from my heart 
those which have remained Swiss : the 
Corinthian porticoes, th£ colonades, the 
pavilions, and all the Grecian architecture 
of some of these villas are much less 
pleasing to me. 

At the villa of colonel Favre is the 
admirable eolossal group of Venus and 
Adonis, an effort of Canova's youthful 
genius; it was executed for the marquis 
Salsa di Berio, of Naples, but retouched 
all over by the artist when the group 
passed through Rome on its way to 
Switzerland ; for grace and dignity it is 
said to equal the noblest productions of 
his maturer years. 

One Sunday, I met at the gates of 
Geneva two battations of the civic guard 
which were returning from Conches, 
where they had been target-shooting for 
prizes. Every body, without distinction 
of rank or fortune, makes part of this 
guard, the appearance of which is superb. 
Assuredly, if the sight of some companies 
of the battalion of Saint Gervais, supping 
and dancing in the public square of that 
quarter, left such a vivid impression on 
the mind of Rousseau when a child, and 
which he has so eloquently described, 
he would not have been less struck with 
the appearance of this civic force of 
unpaid soldiers, whom an advanced state 
of civilisation, with the comfort and 
increased dignity produced thereby, 
must have rendered superior to the old 
companies of Saint Gervais: his father 
might still say, as he embraced him : 
"Jean-Jacques, love thy country! " The 
talent of Rousseau is never more ad- 
mirable than in the description of popular 
emotions and patriotic sentiments. This 
simple note of the "Letter to d'Alembert," 
presents a piciure full of life, warmth, 
and truth. 

' An agreeable traveller, M. Valout, had forgotten 
this circumstance when, oa visiting the house of 
Housseau's father in 1819, he asked for the «hamber 
In which Jean-Jacques was born. After mounting 
the dark and narrow stair of this miserable house, 
aud seeking In vain for sonretraee of the great man, 


nouse of Jean-Jacques.— statue.— Condemnation 
of his Emile. 

I wished to see the house in which 
Jean-Jacques is said to have been born. 
It is occupied on the ground floor by a 
faiseur d'outils (tool-maker), as his sign- 
board indicates : a Parisian workman 
would not have failed to take the title of 
fabricant (manufacturer); I am sure 
Rousseau would prefer tbe sign of the 
Genevese artisan. This house, notwith- 
standing the inscription, is not precisely 
that in which Rousseau was born, as his 
birth took place while his mother was 
on a visit, 1 but it was the residence of his 
father. It was there that he passed with 
him the first years of that infancy already 
so sensible and impassioned, when, after 
they had spent the night together in read- 
ing romances, his father, hearing the 
swallows twittering their orisons, quite 
ashamed, said to him : " Let us go to bed ; 
I am more of a child than you." 

On again visiting this spot in 1827, I 
found that Rousseau's house had been 
pulled down and replaced by a large 
handsome house of freestone, at which 
workmen were still employed. The love 
of comfort and the spirit of property are 
regardless of the memory of the past, 
and, with the exception of the little bust 
in the botanical garden, there did not 
then exist at Geneva, after the lapse of 
less than half a century, the slightest 
vestige of Rousseau. 

A bronze statue, beautifully executed 
by M. Pradier, an able Genevese sta- 
tuary, has at length been erected to 
Rousseau by subscription, on the little 
shady platform called the lie des Bar- 
ques, near to where the Rhone issues from 
the lake. It was inaugurated on the 
24th of February, 1835. 

I saw in the front of the town-hall, at 
the foot of the tribunal from the top' of 
which the sentences of condemned per- 
sons are read, the place where Emile 
was burnt by the hand of the public exe- 
cutioner. This infamous sentence, which 
was given without trial and even before 

he only foand a workman, who showed him two 
chambers, and said to the disconcerted traveller:— 
" It Is one of those two, make jour choice ! "—Gale- 
rie tithographiee de monseignevr le due d'Orleans, 
tome II. 


[ Book I, 

the Look had reached Geneva, followed 
with the interval of a week only, the 
execution done at Paris by the hangman 
at the foot of the great staircase. 1 Vol- 
taire, seltled in his estate of Les Delices, 
seconded by attorney-general Tronchin, 
and for once in unison wilh the parlia- 
ment and the Sorbonne, was the active 
and secret instigator of these proceedings. 
"It is true that the credit of M. de Vol- 
taire at Geneva," writes Rousseau, from 
Yverdun, to madame de Boufflers, "has 
greatly contributed to this violence and 
precipilation. It is at the instigation of 
M. de Voltaire that they have revenged 
the cause of God on me." — "I reached 
here yesterday," he again writes from 
Motiers-Travers to Mouitou, on the 11th 
of July, "and shall take breath until it 
pleases MM. de Voltaire and Tronchin to 
pursue me and have me expelled." Vol- 
taire causing Emile to be burnt at Ge- 
neva and procuring an order to be issued 
for the apprehension of its author — per- 
secuting, from the height of his chateau, 
the poor. inGrm, suffering, and fugitive 
Jean-Jacques, presents a rather unphilo- 
sophical compound of the Epicurean and 


Temple of Saint Peter.— Protestant preaching. 

On passing through Geneva, at a sub- 
sequent period, I applied to that town the 
method I had followed in Italy of collect- 
ing historical information during my 
researches after works of art. 

The front of the temple of Saint Peter 
is an excellent work of Count Benedetto 
Alfieri Bianco, a clever architect whom 
Alfieri called his uncle, although he was 
a Roman, and of a collateral branch of 
his family. In the interior, against the 
wall, between two little columns and be- 
neath a narrow half-demolished pedi- 
ment, I observed the epitaph of Agrippa 
d'Aubigne" ; * an eccentric character, a 
kind of Sully withamorose, satirical, and 
scoffing humour; but, as a writer, full of 
vigour and genius. The grand-daughter of 
d'Aubigne\ the daughter of that Constant 
d'Aubigne who had betrayed his father, 
has since been seated near to the throne 
of France : one would think that she 

1 Emile was burnt at Pails the tlthof June, 17G2; 
at Geneva on the <8th. 

might have restored the ashes of her 
grandsire to his country, unless the deau 
were included in the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes. The marble mausoleum 
of Henry de Rohan in the temple of Saint- 
Peter, Avhich was destroyed by the revo- 
lutionary ignorance of 1794, has been 
restored. This famous chief of the pro-, 
testant party under Louis XIII., the au-* 
thor of the Perfect Captain, was an able 
writer and a skilful warrior. The duke 
is in complete armour, and his armorial 
bearings are painted on the wall; the 
aristocratic pomp of this monument 
forms a singular contrast wilh the nudity 
of a reformed temple, which is so strik- 
ing at Saint Peter's; but it does honour 
to the wisdom of the present magistrates 
of Geneva. 

Among the sepulchral stones and epi- 
taphs, which cover the walls of this tem- 
ple in considerable numbers, I remarked 
one to the memory of a baron of Kaunitz, 
who died at Geneva in 1608 at the age of 
fourteen years, and who was lord of 
Austerlitz (Dominus in Austerlitz). 
Though there be nothing there but what 
is very simple, one cannot see without 
emotion this terrible and glorious name 
placed on the tomb of an infant who died 
at so great a distance from his country. 

Among many sermons that I heard at 
Geneva there was one that seemed to me 
exceedingly fine; it was preached by 
M. Touron on occasion of the September 
fast. This discourse showed that consi- 
derable progress has been made in the 
preaching of the protestanls, which seems 
now to approach more nearly to the ca- 
tholic manner. This superiority is pro- 
bably neither in the men nor the orators, 
but in the form of the discourse. Under 
Louis XIV. protestantism was combated 
by the thunders of Bossuel, Fenelon, and 
the writers of Port-Royal, and in strug- 
gling to maintain its ground under the 
blows of such powerful adversaries, its 
eloquence became controversial. Not- 
withstanding some fine inspirations due 
to exile, persecution, and misfortune, its 
refugie style was heavy, languid, and 
without imagination. In the following 
century protestantism could not escape 
the general decline of Christian doc- 
trines, and its eloquence was chilled by 
the coldness of those moral virtues which 

* The castle or Crest, where lie lived, is still (o lie 
seen at Jussy, two leagues from Geneva. 

Chap. VI.] 


but animated by that enthusiastic reli- 
gious zeal, which is the strongest of hu- 
man passions. When we recollect Cal- 
vin's first arrival at Geneva, we cannot 
help being struck with the sudden ascen- 
dency that he acquired ; this simple pro- 
fessor of theology, come by a mere 
chance, and maintained at the public 
expense, possesses all the authority of a 
master; if he retires, it is only to come 
back more powerful and terrible; he dic- 
tates, to the magistrates the judgments 
they are to give, and, though the advo- 
cate of free discussion, punishes his anta- 
gonists with death. > 

In the quarter of Saint Gervais, I went 
to see a small enclosure made some few 
years since, at the extremity of which is 
a marble tablet attached to the outside of 
the church wall, bearing the names of 
the seventeen citizens who perished in 
the defence of their country during a 
nocturnal attack made by the duke of Sa- 
voy in 1602. A small plot of grass en- 
closed by an iron railing breast-high, some 
names inscribed against the wall, are the 
only monument erected to the memory 
of these courageous citizens, these ple- 
beian Manlii, who had not even the 
geese of the Capitol for them; but this 
simple monument, so popular and na- 
tional, is more touching than the superb 
equestrian statues, gilt or bronze, of the 
condottieri, that decorate the squares 
and churches of Italy. The letter which 
Henry IV. wrote to the Genevese on the 
subject of this remuement, generously 
offering them his protection, with that 
vivid, princely, and military eloquence 
of which he is the inimitable model, has 
associated the memory of the Escalade 
with the history of France. 


Museum.— Theatre.— Conservatory. 

The patriotism of the Genevese has re- 
cently endowed their city with a mu- 
seum ; the very walls of the edifice are 
a present, for they were built with the 
money bequeathed by the Misses Rath, 
the daughters of the general of that name, 
who died in the service of Russia. 
Though only ten years have elapsed, it 
possesses already considerable riches. 

Jacques Gruet, beheaded ; Michael Servelus, after his recantation, to make the amende hona- 
>urnt ; Valentine Gentllis, condemned to die, and, | Table ; Bolzec, banished. 

alone were advocated from its pulpits. 
The preaching of the present day, pru- 
dently abstaining from the controversies 
with which it was formerly entangled, 
invigorated by sentiments of religion, the 
desideratum of the enlightened minds 
and generous hearts of our epoch, is 
perfectly evangelical. The sermons of 
M. Touron, like the Discours farniliers 
d'un pasteur de campagne, by M. Cel- 
Jerier, would be excellent parish lectures. 
The latter, in which the imitation of 
Massillon is very perceptible, possess all 
the unction and spirituality of which 
protestantism is capable. 

The services of the reformed church 
did not seem to me destitute of dignity or 
devoid of charms: the excommunication, 
pronounced by the minister from the 
pulpit against those who communicate 
unworthily, was full of awe; the singing 
of the psalms and the simple music with 
which they are accompanied have a 
touching effect, and if the verses are bad, 
habit and piety, that sweet preoccupation 
of the soul in its aspirings after God, 
would scarcely perceive it or find fault 
with them. 


Falace of Clotilde.- Calvin.— Scalade. 

In my researches into the past of Ge- 
neva, I even went to examine the Gothic 
arcade of the Bourg-du-Four, one of the 
city gates, through which every body 
passes without noticing it; it is said to be 
the gate of the palace of Clotilde, the 
daughter of Chilperic, king of Burgundy, 
and the wife of Clovis. It was there 
that, seated with her sister, she was 
exercising hospitality to travellers, when 
she received from the Gaul Aurelian, 
disguised as a beggar, the ring of the 
king of the Franks and his first proposals 
of marriage. It is strange to find this 
tradition of the woman who converted 
the Franks to Christianity in the city of 
Calvin, as if it were destined to be the 
source of religious revolutions of the 
most opposite character. 

In a little square I saw the hall, now 
occupied by the Consistory, in which 
Calvin assembled his first disciples, when 
he was only a poor wandering fugitive, 


[Book I. 

Among the paintings of the Genevese 
school in the Rath museum may be re- 
marked : the portraits of Saussure and of 
Tronchin, by Saint-Ours ; the expressive 
portrait of Madame d'Epinai, by Liotard, 
painted in 1758, when she came to Gene- 
va an invalid ; two large landscapes 
by Delarive; Hornung's Death of Cal- 
vin, which has effect, but is deficient 
in local physiognomy; /too landscapes, 
by Huber ; a winter landscape by Top- 
fer. David victorious, in bronze, is by 
M. Chaponiere, who, with M. Pradier, 
does honour to the chisel at Geneva, 

In spite of Rousseau's philippic, a 
theatre has long existed at Geneva. A 
conservatory of music has been created 
within the last three years; it has pro- 
duced some promising pupils, and Listz 
gave lessons there in 1836. The ancient 
severity of manners in the town of Cal- 
vin is daily diminishing, and this kind 
of Lycurgus, both writer and orator, 
would not see without displeasure that 
all the refinements of Attic taste are now 
succeeding to the rigorous discipline 
which he established. 


library. — Reading society. — Taste for reading 
among the people of fieneva.— Manuscripts of 
Dr. Colndel. — Autograph letters of Voltaire, Rous- 
seau, and Bonaparte ; literature oT tbe latter. 

I devoted several days to an examina- 
tion of the public library, which contains 
forty thousand volumes and about five 
hundred manuscripts. There exists in 
this library a most precious work of art, 
Petitot's great enamel of Alexander in 
the tent of Darius. The building devoted 
to the library is a horrid place which has 
very much the appearance of a barn. It is 
well supplied with editions of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, but there is a 
deficiency of modern works ; except the 
Description of Egypt, there are scarcely 
any of the best works that have appeared 

1 The reading society has no other funds than 
those derived fromthecontribulions of its subscri- 
bers; its library now contains more than thirty 
thousand volumes, among which, it is true, there 
are many sets incomplete. The number of members 
was three hundred and twenty in 1836; there were 
more than four hundred in 1831 and 1832. Foreign- 
ers are readily admitted to the reading society , in 
1836, there were a hundred and seven Trench, a 
hundred and three English, afly-lwo Italians, fifty- 
one German, twenty-two Russians or Poles, twenty- 

d u ring the last twenty years. The reading 
society is a well regulated institution ; it 
receives the literary and scientific jour- 
nals, the different reviews, and principal 
new publications, and is, I think, the 
cause of the unmerited neglect of the 
library. • Francis dc Bonnivard, the 
prisoner of Chillon, a was the founder of 
this library, to which he gave his ma-* 
nuscripts and books in the year 1551. 
It was afterwards increased by the be- 
quest of Ami Lullin, professor of eccle- 
siastical history, who had acquired a 
portion of the rare collection of counsellor 
PCteau, the other part of which was 
bought by queen Christine, who sent it 
to the Vatican. Thus was the library of 
this counsellor of the parliament of Paris 
strangely destined to be divided between 
Rome and Geneva. 

I was struck with the great bulk of the 
loan book, and was then informed by 
M. Pictet Deodati, the librarian, whose 
attentions were truly indefatigable, that 
every citizen of Geneva, without ex- 
ception, had a right to the use of the 
books in the library. I looked over this 
loan book with curiosity. It did not 
contain, like ours, the names of idlers 
reading at random without taste or love 
of study ; nor were the somewhat graver 
fantasies enregistered there, of those 
restless triflers who seek in our phar- 
macies of the soul vain remedies for 
imaginary evils; nor did it contain the 
names of those literary sharpers, who 
make books from books on all sub- 
jects indifferently, nor of those editors, 
writers of the stall and the shop, whose 
talent is only a kind of handicraft, and 
whose long compilations do not present 
one original idea, nor twenty pages of 
their own composition; but instead of 
these I found the names and very legible 
signatures of useful citizens and artisans. 
These come in person one day a week to 
change the works they have read for 
others; though there are nearly two 
thousand volumes in circulation, it never 

six Americans, fifteen Dutch, and one Turk. The 
society seems, however, to be on the decline by ihe 
president's report made in the month of January 
1837, and the expenditure has exceeded the receipts 
lor some years past. 

'' By a siugular inadvertence, Lo'-d Byron, in- 
stead or celebrating the captivity of that intrepid 
and temperate priest, liounivard, the real prisoner 
of Cbillon, lias sung the adventures of Imaginary 
heroes see post, chap. xvi. 

Chap. VII. ] 


happens tbat one is lost. Thus, this 
library is not only public but popular. 
"This taste for instruction gives to the 
people of Geneva a sort of gravity and 
comprehension truly remarkable, which 
is not found elsewhere. In the clock 
manufactories, as in the veille'es of com- 
mon work-people, the best reader is 
chosen, and the audience agree to do his 
or her share of work so long as thus 
employed. In this manner that intel- 
lectual life, that esteem for the efforts 
of the mind and of thought, which, with 
all our means of publicity and all our 
literary agitation, are so little known in 
France, are much more widely dissemi- 
nated at Geneva . I remember that I had 
the good fortune to meet M. do Cha- 
teaubriand there, who had come from 
Lausanne to pass two days at Geneva, 
and he was pleased, as we relumed from 
our ride, to take me back to my inn. 
When I got out of the carriage I was 
surprised to see my hostess, generally so 
full of business, standing still before the 
door; she soon followed me, aud asked if 
the gentleman in the carriage was not 
M. de Chateaubriand. I said that it was, 
and I showed some astonishment at her 
knowing M. de Chateaubriand ; she 
sharply replied — " Oh! sir, who does 
not know M. de Chateaubriand ?" I 
mentioned this incident to a Genevese, 
who from his profession is a perfectly 
competent judge of the Genevese man- 
ners, and he was not the least surprised 
at it. He even assured me that if the 
passage of M. de Chateaubriand had been 
suspected at the time, all the street der- 
rierele Rhone would have been crowded. 
In 1826, I examined at my leisure, at 
the house of the late doctor Coindet, a 
very curious collection of autograph 
letters, which is at the present time in 
the hands of his eldest son. M. Coindet 
possessed, with various letters of Voltaire 
and Rousseau, the manuscript of Emile, 
which however had no doubt been re- 
written from a former copy, perhaps that 
in th?, library of the Chamber of Deputies, 
which has many more erasures. The 
manuscript of ft]. Coindet presents rather 
corrections of style than any real changes, 
and it is well known to what an extent 
Rousseau laboured his works. One of 

* I have since, in my (ravels in Corsica, dis- 
covered several of Napoleon's letters, of a date pre- 
vious to this ; they are addressed to his family, and 
are now in the hands of M. Broccini of Ajaccio. One 

the most remarkable pieces of this col- 
lection is a letter from Rousseau's father 
to Madame de Warens, in which he 
expresses his disapprobation at his son's 
wasting time in literary occupations ; in 
this letter of the old clock-maker of 
Geneva may be observed some rude 
features of his son's genius. There is the 
same energy, the same haughtiness, if 
there cannot be said to be the same 
elevation, of sentiment. Inthe collection 
of M. Coindet, there was also, in five 
folio pages, one of Calvin's doctor's bills ; 
lavements are almost as reite'res therein 
as in that of M. Fleurant. Among the 
treasures of M. Coindet was a packet of 
lettres de cachet, surreptitiously taken 
from the Bastille when it was destroyed, 
documents unworthy of the signature of 
Louis XIV. and Colbert, as in them 
these great men degrade themselves to 
the occupation of jailers, even prescribing 
the visits the prisoners may receive, and 
the number of turns to be allowed them 
on the terrace. 

At the house of M. Cherbuliez, a 
iearned bookseller, I saw, in frames, a 
letter of Voltaire, two autograph letters 
of Rousseau, and one of Bonaparte, the 
three men, perhaps, who have exercised 
the most violent influence over mankind. 
Voltaire's letter is only an insignificant 
note of the 16th of March, 1776, addressed 
to M. Duval de Gex; he sends to him a 
letter written by the fermiers-gene'raux 
to M. Trudaine, respecting a person 
named Chabot, whom he patronised; the 
letter is not in his hand, but is signed by 
him. Rousseau's two letters, written 
fron Motiers, are addressed to M. de 
Beauchateau; one is of the 1st of October, 
the other of the 17th of November, 1763; 
in the first he invites him to dinner in 
very affectionate terms and with much 
good nature ; in the latter he speaks in a 
touching manner of the suffering state of 
his health :— " Without the hope of 
another life," says he, " I should have 
but little to say in favour of this." Bona- 
parte's letter is of the 29lh July, 1786, 
and is addressed to M. Barde, the pre- 
decessor of M. Cherbuliez. It is one of 
the earliest of his now existing letters. ■ 
The letter to M.Rarde is badly spelt, but 
not so illegible as his writing when em- 

of them was written during his childhood, at the 
age of eleven, a short time after his going to 



Book ( 

peror ; its style is very ordinary, and 
affords little presage of the great man ; it 
relates to the purchase of certain histories 
of the island of Corsica and the pretpnded 
Memoirs of Madame de Warcns and 
Claude Anet, as a sequel to the con- 
fessions of J.- J. Rousseau. ' — " J'en- 
tendt vot re reponse," writes Bonaparte. 
" pour vous envoyer Vargent a quoi 
cela montera." He directs M. Barde to 
address his answer to M. de Buonaparte, 
officer of artillery in the regiment of La 
Fere in garrison at Valence. However 
little the interest of this piece, it is im- 
possible not to feel some emotion on 
seeing obscurely exposed, in the corner 
of a bookseller's shop, and bearing the 
marks of its ancient classification among 
other business letters, this letter whose 
characters were traced by a hand so 
powerful, which was one day to give so 
many other signatures so widely differing, 
from the treaties dictated in the capitals 
of Europe, to the abdication accepted at 
Fonlainebleau and tiie will of Saint 

Bonaparte's stay at Valence is the sub- 
ject of a very pretty anecdote related in 
the Memoirs of a contemporary.* At 
the period of the journey to Erfurth, Na- 
poleon, having at his table the emperor 
Alexander and the princes of the Confe- 
deration of the Rhine, corrected an error 
which the prince primate made respect- 
ing the date of the Golden Bull. "When 
I was a simple second lieutenant of ar- 
tillery, "said he, on beginning hisphrase, 
and on remarking a movement of interest 
and surprise on the part of his guests :— 
" When I had the honour," he resumed, 
"of being a simple second lieutenant of 
artillery, I remained three years in gar- 
rison at Valence. I was not fond of 
company and lived very retired. For- 
tunately I lived near a bookseller ; I read 
over and over again all the books in his 
library during those three years, and I 
have forgotten nothing." If one calls to 

1 These memoirs had just appeared at Chambcry ; 
the first are the work of M. Doppet, then a physician, 
and subsequently an Indifferent general replaced at 
the siege of Toulon by Dugommier j be was lbe 
author of Political and Military Memoirs, nud died 
In 1S00; the latter were by bis brother, a barrister. 

2 Memoirs ol M. de Eausset, vol. i. p. 324. 

3 Bonaparte was a great novel-reader ; one of bis 
most Illustrious generals, a most veracious man, 
has related, that when he was called into his pre- 
sence at Marligny, al the moment ot passing the 
Great Saiut Bernard, he caught a glance of the book 

mind the divers literary judgments of 
Bonaparte, his letters, and his procla- 
mations, one might be tempted to think 
on the contrary, that, w ith the exception 
of chronology, his memory was rather 
detrimental to him, as being the source 
of all that is false and exaggerated in them. 
His instinct w as better than his learning, 
and the gifts of nature than his acquire-- 
ments. He could appreciate Corneille, 
Moiiere, Racine, and the great writers 
of the age ofLouisXIV.; save some par- 
tial errors on Fenelon, La Fontaine, 
Lesage, and madarnede S6vigne\ and he 
was perhaps too much shocked with the 
tinsel of some of Yoltaire's pieces. His 
military eloquence was brilliant, but 
nearly always imitated and too highly 
coloured ; the historical and sentimental 
common-places that he mixed with it 
were sometimes very ludicrous. Some of 
bis letters addressed to his w ife, soon 
after their marriage, have recently ap- 
peared ; notwithstanding the depth of 
his feelings, they are written in the very 
worst style of novels. 3 The literary 
taste of Bonaparte was correct, but not of 
a high order; in the plan of a portable li- 
brary of a thousand volumes which he 
sent to M. Barbier, his librarian, Emile 
is formally excluded, while I have re- 
marked on one of his travelling catalo- 
gues, the Lettres a Emilie sur la mytho- 
logie, and the poems in prose of Florian ; 
in the section of epic poets in the plan of 
this portable library, Napoleon had or- 
dered Lucan and the Henriade, without 
thinking of Virgil, Camoens, or Milton. 
The tales and romances of Marmontel 
were among the books that he carried into 
the East with him, the catalogue of which 
he himself made out. 4 He had an equal 
antipathy for Rousseau and Voltaire. 
When he passed through Geneva in 1800, 
and showed much politeness to its citi- 
zens, after making complaisantinquiries 
about Saussure, Bonnet, and Senebier, 
he said nothing of Jean-Jacques. Elo- 

that Bunaparte had in bis hand when he entered, 
the room ; It was the Adventures of Guzman d'Al 

4 Bourrienne's Memoirs, vol. il. p. 50 el te$ 
M. de Bourrieune appears, however, to judge th» 
friend of his childhood too severely when he says. 
— " I never knew a man more insensible to the 
beautiful in poetry or prose. The finest works of 
our literature were to him nothing more than an 
arrangement of sonorous words, void of sense, 
which, according to him, only pleased the ear. 

Chap. VIII. j 


quent reproacheshavebeenmade against 
Napoleon's taste for the lower kind ot 
literature, but it was the consequence of 
his first acquaintances in the revolution, 
and his good sense vainly struggled to 
get rid of it. 

Geneva appears to me deserving of 
reproach for an error in opinion that I 
will take advantage of this opportunity to 
mention. At the corner of every street, 
may be seen portraits and apotheoses of 
Napoleon. I remember that, on my ar- 
rival at Geneva, in pursuance of the active 
habits I had contracted, and to which I 
adhered in all my travels, I began to 
explore the city almost immediately on 
my arrival ; having asked the way to the 
parade, a person who was going thither, 
(it being Sunday) proposed to conduct 
me. After thanking him for his obliging 
offer in a suitable manner, I thought 
proper to congratulate this citizen of Ge- 
neva on the independence of his country. 
He received my compliment rather 
coldly; and I afterwards found a similar 
feeling among persons of more inform- 
ation. This Genevese Bonapartism sur- 
prised me exceedingly. In my early youth 
I had known, under the empire, some 
distinguished Genevese, and I had closely 
observed their opposition to the proceed- 
ings of that epoch, and the dissatisfaction 
of the government on account of it. I 
have not forgotten, as one of the richest 
mecdotes of the censorship, that a 
number of the Bibliotheque britanni- 
jue, an excellent journal published at 
aeneva, was then suppressed or menaced 
with suppression, on account of an ex- 
ract from an English life of Sir Thomas 
More. An allusion was found in it to 
.he affair of the pope, and Geneva was 
llmost censured as papist. Bonaparte 
tbhorred Geneva and the Genevese, and 
lis witty answer cannot have been for- 
gotten, when, on being invited to pass by 
ieneva, he said that he did not know 
■nough English for that. This Gene- 

1 See his letters, so felicitously translated into 
Tench by Madame de Stecfe. 
3 He died on the i:jlh February 1832. 

3 One of the first botanists in Europe. 

4 Aulhor of the History of the Italian Republics 
I the Middle Ages, a partial work, but abounding 
,-iih information; it ought to be read, as a neces- 
Ijry complement to a voyage In Italy. 

5 M. Dumont has published and rendered read- 
ble the reveries of the Civil and penal Legislation 
f Jeremy Benlham; be died at Milan in September 

vese Bonapartism is connected with the 
remembrance of good administration, 
and some commercial advantages, but i* 
is not the less an error. The impulse 
given by France towards a sort of social 
improvement might be useful to other 
nations less advanced, but could not be- 
nefit Geneva ; this enlightened city has 
need of no one to teach it civilisation. 


Society of Geneva. 

During the summer the society of Ge- 
neva is pretty generally dispersed among 
the villas of its environs. I could only 
catch a glimpse of it, although favoured 
with the obliging attentions of M. de 
Bonstetten, formerly the friend and lite- 
rary confidant of the youthful Muller,' at 
that time advanced in years, but still full 
of fire, grace, and imagination . a But I can- 
not recall without a pleasurable interest 
the evenings that I past with some of the 
ministers. It appeared to me that peace, 
union, and domestic happiness reigned 
there ; the wives of these pastors and theo- 
logians have a kind of unpedantic gravity 
full of sweetness. The other ladies of 
Geneva whom I met with conversed well 
and with ease ; a few commercial terms 
were occasionally mixed with their ex- 
pressions, but I never saw any instance 
of that affectation of refinement with 
which I have heard them reproached. 

In winter the society of Geneva is of a 
very superior kind ; as it comprises such 
men as De Candolle, 3 SismondM Du- 
mont, 5 Maurice, 6 Rossi, 7 Hess, 8 Cha- 
teauvieux;g such shining intellects, and 
sturdy combatants, that cannot be found 
elsewhere united within so small space. 
Sharp must the pains of exile be, since 
Madame de Stael could not be consoled 
or forget her sorrows in the range of such 

Geneva is singularly placed as a con- 

6 Formerly professor, maitre des requetes, and 
prefect of France. 

7 Professor of Roman law at the Academy of Ge- 
neva, a jurisconsult of the highest distinction, and 
author of the Treatise on penal taw, published in 
1829; he is now professor of political economy at 
the College of France. 

8 Author of an interesting lire of Zuinglius. 

9 Author of Leltres nouvelles sur I'ltalie, and of 
Letlres de Saint-James. 



[Boor I. 

trast on the road lo Italy ; this city, the 
seat of philosophy, industry, commerce, 
and liberty, utterly differs from the poe- 
tic soil of Italy, the country of the arts, 
of historical recollections, and absolute 



The visits to Ferney do not now excite 
the emotion, agitation, and ecstacy that 
were the order of the day some sixty 
years ago. The curiosity of the traveller, 
sometimes childish and ridiculous, • has 
succeeded to the ardent fervour of the 
pilgrims of old : every body admires the 
talents and genius ofVoItaire, but there is 
no man of sense that does not blame his 
abuse of them. This celebrated chateau, 
this portico of a scoffingand sceptical phi- 
losophy, is but a small house of a style of 
architecture at once meagre and clumsy. 
On the front are represented divers em- 
blems of philosophy and the arts, painted 
during the lifetime of Voltaire, with al- 
lusions to his various works. The thea- 
tre, situated In the court, was so badly 
built, that time has already destroyed it. 
The famous church opposite, which bore 
the scarcely religious inscription, Deo 
crexit Voltaire, is but a narrow chapel 
incapable of holding two hundred per- 
sons. The drawing-room and bed-cham- 
ber are still, as is well known, in the 
same state as in Voltaire's time. The 
drawing-room is small and ugly, and 
filled with ten arm-chairs and a little 
console. The frightful daub so humo- 
rously described by Madame dc Genlis is 
still there : it represents the Temple of 
Memory, and Voltaire, led by France, of- 
fering his Henriade to Apollo ; the kind 
of toga in which Voltaire is clothed re- 
sembles a dressing-gown, and France, as 
to her look and dress, has an air hardly 
decent; the enemies of Voltaire are in a 
corner, overthrown and making horrible 
grimaces. In the bed-chamber is the 
earthen mausoleum, spit half through, 
in which Voltaire's heart was enclosed, 
and which from its material, colour, and 
degraded appearance, is more like a 

1 The beil and window curtains of Voltaire's 
chamber, are almost In pieces, great numbers of 
travellers bearing away a shred every day unper- 

2 Ferney lias reverted to the Bude family, of 

cracked stove than a tomb. Those em- 
phatic words, so little resembling his 
style, which he would never have written 
in his life, are still lo be read thereon :— 
"My manes are consoled, since my heart 
is in the midst of you." A small detach- 
ed plate, on the middle of this strange 
monument, bears the more generally 
known inscription :— "His spirit is eve- 
ry where; bis heart is here." On the* 
sides of this tomb are strangely enough 
placed the portraitsof pope Clement XIV. 
and his Iandress,and those of the empress 
Catherine and her chimney-sweeper. 
On the side where the bed is, are the por- 
traits of Frederick, Lekain, and Madame 
du Chatelet, and near the only window 
of the room, are some small and very in- 
different engravings representing certain 
illustrious characters, among whom 
friendship and a community of philoso- 
phical sentiment have given a place to 
Marmontel, Helvetius, Diderot, and the 
duke of Choiseul. Close to this room 
was his study, which is now a servant's 
bed-room ; and beyond that the library, 
now a somewhat extensive orangery. In 
the park is the great elm planted by the 
hand of Voltaire; it was struck by light- 
ning in 1824, and its effects are still vi- 
sible in the dead boughs at its top. The 
park is flat, but presents several new and 
well planted avenues of an agreeable 
aspect, which form an effective contrast 
with the somewhat insignificant remains 
of the chateau." 

There is still living at Ferney an old 
gardener who has seen Voltaire; he 
speaks of him in an interesting manner, 
and without the cant usual to that sort 
of contemporaries. He has preserved a 
morsel of Voltaire's dressing-gown, his 
white silk cap with gold flowers, and his 
great box walking-stick. Leaning on the 
latter, the good fellow represents in a 
very natural manner some of the scenes 
in the life of Voltaire, his passionate do- 
mestic oulbreakings, his love of frighten- 
ing the little boys that came in his 
way, etc. Voltaire was always called 
monseigneur, and would have taken of- 
fence if any of his people or dependants 
omitted doing so; he rode out every day 
in a carriage with four horses. In spite 

whom Voltaire bought it. The present proprietor 
Is M. Bude de Boissy, a descendant of the famous 
Guillaume Bude, whose wife, with a part of Ills 
children, retired 1° G eneva and embraced Cal- 

Chap. XL 



of his beneficent conduct to the residents 
on his estates, he was a lord strict enough 
and even hard towards poachers '. This 
same gardener still shows a register con- 
taining the seals of divers persons who 
had written to Voltaire. These seals en- 
abled him to refuse the letters that he did 
not want to receive, and which he sent 
back without opening to save the postage ; 
there are epithets written by the side of 
them, some of which are not very flatter- 
ing for these tiresome and indiscreet cor- 
respondents. Among the prints in the 
chamber of this gardener, is one given 
him by Madame Denis, representing 
Voltaire in various costumes ; in one of 
these he is disguised as a woman with a 
round cap; the effect of this old monkey- 
like countenance with such a headdress 
cannot be described. It is also probable 
that Voltaire, after corresponding with 
the femme de chambre of the duchess of 
Choiseul, a had a fancy one day to take 
the costume. 

Of all the places that hare be<:n inha- 
bited by celebrated men, Ferney is one of 
those which most disappoint the expec- 
tations ; ignorance of the beauties of 
nature has never, perhaps, been carried 
to such an extent : this park, at the foot 
of the Jura, has not a single undulation 
of surface, and one can hardly get a sight 
of the lake of Geneva or the Alps. 



1 visited Coppet, the asylum of the 
fugitive Bayle, where he sojourned while 
engaged in the education of the children 
of count de Dhona : it was also the retreat 

' Tbe following anecdote of Voltaire, which, 1 
believe, has never been printed, was communicated 
to me by a person worthy of credit who bad known 
him personally. " A poacher was caught and taken 
before Voltaire. ' The rogue must be defended,' 
said he, after throwing himself back in his easy- 
chair, and he named Wagniere as his counsel, w ho 
refused, however, from I know not what motive, 
aud M. Mailly-Chateaurenaud, then Yoltaire's second 
secretary, under the name of M. Esprit, and subse- 
quently deputy of Franche-Comie at the States-ge- 
neral, was ordered to replace him. In the midst of 
bis pleading, M. Esprit slopped suddenly, and said 
he wanted a volume to read a quotation, that this 
volume was in the library of M. de Vollaire, and 
that he could And it in a moment; the high justi- 
ciary ollowed him to go for it. On his return, as 
he Sept turning over the leaves in vain without 

of Necker, and for ten years the Siberia 
of Madame de Stael. The chateau had 
just been arranged with care and simpli- 
city ; it has nothing extraordinary and is 
badly piaced, enjoying no view of the 
Alps, which is intercepted by the naked 
heights of the Voirons. The park is 
planted at the entrance with evergreens 
and has a dull aspect ; there is, however, 
a very pretty rivulet which might have 
been turned to advantage, though it now 
only serves to turn a mill. This taste in 
preference of the useful was visible 
throughout the estate, as well as in the 
life of its proprietor, a young man worthy 
of respect and regret, who was attached 
even to the illusions of virtue, and whose 
conscience was a more certain guide than 
his doctrines, which we may be allowed 
to decline following, though we cannot 
refuse them our esteem, z 


Saleve.— Bossey. 

Saleve is not a fine mountain, but this 
calcareous rock is to the Genevese what 
the Palatine or the Janiculum was to the 
Romans. To free nations mountains are 
the liveliest expression, and, as it were, 
the type, of their country : Montmartre 
might be held sacred by a moral and 
patriotic nation. This mountain which 
is so reiche, as it is termed at Geneva, 
on the outside, has in the interior ex- 
tensive tracts of grassland, shady groves, 
smiling vallies, and productive pastures ,* 
it seemed to me on entering it that I 
could discover some analogy with the 
Genevese character, rough at first sight, 
but full of merit and sterling qualities. 

speaking, Voltaire lost his patience and asked what 
book it was. ' It Is your Philosophical Dictionary,' 
coolly repIied-M. Chateaurenaud , '1 am looking for 
the word Humanity there, and I And you have for- 
gotten it.' Voltaire was struck by Ibis remark, and 
dismissed the poacher with a present of six francs." 
It is a fact that the word Humanity is not in tbe 
Philosophical Dictionary ; and Voltaire might have 
profited by this occasion to add it. 

2 See the Letters of the Marchioness of Deffand. 

3 BaroD Augustus de Stael, w ho died in the au- 
tumn of 1827. A notice of his life, prefixed to his 
Miscellaneous Works, published at tbe beginning of 
1827, is attributed to the Duchess de Broglie ; It is 
interesting, and very affecting, from the elevation 
of thought, the noble sentiments, and that bind of 
fraternal piety w hich. inspired it. 


[Book i 

On the declivity of the mountain, at 
the spot where the view is the finest, is 
an inscription on the dilapidated walls 
of a house called the hermitage, which 
perhaps it was once in reality; it is almost 
effaced, but might well have been the 
motto of a hermit : Nasci, pati, mori. 
The abbe" Delille, in his harmonious 
verses in imitation of Gray, 

Ah I si d'aucunami vous u'bonorez Iacendre, elc. 

lias said of the inhabitants of the 
country : 

Nailre, souffrir, mourir est loute leur kisloire. 

When on the Saleve I did not forget 
the inspired verses of Lamartine: 

Te souviens-tu du jour oil gravissant la ciiuo 
Du Saleve aux flancs azures, 

and this mountain of Savoy was to 
me a poetic mountain. 

I had previously been to see Bossey, 
the abode of Rousseau's infancy. It was 
there, he said, that he acquired " so pas- 
sionate a taste for the country that it never 
left him," and which, indeed, is the better 
part of his talent. The situation of Bos- 
sey at the foot of Saleve is solitary, the 
prospect rather fine, but not very remark- 
able; and I think that the force of first 
impressions, the generally cheerful life 
of a country minister, the company of 
his cousin, the power of children to 
amuse themselves almost everywhere, 
and the melancholy of the rue du Che- 
velu, have given to Bossey half its merit. 
The parsonage of M. Lambercicr, now- 
pulled down, was situated in a hollow, 
and was abandoned by the present ca- 
tholic curate on account of its insalubrity. 
The celebrated walnut-tree, the protege 
of Rousseau, had been cut down, and 
lay for sale in the middle of the road ; it 
was felled in consequence of serious 
injury from a storm, towards the end 
of 182G. On seeing the two trees plant- 
ed by Voltaire ■ and Rousseau thus 
smitten by heaven, with an interval of 
only two years, ( the tradition of Rous- 
seau's walnut-tree, is, however somewhat 
doubtful ) might not bigotry be tempted 
to find therein a presage? The holm- 
tree of Socinius at Scopetto, near Sienne, 
from which I believe he has even dated 

' See Chapter Ix, ante. 

some of his writings ( ex ilice scopel- 
tiana ), was cut down about the ,'am„ 
time by the proprietor of the ground, a 
scrupulous character, who was also 
incommoded by the curiosity of travellers, 
and the pilgrimages of the Polish sectaries 
of Socinius. The destruction of these 
.trees planted by scepticism can scarcely 
affect any one ; then- shade must be op- 
pressive, and the air one breathes there 
is a withering and dispiriting blast, 
which is truly that shadow of death 
spoken of in Scripture. 


First torrent.— Picturesque in individuals.— Guides 
and valets Ue place. 

In my journey through the corner of 
Switzerland and Savoy that I had plan- 
ned to take in my road to Italy, I made 
use of Keller's map only, and found it 
truly excellent. This map accurately 
points out by signs the waterfalls, rocks, 
torrents, and most remarkable points of 
view : your impression of each object 
remains free and spontaneous, and you 
escape, by the information the map af- 
fords, the diffuse descriptions, the bad 
style, the epithets, the dull enthusiasm, 
and oratorical display of the guide-book 

1 shall never forget the effect produced 
on me, inexperienced traveller as I was, 
by the first torrent I saw in the Alps. 
At first I could not tell what that ap-' 
pearance of vapor was on the top of the 
mountain; my Parisian servant was not 
less surprised. Is it not, in truth, a stri- 
king image of a revolution? At first no 
one knows what to make of it, nor how 
it will finish; we must draw near to hear 
the noise and contemplate the ravages of 
the torrent. 

The picturesque, which nature pre- 
serves in such grand and terrible fea- 
tures, is gradually disappearing, moreand 
more, and in different manners, among 
men. TheGenevese postilion who drove 
me to Sallenche wore a fine black frock- 
coat, gloves, and a round hat, while the 
Savoyard who took us to Chamouny had 
a kind of blue livery, with gold edging 
and a scarlet collar. Thus was I accom- 
panied in the bosom of the mountains by 
the neat simplicity of a free and commer- 
cial state, and the show and finery of 
monarchy and ciladine servitude. On 

liar. XIII. 1 



the morrow I experienced another dis- 
appointment. Having started at break 
of day for Montanvers, I found myself 
in the company of goatherds who were 
conducting their charges to the moun- 
tains. I was anxious to bring back some 
of their songs for the ladies of Paris ; on 
my return I asked my hostess, a genuine 
Savoyard, whohad never quilted her na- 
tive valley, to procure me some of them. 
After giving herself considerable trouble, 
in the evening she brought me a trouba- 
dour's romance in good French,which her 
daughter had copied out on a sheet of fool- 
scap in a good round hand ; and although 
this good woman took much pains and 
greatly interested herself in the research, 
I could not get hold of the least song of 
these mountaineers. I then learned, that 
the French armies in their invasions, 
having disseminated among the people 
the smutty couplets of the streets of Paris, 
the clergy had since laboured to replace 
them by versions from the psalms. Thus 
in the conflict between these two kinds 
of song, the popular airs have disappear- 
ed. The picturesque in individuals, after 
which I longed, presented itself to me 
for the first time in the gown and beard 
of the capuchin of Sion 1 and the hats of 
the Valaisian women. 

The rivalry and local jealousies which 
exist in both great and little towns, of 
which vanity is nearly always the foun- 
dation, is met with even in the bosom of 
savage nature : the guide of the Frozen 
Sea speaks derogatorily and with disdain 
of the diminuliveness of the glacier of 
Bossons ; * and the guide to the latter, in 
vaunting its resplendent whiteness, the 
transparency of its alabaster pyramids 
and the crystal of its springs, is almost 
epigrammatic on the discoloured hue of 
the Frozen Sea. I have since remarked 
the same pretensions between the cice- 
roni of Vesuvius and the Solfatare. The 
one treats the Solfatare as a tiny volcano 
1 long since extinct; the other, more justly, 
details the curious effects, the utility, 
and salutary properties of his ancient 
volcano, and jeers at the eternal smoke 
of Vesuvius. These mountain guides 
arc full of candour, simplicity, and intel- 
I ligence : placed close to the wonders of 
nature, they speak of them without af- 
fectation, and are far removed from the 
[ emphatic descriptions of the keepers of 

1 See Chap ut, post. 

our parks and gardens, or the domestic 
erudition of the servants in our country 
mansions. The valet de place, or rather 
the valet out of place, as Alfieri has it, 
of the Italian towns, is not much better ; 
and were it not for the assistance that 
his lavish use of the title of excellensa 
affords him, he would find great diffi- 
culty in keeping up the conversation 
and finishing his periods. The cicerone 
of Pompeii is interesting ; but this man, 
who lives in some sort in the midst of 
the ancients, is still-close to nature. 


Glaciers.— Saiat Francis de Sales at the glaciers. 

It would be an act of temerity to give 
a new description of places so often, so 
eternally described, and which have been 
observed by Saussure, and sung by 
Hallcr, Delille, Fontanes, and Byron. 
Besides, I will own that, save in the first 
moments of astonishment and curiosity, 
I had too faithful a recollection of the ar- 
ticles written by M. de Chateaubriand 
against mountains. This divertisement 
ended by seeming to me a fatigue, and 
after having passed a whole day in climb- 
ing Montanvers, descending to the Frozen 
Sea and the source of the Arveron, then 
re-ascending to the cross of Flaissiere, 
whence the view of the Frozen Sea is 
much more complete, I found these places 
sad and desolate instead of sublime ; na- 
ture there appeared to me shorn of part 
of her charms. The water of the foun- 
tains is sometimes too hard ; the inevi- 
table monotonous rhododendrum is an 
inodorous rose with a pale uneven leaf. 
Every thing undergoes a change on these 
heights ; even the violet loses its mo- 
desty, and, instead of concealing itself 
humbly in the grass, becomes a large 
handsome flower overtopping it, and os- 
tentatiously exhaling a faint perfume 
from its lofty stem. I recalled the ad- 
mirable verses which Virgil puts in the 
mouth of a friend deceived by his mis- 
tress :— 

Tu procui a palria ( nee sit mihi credere tanlum ) 
Alpinas, ah I dura nives. ... 
Me sine sola Tides ! ah, te ne frigora laedant 1 
Ah 1 libi ne teneras glacies secet aspera planlas . 

And I saw in them a true picture of 

1 The finest, but no the largest, of the glaciers. 



the glaciers. What modern poet would 
have failed to indulge in a reverie on 
this lover in the midst of rocks and 
snows? but being obliged to follow at- 
tentively the steps of my guide among 
these precipices, my feet suffering from 
the flints, I found such musings abso- 
lutely impossible. 

The discovery of the valley of Cha- 
mouny is constantly, but erroneously, 
ascribed to Pococke and Windham, two 
English travellers. More than a century 
before, it had been visited by Francis de 
Sales, and charity had preceded curiosity 
in this secluded retreat of savage nature. 
Notwithstanding the incompetency of 
the historiau, it is impossible to read 
without emotion the details of this visit 
to the glaciers, so different in its nature 
from those which fashion has since 
rendered customary. " It having been 
reported that Francis was at the abbey 
of Six, people came from all quarters to 
greet him. He there received, among 
others, the deputies and inhabitants of a 
valley situated at three leagues' distance, 
who informed him of the disaster that 
had recently befallen them. As the 
province is full of very high mountains, 
the summits of two of them became 
loosened, and in falling crushed several 
villages, a number of inhabitants, and a 
great quantity of cattle, which are the 
sole riches of the country. They further 
informed him, that being reduced by this 
accident to utter poverty, so as to be 
unable to pay their taxes, they applied to 
the duke of Savoy's chambre des comptes 
to have them remitted; but they had 
done so in vain:— that they had reason 
to believe the authorities were not per- 
suaded that the evil was so great as 
represented, or that they were thought 
to be less poverty-stricken than they 
really were. They therefore entreated 
him to send and have every thing verified 
on the spot, so that on the report which 
should be made to him, he might write 
in their favour. 

"Francis, who had a most feeling heart 
for the misfortunes of others, was deeply 
affected by the calamities of these poor 
people, and offered to set off that very 
hour to go and comfort them, and render 
them whatever services lay in his power. 
This they opposed, representing that the 
country was impracticable and so rough 
that a horse could not go thither. The 
holy prelate asked them if they had not 

come from thence, and they answered 
that they were poor people used to such 
fatigues.—' And I, my children,' replied 
Francis, * am your father, obliged to pro- 
vide for your consolation and your neces- 
sities.' Accordingly, whatever entreaties 
they could make, he set off with them on 
foot, and he was a whole day in going 
the three leagues from the abbey of Six 
to the valley. The mischief proved* to 
be greater than they had represented. 
The inhabitants were reduced to extreme 
want and had scarcely the appearance 
of men : they were destitute of every 
thing, ciothes, houses, and food. Francis 
mingled his tears with theirs, gave them 
all the money he had with him, and 
promised to write in their favour to the 
duke himself. He did so, and obtained 
for them all that he asked." « At Mon- 
tanvers they show the Englishmen's 
stone, that is, the place where Messrs. 
Windham and Pococke seated them- 
selves : how different would be the 
feelings of the traveller, could he con- 
template and follow the traces of Francis 
de Sales, and the path trod by him in 
the midst of these rocks ! 


Col do Balmc. 

On the door of the church at Ar- 
gentine, a very small village in a vale 
at the foot of a glacier, is the following 
touching inscription, full of piety and 
truth : Populum pauperem salvum fa- 

I passed the Col de Balmc, the view 
from which, extending on one side over 
the valley of Chamouny, Mount Blanc, 
and the lofty pyramids surrounding it, 
and on the other over the province of the 
Valais and the chain of the Alps from 
Mount Saint Gothard to the Fork, is 
truly magnificent and immense; which 
is not every where the case in the midst 
of the peaks of the Alps, as some of them 
are overtopped by others. The descent 
from the Col de Balme is through a su 
perb forest of larch, which, from the 
strength, size, and disorder of its vegeta- 
tion, resembles rather a virgin forest of 
North America than a thoroughfare fre- 
quented every year by artists and people 

■ Life of saint Francis cfe Sa.let, by Maisollier, 
book v. 

Chap. XVI.] 



of the fashionable world. They were 
then occupied in building a little pavilion 
on the summit of the Col de Balme, 
which may be convenient enough, though 
I do not like it there : a calvary or reli- 
gious house seems better adapted to 
these high mountains than the kiosk of 
a restaurant. 


Saint Maurice; Hermit.— Marligny. 

Saint Maurice at the bottom of its ra- 
vine, and Martigny in the plain, present 
traces of the Roman domination and of 
the French during the Empire ; but these 
traces of the two most powerful societies 
that have ever existed, appear weak 
beside the might and majesty of na- 
ture which surrounds and overwhelms 
them ; and the ruins of walls and towers, 
once Roman military posts, with the re- 
pairs done to the bridge by our engineers 
at the time of our prefect, sink into in- 
significance before the rocks, grottoes, 
and caverns that you have contemplated. 

At a quarter of a league from Saint 
Maurice is the field in which the Theban 
legion, with Maurice, its chief, was mas- 
sacred ; these martyred warriors had for- 
saken their idols and were decimated for 
the sublime insubordination of their 
faith :— 

Fui ieux dans la guerre, Us souffrent nos bourreaux, 
Et, lions au combat, ils meurent en agneaux.' 

Not far from this place, half way up 
the mountain, among the rocks, is the 
habitation of a blind hermit. Notwith- 
standing his seventy years, the elevated 
position of his dwelling, and the narrow- 
ness of the path that leads to it, the old 
man can find his way very well without 
aid. Contrary to the ordinary practice 
of hermits in poems and romances, this 
one was not very resigned ; he had never 
known like them the grandeurs and fickle- 
ness of fortune ; he was a poor peasant, 
who had lost his sight at the age of nine 
years, and, to live rent-free, had retired 
twenty years ago to this rock, which was 

1 Polyeucte.— Tbe fact of the massacre of 6,600 
soldiers of tbe Tbeban legion by order of Maximian, 
on tbe 22nd of September in tbe year 302, is well 
defended and proved by a learned Valaisian of the 
last century, Pierre Joseph de Rivaz, still in repute 
as a mathematician, In a wort of merit which 

well lined with fir planks and not in the 
least damp. The robe of this hermit was 
only an old surtout fastened round his 
waist by a leather girdle. He descended 
every day to Saint Maurice, where he 
lives in winter ; in short, far from being 
so poetical as some enthusiastic Parisian 
travellers had depicted him to me, this 
hermit from necessity had been long 
anxious to find some house of refuge, and 
he would have been on roses in the Hos- 
pice des Manages at Paris. 


Bex.— Aigle.— Haller.— Villeneuve.— Chillon. 

The salt-springs of Bex have doubtless 
the grand merit of utility, as there are 
no other in Switzerland; and they yield 
annually to the government of Vaud, to 
which they belong, from fifteen to twenty 
thousand quintals of salt, after having 
formerly produced fifty thousand ; but 
the toilsome visit to these subterraneous 
caverns is less interesting to persons un- 
skilled in science or political economy. 
Nature loses much on being viewed by 
lamp-light ; she requires the sun and 
the stars to light up her wonders. The 
vaulted galleries hollowed out in the 
rock, the drains, the well, the reservoir 
and boilers of Bex, produce moreover a 
sad contrast, when one has just come 
from contemplating the brilliant effects 
of the rainbow formed over the green- 
sward by the dazzling cascade of Pisse- 
vache, well-deserving a more decent ap- 
pellation, and the enchanting sites of the 
valley of the Rhone. These works ge- 
nerally occupy from thirty to forty work- 
men, a species of water Cyclops, at two 
francs a day. But if I did not sufficiently 
appreciate this kind of industry, I did 
not by any means regret the excursion, 
for the road to the springs is altogether 
wild and romantic. 

The barren melancholy valley of Aigle 
is besprinkled with the huts of wander- 
ing shepherds, driven from place to place 
by the avalanche and torrent. 

The chateau of the village of Roche 
derives its celebrity from its having been 

Roussean has eulogised. His Eclaircissements sur 
le marhjre de la legion Thibeenne et sur I'epoque de 
la persecution des Gaules sous Bioclttien et Maxi. 
mien, published after bis death, at Paris, in 1779 
are a real masterpiece of sacred erudition and his- 
torical criticism. 



Book I. 

six years the residence of the great Hal- 
ler, then bailiff of Aigle and director of 
the salt-springs of Roche. 

Villeneuve is admirably situated ; it 
dates from the time of the Romans, who 
were defeated in its neighbourhood by 
the Helvetii. 

The rock, the white walls, and the 
gothic turrets of the castle of Chillon, 
which rises solitarily above the lake, are 
extremeiy picturesque. It was formerly 
the residence of the bailiffs ofVevey, and 
was built by Peter, duke of Savoy, sur- 
named the Little Charlemagne ; it is now 
used as a depot for arms and powder, 
and is occupied by a few gendarmes. 
The captivity of Ronnivard, the death of 
Julie, the poem of Byron, seem to confer 
glory on this military storehouse. Lord 
Byron avows that he did not know the 
history of Bonnivard when he wrote his 
Prisoner of Chillon, though it is in a 
manner imprinted in the vaults of the 
castle, where the dungeon in which he 
was imprisoned some three centuries 
ago is shown, with the iron ring to 
which he was fastened and the maikof 
his chain near a pillar on which Byron 
himself has since engraved his name, 
and also the pretended truces of his steps. 
Byron's poem, although very fine, is but 
an imitation of the imprisonment of Ugo- 
lin and his sons in the walled tower of 
Pisa. The sufferings of Bonnivard were 
not less dreadful ; they well deserved to 
be sung on their own account, and it is 
to be regretted that the poet has only 
honoured them with a tardy sonnet and 
a brief note. On the front of the Don- 
jon, towards the lake, may be seen in 
great letters the words liberte, patrie ; 
a noble device when properly understood, 
but which 1 like better treasured in the 
heart's core than scrawled on walls. 


Clareus.— Topography of the Nouvelle Uelotee. 

As I approached Clarens, I called to 
mind the burning pages of Julie; but 
what was my astonishment at coming 
upon a little naked unsightly port, badly 

Pronounced Montron. 

a In Paul et Virginia we also meet with names 

ot places by no means blgb-soundingor harmonious, 

such as the mountain and the river of (lie Trois 

Slumelles, the mountains Longut and Piterboth ; in 

situated near an almost dried up torrent 
full of pebbles 1 The baron d'Etange 
could never have had a house among 
those huts ; I even have my doubts whe- 
ther it could have been possible to cele- 
brate the marriage of La Fanchon there : 
M. de Wolmar could hardly have de- 
voted himself to his agricultural experd 
ments in such a place, nor could the iri- 
of Julia's garden ever have floweresi 
there. Such is the privilege of genius ; 
it gives a being to what we well know 
never could have existed, and impresses 
it with an unperishable charm ; nor is 
the existence which it creates weakened 
even by a Yiew of the reality : the grove 
of Clarens, that everlasting memorial of 
love and its joys, lost nothing of its en- 
chantment in my eyes from the mourn- 
ful aspect of the place. It seems that 
the euphony of the name of Clarens was 
Rousseau's motive for preferring this 
place, in neglect of probability, to the 
chateau of Chatelard or the village of 
Montreux, ■ for his scene of action. 
This scrupulous and timid distrust of his 
talent was without foundation, Rous- 
seau might even have preserved to Julia 
d'Etange her original name of Julia 
d'Orsenge without rendering his pictures 
less touching; for passion is capahle of 
ennobling every thing, and Walter Scott 
is not so difficult respecting the names, 
occasionally very vulgar, of his heroes. » 

The inhabitants of Clarens have given 
to the least filthy corner of their village 
the name of Bosquet ; it is a heap of large 
stones covered with ivy and briars. A 
crafty dairywoman, in order to sell her 
milk, butler, and eggs, had contrived to 
furnish, according to the Nouvelle He- 
lo'ise, certain chambers of the Chatelard, 
which she showed to sentimental tra- 
vellers as Julia's dressing-room, and the 
apartments of the baron d'Etange. But 
the speculation not succeeding, the esta- 
blishment was broken up. 

Lord Byron devotes several stanzas 
of Childe Harold to celebrate Clarens. 
He says : — 

" Clareus! by heavenly feet thy paths are trod,— 
Undying Love's, who here ascends a throne 
To which the steps are mountains.'' 

the description of a tempest, the air resounds with 
the cries of the paille-en-cu (certainly, this might 
have been given paille-en-queue), the [regales, the 
coupeuis-4'eau; the sailors fasten themselves It) 
table), lonnewx, and cages a ponies, 

Cuap. XVIII.] 



With all the credulous enthusiasm of a 
tourist, he admits this topography of 
the Nouvelle Helo'ise, although Rous- 
seau himself has declared, on two occa- 
sions, that it was grossierement alte're'e.' 
But it is impossible to advert to the note 
which accompanies these stanzas with- 
out the deepest indignation. Lord By- 
ron pretends that a small wood, which 
also bore the name of Bosquet de Julie, 
has been cut down by the monks of St. 
Bernard, the proprietors of the soil, and 
converted into a vineyard for these mi- 
serable drones of an execrable super- 
stition * Truly one might suppose that 
there was question here of one of those 
Indian sects in which credulity is allied 
withcruelty ! Protestant austerity might 
break forth against the luxurious idleness 
and sensuality of the monks of Citeaux 
or the canons of the Holy Chapel. But 
the priest of Saint Bernard who, beyond 
the forests and the clouds, braves the 
midnight darkness and the hurricane, 
preceded by his dog, in search of ;he tra- 
veller bewildered in the snows, terror- 
struck and ready to die ; who revives 
the frozen dying one with some drops of 
wine from his calabash (the produce, 
perhaps, of that vineyard which causes 
so much horror to Byron); this watchful 
and hospitable hermit of an icy Thebaid ; 
this martyr of the air and the tempest, 
who intrepidly makes his residence on 
those summits where conquerors only 
venture to pass ; in a word, this humble 
hero of Christianity and of charity well 
merited to be spoken of in another tone. 


Vevey.— Jean-Jacques.— Ludlow. 

It is at the charming town of Vevey 
that we meet with the true memorials of 
the Nouvelle Helo'ise, and the trace of 
, the adventurous boyhood of Jean Jac- 
ques and of his first impressions ; it was 
indeed there that Julia dwelt, and that 
madame dc Warens was born. "When 
the ardent desire of that sweet and 
happy life which ever evades me, but for 
which I was born, comes to inflame my 
imagination, it is always in the country 
of Yaud, near the lake, in those eharm- 

i See the two prefaces of Julie. 
3 II is true that vines have been planted at Clarens 
by toe monks of Saint Bernard, and that, from the 

ing fields, that it reposes. I want an or- 
chard on the banks of this lake, and no 
other ; I want a sure friend, an amiable 
wife, a cow, and a litlle boat. I shall 
never enjoy perfect happiness on lite 
earth till I have all these. I laugh at 
the simplicity w ith which I have several 
times gone into that country for the sole 
purpose of seeking this imaginary hap- 
piness. In this journey to Vevey, as I 
followed that delightful shore, I gave 
myself up to the sweetest melancholy : 
my heart aspired with ardour after a 
thousand innocent felicities; my soul 
melted, and I sighed, and wept like a 
child. How often, stopping to weep at 
my ease, and seating myself on a large 
stone, did I amuse myself in watching 
my tears as they fell into the water! 

"I went to Vevey and lodged at La 
Clef, and during the two days that I 
staid there without seeing any one, I 
contracted an attachment for that town 
which has accompanied me in all my 
wanderings, and which at last made me 
fix the heroes of my romance there. I 
would candidly say to those who have 
taste and feeling: — "Go toVevey, visit the 
country, examine the localities, sail on 
the lake, and then say whether nature 
has not made this beautiful country 
for a Julia, for a Saint Clair, and for a 
Saint Preux ; but do not seek them there." 
From the peevish advice in the conclud- 
ing passage, I confess that I should 
readily appeal, so much urbanity, polite- 
ness, and good-breeding did I remark in 
the small number of the inhabitants that 
I had occasion to meet with. Even th e 
landlord of the inn is a traveller, having 
been to China with Lord Macartney. 

But besides the tender and pathetic 
reminiscences of fiction, Vevey presents 
some striking mementos of history : its 
cathedral holds the tombs of two Eng- 
lishmen, celebrated in the revolutions of 
(heir country, Edmund Ludlow and An- 
drew Broughton, the former, one of the 
judges of Charles I.; the second, the per- 
son who read to him his death-warrant. 
Some few years ago the inscription, 
Omne solum forti patria, was still to be 
seen over the house where Ludlow had 
resided, but some of his descendants have 
since had it taken down and carried to 

barrenness of the spot, it was impossible to do so 
without making an artificial soil; this is a new 
benefit due to this religious community. 




[ Book I. 

England. Ludlow was a violent but 
sincere republican, and the enemy of 
Cromwell; he survived the restoration of 
Charles II., and the revolution of 1688. 
On hearing of the latter, this old friend 
of liberty hastened home, after an exile 
of twenty-nine years, and being nearly 
seventy years old; he appeared joyfully 
and proudly in the streets of the ca- 
pital, and showed himself lo the people 
who, he thought, must recognise him ; 
he fancied that he was assisting at the 
triumph of the cause he had so faithfully 
served, and again offered his services to 
go to Ireland to combat the tyrant. But 
this emigre of the republic, this member 
of the Kump, was also a remnant of 
other times : on returning to his former 
scene of action, he did not perceive that 
a legal monarchy had for ever cured his 
country of popular illusions; a certain 
and inevitable result, in every age, of 
the progress of public opinion. Being 
threatened with arrest as one of the mur- 
derers of Charles I., Ludlow was obliged 
(o conceal himself and leave his country 
again ; he returned to Vevey, and died 
there in 1696, at the age of seventy-three 
years. Uis tomb was erected by bis 
widow, who loved him with a deserved 
affection ; it is surmounted with a long 
and beautiful inscription detailing his 
titles, places, and the chief events of his 
life, so agitated and reprehensible, but 
neither degraded nor meriting con- 


Lausanne.— View.— Cathedral.— Castle— Gibbon's 
I) mse. 

Lausanne from its aspect might be 
called the Swiss Byzantium, but the op- 
posite shore would not be that of Chal- 
cedon ; for the lofty vegetation of Evian 
and its wild banks have also their beauties. 
The admirable site of Lausanne forms a 
striking contrast with the ugliness of 
the streets. In spile of the abundance 
of reading-rooms and milliners, and the 
species of civilisation that these impor- 
tant establishments presage, thelown is 
shocking, and ill-built ; one would say 
that it is an assemblage of guinguettes 
in which all the wine of the many vine- 
yards in its neighbourhood is destined to 
be consumed ; in such random confusion 
are the houses, gardens, and terraces, 
ihat they form a kind ol labyrinth where 

one is always obliged to go up or down. 
The entrance of the houses is peculiarly 
hideous. When one thinks of I he gene- 
rally prosperous condition of this country 
and of the distinguished persons who 
reside at Lausanne, it seems as if there 
must be some mania to produce this ex- 
cess of negligence. 

The cathedral, which was begun ia 
1000 and finished in 1375, and the castle, 
anciently the palace of the bishops and 
bailiffs, after the lapse of nearly three 
centuries under a protestant republic, 
still retain a catholic and Savoyard 
appearance. The remains of a great 
number of kings, queens, princes, lords, 
bishops, and prelates, fill the cathedral. 
There is interred Amadeus VIII. , first 
duke of Savoy, and for a moment pope, 
under the name of Felix V.; he abdicated 
this double sovereignty, and seems, by 
his actual place of sepulture, to have 
carried his oddities and inconstancy 
even beyond death. Every thing in this 
reformed church has still an air of Catho- 
licism, and the wooden seats, which the 
love of comfort belonging to the present 
religion has established there, seem to 
be only a temporary arrangement. The 
protestant worship, in the midst of 
these old and black basilics, looks like an 
upstart installed in an antique manor- 
house ; there is an indescribable air of 
newness and embarrassment about him. 
and he has not the noble dignity o( the 
legitimate lord. 

I visited the garden and house of Gib- 
bon. I remembered the kind of fare- 
well that he addressed to his book when 
he had just written the concluding lines. 
This scene is more pathetic and touching 
than belongs to this historian, erudite, 
indeed, but diffuse, and withoutelevation 
or gravity ; "It was on the day, or rather 
night, of the 27th of June 1787, between 
the hours of eleven and twelve, that I 
wrote the last lines of the last page, in a 
summerhouse in my garden; Afterlaying 
down my pen I took several turns in a ber- 
ceau, or covered walk of acacias, which 
commands a prospect of the country, the 
lake, and the mountains. The air was 
temperate and the sky serene ; the silvery 
orb of the moon was reflected from the 
waters, and all nature was silent. I 
will not dissemble the first emotions of 
joy on the recovery of my freedom, and 
perhaps the establishment of my fame. 
Hut my pride was soon humbled, and a 

Chap XX.] 



sober melancholy was spread over my 
mind by the idea that I had taken an 
everlasting leave of an old and agreeable 
companion, and that whatsoever might 
be the future fate of my history, the life 
of the historian must be short and pre- 
carious." Certainly, the historian who 
has fulfilled his ministry with integrity 
must experience profound joy. Of all 
kinds of writing, history is that most in- 
timately connected with human actions. 
Gibbon was unmindful of a part of his 
duties when he spoke disrespectfully of 
the courage of the first Christians ; when, 
after eighteen centuries had passed, he 
persecuted these victims of their faith 
with his irony, and wrote epigrams on 
their tombs. 


Society.— Pietists.— Environs. 

Wine and strangers make the prin- 
cipal trade of Lausanne ; but the produce 
of the former is far less uncertain than 
the letting of houses. The residence of 
foreigners gives to the polished, natural, 
amiable, and cordial manners of its so- 
ciety an air of cosmopolitism, agita- 
tion, and unsettledness ; visits are made 
and returned incessantly, and the even- 
ings are passed in abundant collations at 
each other's houses. The. conversation 
of the ladies is witty and literary. It is 
possible that on the latter point the opi- 
nion of Lausanne is somewhat too in- 
dulgent and prepossessed. No one ima- 
gines all the great French authors known 
and admired in this town, whose names 
have scarcely been heard at Paris. I 
had my share of this extreme favour, 
and will take good care not to speak ill 
of it, since I was indebted to it for the 
success of Sainte Perine with certain 
distinguished persons who had a right to 
be severe. 

There exists in the society of Lausanne 
an aristocratic decorum, and a distinc- 
tion between the different classes still 
more decided than at Geneva," where 
every one is exactly what his works make 
him. The exclusives of the Rue de la 

1 The Pietists existed a longtime before, for Addi- 
son alludes to them in his Travels. Rousseau speaks 
of the Pietists of the province ofVaud : — "You have 
not seen the Pietists,'' writes Saint Preux to Julia, 
(letter vn., part vi.,|" but you read their books/' 
He adds in a note that these Pielisls were "a kind 

Bourg are very superior to those of the 
upper town, having grown more disdain- 
ful by their connection with the great 
lords that emigration drove to Lausanne ; 
and St. Preux, notwithstanding his soul, 
his love, and his eloquence, would be a 
nobody there, quite unable to get a footing 
in this Faubourg Saint Germain of a 
little town in a small republic at the foot 
of the Alps. 

Lausanne was again,' some forty years 
since, the nucleus of the mystical and 
spiritual opinions of the Pietists, a strange 
mixture of inspired, elevated, and subtile 
errors, taken from various ages, and 
uniting at once the fatality of predestina- 
tion, the ecstacies of Platonic love, and 
the sensations of magnetism; it was a 
kind of ascetic protestantism, which pro- 
ved that the reform effected was insuf- 
ficient longago to the religious wants and 
ardour of certain minds. The opinions 
of the Pietists are still held by some per- 
sons, otherwise very respectable; but, 
like all illusions, they are weakened, 
modified, and have now become a vague 
and varying religionism which each 
understands and practices as he pleases. 

If the interior of Lausanne is frightful, 
the impression produced is soon effaced 
when one gains the heights and the en- 
virons, where he finds delightful and 
extensive houses inhabited by wealthy 
Swiss or foreigners of distinction. Were 
I not afraid of falling into the novel style, 
it would be difficult not to attempt a 
description of the impression I received 
in a charming garden, 1 a veritable cor- 
beille of roses ; I heard there the exqui- 
site voices of some women singing Swiss 
airs ; it contained even some Roman an- 
tiquities, and a column taken, according 
to the inscription, from the house of 
Titus on the Aventine mount, which was 
well placed and had a good effect. 

The parade of the Signal, noted for its 
view, is as the belvedere and panorama 
of Lausanne. The forest of Roveria is 
one of the finest I have seen; between 
trees of giant growth, intersected by deep 
ravines, are immense views of the lake 
and mountains of Chablais ; it is Swiss 
nature in all its strength and ruggedness, 

of madmen who had the fantasy to be Christians 
and follow the Gospel to the letter, something like 
the metUodists In England, the Moravians in Ger- 
many, and l he Janseuists in France, etc." 
2 ie Jardin is the name of M. de L**" 's residence. 



as the pincta of Ravenna, which I have 
since visited, is Italian nature in all its 



After passing some days at Lausanne 
I took the steamboat for Geneva. I shall 
not undertake a detail of this voyage, 
which is almost as adventurous as that 
from Paris to Saint Cloud by sea. There 
were many English on board ; from the 
multitude of eye-glasses and telescopes 
directed to every point of the coast, and 
the vehemence of their discussions, one 
might have thought we were in the South 
Seas, on the eve of making, some new 
discovery. In spite of the conventional 
enthusiasm, I will still avow that the 
absence of islands appears to me to give 
the lake of Geneva a sad and monotonous 
aspect ; there are but few barks to be met 
with on it, and the two steamboats, 
starting always at a certain time, give 
but little animation to this great sheet of 


At Geneva I made an arrangement 
with a voiturin who was to conduct me 
to Milan. This humble mode of tra- 
velling is indeed the most commodious 
in Italy. It is true that one has not 
always bon souper, bon gite et le reste ; 
but the voiturin undertakes for the whole 
of the expense, and one is not troubled 
about the necessaries of life. Duclos, 
with the dignity of men of letters in his 
time, received wine, oil, chocolate, and 
ether provisions from the ministers and 
noblemen with whom he lodged; but 
those usages are now out of vogue, and 
though the regimen of some of the voi- 
turin's hostelries is rather spare, it is 
still preferable to extending those pa- 
rasitical habits even to the highways. 
There are moreover some inconvenien- 
ces, such as fairs and feasts of towns or 
villages, the passage of rivers or torrents, 
in which the experience of the voiturin 
is very serviceable. This species of Men- 
tor in smock-frock and cap is nearly 

* The lake or Geneva and its banks form lue sub- 
ject of a small but excellent work by an old friend of 
wine, Professor C. I.. Munget, a distinguished Ge- 

always a very good fellow, and I can say 
that mine, Mariano Marini, was excel- 
lent. His mode of life is also very agree- 
able : joyfully received and welcomed 
by his hosts, and held in consideration 
all along the road on account of the 
money he expends and the kind of train 
he brings with him, this perpetual tra- 
veller is a true citizen of the world. He, 
traverses all the great capitals, but still 
preserves his jargon, his manners, aud 
his primitive character. An habitual 
spectator of the wonders of art or the 
beauties of nature, his almost stoical in- 
difference contrasts with the astonish- 
ment and enthusiasm of the travellers he 
conducts ; slow as he is, he has no object 
in travelling but to reach his journey's 
end; he is of a positive turn of mind, 
and his little stages, indicated and written 
down beforehand, are as irrevocable as 
the decrees of destiny. 

Should the merit of my favourite voi- 
turinsseem thereby somewhat lessened, 
I should think myself deficient in im- 
partiality, the paramount duty of the 
traveller as well as the historian, if I did 
not say a word or two respecting the 
sagacity of their horses, and of the habits 
and singular acquaintance with the great 
roads that they ultimately acquire. A 
master-voiturin of Rome, I have been 
told, had engaged to conduct from that 
city to Paris a numerous English family 
with all their baggage. He had no one 
at liberty but a new hand who had never 
been that road. But the mare Julie was 
there, and the master recommended the 
driver to follow her directions respecting 
the stages and the hours of starting, 
which she indicated by certain motions, 
flutterings, or the shaking of her bells ; the 
man was prudent enough to conform to 
thisadvice, not imitating the muleteers of 
the duke of Vendome, who, he said, were 
always wrong in their disputes with the 
mules. The journey was very favour- 
able, and Julie, harnessed to a splinter- 
bar before the other four, led the human 
load from Rome to Paris. 

In your treaty with the voiturin, a 
written contract which ought to be 
worded with as much precision as the 
lease of a house, or an agreement with a 
publisher, there is an important varia- 

nerese; a third and new edition of It was published 
In 1837. 

Chap. XXV.] 


tion which I must mention : instead of 
breakfast (collazione) and of dinner 
{pranzo ) which in general exposes you 
to having only a middling cup of coffee 
in the morning and a late and unwhole- 
some supper, you must stipulate for two 
repasts ( due pasti ) ; then you can de- 
mand soup in the morning, and a good 
dinner, that will allow you to wait till 
night. The poet's precept is very appli- 
cable in the case of a voiturin's agree- 
ment :— 

D"ud mot mis en sa place enscigna le pouvoir. 

Thonon.— Ripaille. 

In beginning my road to Italy, over a 
corner of Savoy, I nearly completed my 
circuit of the lake of Geneva. The road 
toThonon is along the banks of the lake. 
This little town is celebrated in the his- 
tory of Francis de Sales, by the courage 
with which this illustrious saint opposed 
the violence of a regiment sent by the 
duke of Savoy to coo vert the inhabitants, 
and by the pious deception he made 
use of, as Fenelon did in Poitou in 
more recent times, to divert this dra- 

At twenty minutes from Thonon is 
Ripaille, neglected by all who scour 
Switzerland and Italy, which has given 
an energetic expression to two langua- 
ges, the French and Italian. ' This cloister 
of pleasure and repose which witnessed 
in Amadeus the double abdication of the 
sovereignty and the pontificate (the only 
instance of disgust and disdain of the 
two powers), after having been for some 
time a manufactory, is now a large and 
well managed farm belonging to a French 
woman. The church is made use of as 
a barn, and the seven towers that Ama- 
deus built for himself and the six knights, 
his companions and friends, are now 
almost destroyed. The promontory of 
. Ripaille, encircled with large trees which 
conceal it on the side towards the road, 
is a delicious solitude, and one can very 
well conceive the pleasant life that this 
joyous retreat afforded, and the devout 
epicurism of the hermits that inha- 
bited it. 

« The Italians say an&are a Mpagtia; and tbe 
reucu (aire ripaillt. 


Meillerle.— Saint Gingolph. 

The postilion now cracks his whip over 
the rocks of Meillerie, and makes that 
peculiar kind of "hissing that it is im- 
possible, as remarks the author of the 
Expedition nocturne autour de ma 
chambre, to describe by any ortho- 
graphical combination— gh! gh! gh! in 
the same places which once resounded 
with the impassioned accents and the 
despair of Saint Preux. But these banks, 
though the high road passes by them, 
have not yet lost their melancholy and 
savage aspect. 

Saint Gingolph, near Meillerie, with 
its orchards gradually sloping down to 
the banks of the lake, and the kind of 
phenomenon of its forest of walnut-trees, 
is one of those charming places that the 
strange rudeness of its name has excluded 
from the Nouvelle Belo'ise, though a 
part of the action must necessarily have 
passed there. One half of the village 
belongs to Savoy, the other to the Va- 
Iais ; a little brook, which falls from the 
mountain, separates the monarchy from 
the republic. Saint Gingolph, small as 
it is, still offers a pretty exact image of 
the character of the two governments ; 
the part belonging to the monarchy is 
the most extensive, and contains the 
church ; industry, represented by a ma- 
nufactory of nails and wire, is on the 
republican side. 


Valais.— Sion.— Portraits.— Capuchins.— Brieg.— 
Road of the Simplon. 

The environs of Sion, the melancholy 
capital of the Valais, are magnificent. 
The heights which overlook it are cover- 
ed with villages, churches, and oratories 
of a brilliant whiteness. At the entrance 
of the town, above the river and the 
rocks, may be perceived the ruins of the 
castle of Seon, whence the baron of 
Thurn, in 1370, precipitated his uncle 
Guichard, bishop of Sion, while he was 
reciting his prayers ; an atrocity that the 
pious Valaisians revenged by driving 
the baron from the country after a bloody 
battle. The Tourbillon, a ruined castle, 
encumbered with vegetation, in the 
midst of rocks and precipices, command- 
ing an admirable prospect, preserves la 



its rude gallery the series of portraits of 
all the bishops of Sion from the year 600, 
powerful and almost sovereign pontiffs, 
who were too often mixed up with the 
wars and revolutions of the neighbouring 
states. Among them is the portrait of 
that cardinal of Sion, the warlike Mat- 
thew Schirmer, the worthy ally of pope 
Julius II., and so fatal to the French 
armies in Italy. The cathedral is dedi- 
cated to the Yirgin; it is an old Gothic 
church, and contains many tombs of 
Valaisian families, with other funereal 

As I have previously remarked, the 
rencontre of a Capuchin, near Sion, 
charmed me. The good father was on 
a large cart of the country loaded with 
grass and hay, seated familiarly in the 
midst of the peasants ; he presented me 
at last with that picturesque of indivi- 
duals which I had hitherto sought for in 
vain. Montaigne loved the Capuchins, 
and despite the anathema of the philoso- 
phers, I own that I prefer them to other 
religious orders; they have often de- 
fended their country, as was seen at Sa- 
ragossa, and, I believe, in the Valais 
during the war of 1798, and they have 
never raised troubles by intrigues. For- 
merly one often found men of parts 
among them ; and several have been good 
poets and learned orientalists; il Cappu- 
cino (who was not always, it is true, a 
very worthy Capuchin) is one of the great 
masters of the Italian school. The Capu- 
chins have a character and physiognomy 
which is not generally found among 
other monks; they love gardens, and 
their churches are commonly filled with 
shrubs and flowers, and they know how 
to choose, as well as poets and painters, 
admirable prospects and localities for the 
sites of their convents. In an econo- 
mical point of view, I am not aware that 
they are very disadvantageous. Notwith- 
standing the Capuchins, the Valais seems 
pretty well cultivated. Their mendicity 
is said to be very offensive; but if, with 
all our civilisation, we have neither been 
able to abolish nor even to repress men- 
dicity, I am not sure that a system of 
begging, as orderly and courteous as that 
of the Capuchins, is not preferable to 
the licensed vagabondage of our police. 
Resides, these mendicants are not lazy 
like ordinary beggars. The Capuchins 
manufacture pretty articles of hardware, 
which, as a great master says, are exe- 

cuted with a certain perfection peculiar 
to them (con una certa finite sza cap- 
puccinesca) ; • they are ever active in 
case of fire, and they perform clerical 
duties. At five o'clock in the morning 
of the day after my arrival at Sion, 
I went to the convent of the Capuchins, 
situated in a fine meadow outside the 
town; they were saying mass, and every 
body was standing, even an old German 
Capuchin of more than eighty, who could 
hardly get down the stairs to reach the 
church. It is said that the Capuchins 
arc enemies of liberty, but I do not 
think so ; they have always existed in the 
Valais, a republican and even demo- 
cratic state. I own that my Italian tour 
has somewhat sunk the Capuchins in my 
estimation, as will be seen on the subject 
of the convent of Assise ; but, at the risk 
of being thought inconsistent, I have de- 
termined not to suppress the favourable 
and very sincere impression first re- 

The traveller will make a stop at 
Brieg, a picturesque town at the foot of 
the Simplon, in a smiling vale on the 
banks of the Rhone. The roofs of its 
houses and churches, covered either with 
shining slates, or sheets of polished me- 
tal, have a silvery brilliancy, and the 
tin globes surmounting the four enor- 
mous towers of the castle of the Stock- 
alper family give a somewhat oriental 
character to this trading town, the best- 
built in the Valais. 

It is impossible to speak too highly of 
the road over the Simplon. Some bold 
eulogists of the past, however, pretend 
that the appearance of Italy was still 
more sudden and extraordinary, after 
one had, with infinite labour, traversed 
the Alps on foot or on a mule. It is 
true that there is no more difficulty in 
passing them now in the fine season than 
in going from Paris to the Bois de Bou- 
logne. I did not observe the ruin with 
which some travellers seem to threaten 
the road of the Simplon. Four years 
only were required for these immense 
works. The part extending to the gal- 
lery of Algaby was executed by French 
engineers, and the rest by Italian. It is 
pretended that this last half of the road 
offered the greatest difficulties, and that 
it surpasses the other in solidity and 
grandeur. The wild and solitary valley 

« Manzonl, I promessl Spsol, cap. xxxvl. 

Chap. I.] 



af Gondo, which gives ils name to the 
most considerable of these galleries, was 
the fruit of eighteen months' labour day 
and night ; it bore an inscription in 
these words : Mrc, Italo, 1805. It 
ieems as if it would have been easy to 
find an inscription somewhat more noble 
than this unique and vaunting allusion 
to money, without giving way to decla- 
mation of which such a monument has 
no need. At the sight of all these muti- 
lated rocks overthrown by powder, and 
af this daring breach made by art in the 
lofty fortifications with which nature had 

defended Italy, I but little understood 
the story of Hannibal's vinegar, notwith- 
standing Livy, Appian, and the reasons 
given by the good Dutems. Bonaparte 
had decided on the founding of an hos- 
pital on the platform of the Simplon, 
which was to be a kind of branch esta- 
blishmentofthatof Saint Bernard. This 
was a grand idea, like all that he held 
with respect to religion, and the ruins of 
the deserted foundations of this hospi- 
table edifice give rise to feelings of deep 




Domo d'OssoIa.— Aspect of Italy.— Passport.— Dom 
Bourdin. — Mines. 

It would be difficult to paint the en- 
chanting aspect of the valley of Domo 
d'Ossola from the bridge of Crevola ; 
ind when one emerges from the galleries 
jf the Simplon, those long, damp, obscure 
•averus, the eye, tired of rocks, forests, 
glaciers, torrents, and cascades, revels 
n the contemplation of nature in all her 
erenity and gracefulness, after having 
)eheld her iu her most rugged garb. 
)ne would say that this new land smiles 
in the traveller, invites him to enter, 
md decks herself out to receive him; 
ounds of joy seem to proceed from a 
Jistauce; and the festoons of the vine 
langing around the trees give to the 
ountry an appearance of festivity ; some- 
imes the branches of a tree are inge- 
liously parted above the trunk, and the 
ine interlacing them formsareal antique 
ase covered with grapes, as those sculp- 
ured ones which embellish gardens and 
alaces. The meeting of some proces- 
on, the songs of the people, the lively 
nd spirited expression of the counle- 

1 Tbe Hisloire lilteraire de la Congregation de 
■linl-llaur says that Dom Bourdin was born at Seez 
Normandy. The aulhority of the passport 
r oyage d'llalie el de quelr/ues endroits d'Atle- 
agne, fait es annees 1695 el 1696, p. 89) seems to 
e decisive. I shall do good service to Dom Boux- 

nance, the glaring colours of the dresses 
worn by the women, the size and solidity 
of the buildings,— in fact, every thing 
combines to inform us that we are in 
Italy. The magic of the name deepens 
tbe impression on the senses ; " Italy ! " 
I repeated involuntarily, " this, then, is 
Italy ! " 

When dom Bourdin, a Benedictine, 
travelling in Italy in the year 1696, 
entered Domo d'Ossola, after having 
passed three days in crossing the Simplon, 
which is now effected in a few hours, 
the Spanish governor who examined his 
passport, having ascertained that Dom 
Bourdin was from Franche-Comte, told 
him haughtily that his province would 
soon be under the king of Spain's govern- 
ment again. > The humble monk tells 
us that his only answer to this governor 
was that God gave and took away crowns 
as it pleased him. The Piedmontese 
gendarme who took my passport in the 
same town was less enthusiastic than the 
Spanish commandant of Dom Bourdin. 
There was not left, however, any con- 
quest to be taken from France, and I 
should rather have been tempted to de- 
mand tbe return of Nice and Savoy. 

Domo d'Ossola possesses some old 

din by restoring him to Franche-Comte, as he will 
thereby Dnd a place in the literary history of that 
province on which my learned and indefatigable 
brother, M. Weiss, librarian of the town of Besan- 
£on, is now engaged. 



I Book II. 

mines of sulphurated iron containing 
a portion of gold, and others of sulphur- 
ate of lead mixed with gold and silver; 
among them are the celebrated mines 
dei Cani, 'which retain noble and curi- 
ous traces of their having been worked 
by the Romans. 


Borromean isles. 

The successive stages, steps, ter- 
races, arcades, balustrades, and rows of 
vases and statues, and all the symme- 
try of the Borromean isles, which would 
be extravagant any where else, are not 
displeasing there, but form a contrast 
beside the awful irregularity of the 
Alps which enclose and overlook tbem. 
The gardens, rather built than planted, 
of Isola Bella, resemble a large pyra- 
mid of verdure, rising out of the water 
with half its base cut away. Rousseau 
for some time thought of placing- the 
action of Julia in these isles, but he 
rightly judged that they contained too 
much art and ornament for his charac- 
ters. Such an abode requires the loves 
of princes, and lovers like La Yalliere 
or Mademoiselle de Clermont. 

Isola JVJadre is little frequented ; to 
this it is indebted fir that natural sim- 
plicity which its neighbour has lost. 

The palace of Isola Bella is magni- 
ficent, but not in good taste; it was 
erected in 1671 by Count Vitaliano Bor- 
romeo, who transformed this rock 
into a garden. There are some paintings 
of the Chevalier Tempesta scattered 
through the apartments. Being con- 
demned to death for the murder of 
his first wife in order to marry a person 
he loved, Tempesta was saved by Count 
Borromeo, who concealed him in his is- 
land. These paintings are seventy-five 
in number, for the most part landscapes 
and pastoral scenes; one might say 
that the painter endeavoured to forget 
his crime in contemplating the quietude 
and innocence of the fields. The por- 
traits of Tempesta and his sec nd wife 
are also there, placed opposite each 
olher ; there is an expression of cruelty 
in the beauty of the latter, which makes 
one feel that she was his accomplice. 
Despite the merits of the pictures, 

one feels a kind of horror in this mu- 
seum by a single man, at the reflection 
that it is the work of crime and the 

In the gardens of Isola Bella I saw 
the two largest laurels in Europe ; they 
might almost be taken for two -of the 
trees in the Champs-Elyse"es. These two 
laurels seem more particularly an em- 
blem of glory. Their origin is unknown -, 
they were planted by nobody; they 
existed before the present gardens were 
made, and of themselves had taken 
root in the rocks. It is said that in 
one of the first Italian campaigns, Bo- 
naparte, when at Isola Bella, engraved 
the word baltaglia on the largest of 
these laurels. An Austrian soldier af- 
terwards made a sabre-cut at the tree, 
as if to erase the word ; the bark has 
been taken away by an Englishman, 
and now the glorious strokes traced by 
the conqueror's hand are scarcely le- 

Beside the arislocratic and almost 
princely sumptuousness of Isola Bella 
are the hard-earned comforts of Isola 
Pescatore ( Isella ). There every inha- 
bitant has a small house, with a boat 
and a net, his small aquatic estate. The 
population of this island is truly ex- 
traordinary, and confirms the remark 
of Montesquieu on the propagation of 
nations living on fish ; its circumference 
is less than half a mile, yet it contains 
more than two hundred persons. Its 
aspect however is not unpleasing; the 
village steeple, the tiny houses of the 
fishermen, their nets hung in festoons to 
dry, are grateful to the eye which has 
just been gazing on the monumental 
pomp of the palace and gardens of the 
Borromean isles. 


Lago Maggiore.— Fete.— Slorm. 

The Vevbano steamboat, which starts 
from Sesto Calende and goes to Ma 
gaclino, traverses the whole length of 
the Lago Maggiore. In the passage the 
boat passes over the territory of three 
dilTerent states, Lombardy, Piedmont, 
and Switzerland. The Gazette de 
Lausanne and the Courrier Suisse, 
said to be independent papers, are read 
on board the Kerbano. 

:hap. iv.] 



This majestic lake offers a double 
spect : on the side of Lombardy, it is 
ounded by fertile plains, and verdant 
ills, of no great elevation, ornamented 
Kith new houses ; the towering Alps are 
n the other shore, which is wild, and 
ristles with rocks covered with con- 
ents, chalets, and old fortifications. In 
his latter portion, of which the Bor- 
iomean isles, situated in the middle of 
ie lake, may be called the limit, rises 
siajestically the rock of Caldiero, in the 
levenlh century the retreat of the deacon 
irialdus, a martyr to his sermons against 
mony and the concubines of the clergy. 
Mivia, the mother of Widus, the infa- 
bous archbishop of Milan, was so carried 
way by her maternal affection, that, 
ssisted by two priests, she assailed 
; rialdus in his hermitage ; they cut off 
is ears, nose, lips, and hands, and last 
f all inflicted a secret mutilation, to 
hich these infuriated wretches super- 
ided the most indecent sarcasm. 1 What 
strange and horrible history of mar- 
rdom instigated by a woman ! Oppo- 
se the coast of Canero, which is so 
larvellously sheltered from storms, are 
vo picturesque forts in ruins ; in the 
eginning of the fifteenth century they 
ere the resort of the five brothers Maz- 
ndini, a species of pirates who defended 
lemselves there for two years against 
par hundred men of the army of Philip 
aria Visconti, duke of Milan; when 
bliged to surrender through want of 
ovisions, they were all thrown into 
iie water with stones fastened round 
leir necks. 

I was present at the f6te given on the 

I ke to the king of Sardinia, when he vi- 

ted the Borromean isles, in September 

[ J28. Painted triumphal arches, with the 

alian tinsel and customary Latin, had 

I >en erected where his majesty was to 

(iss. The appearance of Isola Bella when 
uminated in the evening presented a 
ost extraordinary coup d'ceil. The 
I ansparencies and theatrical decora- 
lans were well suited to an island so 
I mmetrical and artificial; and the roses 
Sanquirico seemed more natural there 
i an those of spring. This night scene 
as infinitely superior to the pompous 
f irangues and receptions of the morn- 

Dicentes: Proedicator castitatis hactenus 
isti, el tu castus eris. B. Andrea, vita S. 
ialdi, cap. xxix, quoted by Giuliniin bis Memo- 

ing. A multitude of illuminated boats 
in the shape of dragons, or of temples 
with Corinthian columns ornamented 
with foliage, crowded round the blazing 
island, and the enthusiasm of the Mi- 
lanese for sights of this kind was at its 
height. Unfortunately bad weather came 
on and deranged the fete, and the night 
was one unceasing tempest; it might 
have been said that the vast sheets of 
lightning and the old Alpine thunders 
were indignant at the feux de joie and 
the new luminaries that disturbed their 
solitude and seemed to parody their ma- 
jesty; the lightning replied to the rockets 
and the thunder to the crackers; and 
this contrast, which must have annoyed 
those in full-dress, added still more to 
the curious effect of the sight. The end 
of the day was less agreeable than the 
beginning; at Sesto Calende we were 
obliged to await the inspection of our 
passports by the police, as well as the 
searching of our boxes by the officers of 
customs, and all this on board the boat 
belonging to the steamer, exposed to a 
tremendous rain. 


Arona.— Colossus. 

I did not content myself with merely 
viewing from the road the colossus of 
Saint Charles Borromeo, which stands 
on the hill of Arona : as a brother giant 
I owed him a visit; for if I have not exact- 
ly the genius of Leibnitz or Fielding ( al- 
though like others I have occupied myself 
with philosophy and have also written 
my Novel ), I am at least endowed with 
the high stature of those great men. 
I should have been inclined to penetrate 
into the interior of this bulky statue of 
Saint Charles, and, seating myself in 
the long nose of the saint, as other 
travellers have done, give way to me- 
ditation; but my height was an obstacle 
to mounting the stairs, so I could have 
nothing more to do with the colossus : it 
is thus that mutual superiority occasion- 
ally prevents intimacy. 

rie spettanti at governo ed alia descrizione 
della citta e della campagna di Milano tie' se- 
coh bassi. 




What an advantage it is to have a po- 
sition ! This colossus of Saint Charles, 
holding the book of his synodal consti- 
tutions in one hand, and with the other 
giving his blessing, — a statue twenty-one 
metres and a half in height, the 
head and hands of bronze, the rest 
wrought copper, — a kind of Egyptian 
monument, erected at the close of the 
seventeenth century, visible for miles 
round, is visited by every body, while 
the churches and paintings of Arona, so 
interesting with respect to art, are neg- 
lected. The vast collegiate church of 
Saint Mary has at its entrance a Nativity. 
which dates from the very commence- 
ment of the revival of sculpture in Italy. 
In the chapel of the Rosary, recently 
beautified, are some good paintings of 
Morazzone, a vigorous artist of the se- 
venteenth century. The parochial church 
boasts an excellent painting in six com- 
partments, combining the style of Peru- 
gino, Leonardo, and Gaudenzio Vinci, 
and dated in the year 1551, also a Na- 
tivity, one of the first essays of the ce- 
lebrated painter and decorator Appiani. 
On the steeple, supposed to be of the 
tenth century, is an image of Christ on 
the cross, enveloped in his tunic, as was 
then customary. 

The wealthy and commercial town of 
Arona is well situated ; it has a safe port 
and a small dockyard, and contains two 
thousand two hundred inhabitants ; I 
recall with pleasure the memory of the 
kind hospitality I experienced there when 
I attended the fete of the Borromean 



Sesto Calende, on the Ticino, eight 
leagues from Milan, is the entrance of 
Lombardy. The immense, melancholy, 
and monotonous plain of Lombardy 
forms a contrast with the lively, spirited, 
and almost French ardour of its inhabi- 

1 M. de Bourrienne, an author who appears very 
correct about Bonaparte, does not mention this in- 
cident in bis Memoires; I have been assured of its 
truth by the clavendier or the Hospital of the Great 
Saint Bernard, a man of singular merit. It Is pro- 
bable that H. de Bourrienne is a more certain au- 

tants and the events of its stormy his 


Entrance of Italy by the Great Saint-Bernard and 
the valley of Aosta.— Great St. Bernard.— Convent. 

The road to Saint Bernard has been 
passed over and described a thousand 
times. Certainly without diminishing 
the glory of the passage effected by our 
army with its cannon and the heavy 
baggage of modern armies, or wishing to 
lower the admiration that this grand mi- 
litary achievement must inspire, one still 
feels that this mountain has in all ages 
been the road for the invaders of Italy, 
and that it was possible to pass it. The 
little valley where our soldiers encamped 
is still shown, and the spot where Napo- 
leon, being thrown by his mule, must have 
perished without the help of his guide. ' 
This mountaineer was asked to follow 
the first consul, but he refused, because 
he said, he was building a house that 
Bonaparte paid for : this house he still oc- 
cupies, while his less prudent companion 
in danger has lost his palaces. The chil- 
dren and inhabitants of this part of the 
Alps have an appearance of strength and 
health that is pleasing to behold ; they 
are nearly all landowners, and their well 
cultivated property reminds one of the 
fields overhanging the abyss in the let- 
ter of Saint-Preux. 

I was prevented by bad weather from 
reaching the hospital before night. If 
I missed some few fine prospects, I cer- 
tainly lost nothing of the display of cou- 
rage and virtue on the part of the monks, 
a spectacle far nobler than the scenes 
that surround them; for it appertains to 
the greatness of man. In correcting the 
abusive mistake of Lord Byron on the 
subject of the priests of Saint Bernard, 
1 only described them according to their 
fame ; I was not less touched on viewing 
them closely- These men, nearly all 
Valaisians, join to varied learning the 

thority respecting the cabinet, the Luxembourg, the 
Tuileries, and Malmaison, than the passage of the 
mountains. As an instance of this, be pretends 
that the sun rarely or never penetrates toMartigny, 
whereas, on the contrary, it Is very troublesomo 

Chap. VI.] 



Christian and ecclesiastical politeness of 
the religious orders and the simplicity and 
hospitality of mountaineers ; as priests 
they are edifying, intelligent, and free 
from narrow prejudices; their mountain 
being continually traversed by the poor, 
the peasantry, traders of different coun- 
tries, wealthy travellers, authors, poets, 
men of science, artists, and ladies of dis- 
tinction, they obtain sufficient informa- 
tion respecting worldly affairs. From 
the number of inhabitants, or beggars, 
who leave a country, they are enabled to 
judge of the wealth or poverty of that 
state; their charitable statistics on this 
point may be less uncertain than those 
of the government or certain celebrated 
authors. The convent receives the Bi- 
bliotheque universelle de Geneve, a very 
instructive journal; the Gazette de Lau- 
sanne, and some scientific works. I re- 
gretted that I could not examine the 
library, which was all in confusion, not 
from negligence, but on account of works 
then in progress for raising the edifice a 
story higher. The most hardy adversary 
of monastic vows would be somewhat 
embarrassed here : what other men than 
monks could have lived here, for more 
than eight centuries, r under such a cli- 
mate? Charity with them supplies the 
place of that love of country which peo- 
ples the frozen regions of Iceland and 
Greenland. Tell men who have families 
logo and live on Saint Bernard, and you 
will soon see what a difference separates 
philanthropic institutions from the works 
of religion. 

All the part describing the Great 
Saint Bernard is excellent in M. de Saus- 
sure, instead of copying it, one can only 
attempt after him to give some of one's 
own impressions. One of the most for- 
cible that I felt was the effect of the 
morning prayers in the church of the 
convent. The Laudate Dominum, am- 
nes gentes, accompanied by the organ, 
was still more solemn there, and the 
misericordia seemed verily confirmed 
on the venerable men who sung it. The 
charitable Catholicism of these religious 
men certainly appeared to me a more 
beautiful example to the protestants ad- 
jacent, than that of one of our bishops 
whose little diocese I had crossed two 
days before. 

* The present convent was founded as early as 
tue vear 962, 

One of our most illustrious captains, 
Desaix, is interred in the church of the 
Great Saint Bernard. If the column 
erected to his memory on the plain of 
Marengo has disappeared, his coffin is 
better protected by religion on the moun- 
tain of a free state. This French tomb 
is the most elevated in the world; it 
stands on this lofty point above the clouds, 
as an advanced monument of our glory; 
and the sepulture of the hero it encloses 
is well nigh an apotheosis. 

The tomb of Desaix has no inscription, 
notevenhis name : it is said thatNapoleon 
promised to compose one. If the cares of 
government made him forget this pro- 
mise, perhaps he remembered it in his 
exile, when, thinking of the many and glo- 
rious lives sacrificed in his cause", he must 
have envied the victorious mausoleum of 
Desaix on the summit of the Alps — he, 
whose remains were about to be hidden 
in the bosom of the wave-beaten rock 
on which he was a captive. The epitaph 
of Desaix by his brother in arms of Egypt 
and Marengo would have been a sacred 
and imperishable monument, doing more 
honour to Napoleon with posterity than 
all his creations and proclamations of 
princes and kings of which nothing re- 

Notwithstanding the while marble of 
which it is made and the great owl in the 
centre, the tomb of Desaix is naked : it 
is a pity that it has no Christian emblem ; 
a cross would seem better placed there 
than the melancholy and classical bird 
of Minerva. 

I did not omit going to see the cele- 
brated dogs of the hospital. One of them 
had been hur*. ; it was in fact nothing 
more than a kick from a mule ; but I 
loved to ennoble the wound of this poor 
animal, and to suppose that he had re- 
ceived it in one of his perilous excursions 
to succour humanity. In his article on the 
dog, Buffon has forgotten the blindman's 
dog; his omission of those of Saint Ber- 
nard is equally blameable and still more 
difficult to explain. The pompous au- 
thor of the Epoques de la Nature might 
easily overlook the vulgar dog of the 
blind in towns, but he might have met 
with, and he ought not to have omilted 
this dog, so noble in stature— this watch- 
ful host of the mountains, companion of 
the fatigues, the dangers, and almost of 
the charity of his masters— this dog, in a 
word, the most respectable of his species. 



[Book II. 

In a corner of the convent, I observed 
lying on the ground a superb slab of 
black marble. From a Latin inscription 
thereon, I found (hat this stone had been 
devoted by the Valaisians to Napoleon, 
as the restorer of their republic, which, 
however, in contempt of treaties, this 
stubborn destroyer of republics ultima- 
tely made a prefecture. 

On a little plain in front of the convent 
are some ruins, among which many me- 
dals have been found, the ex voto offer- 
ings of devotees and pilgrims of the olden 
time. It is not known whether the 
building was a temple to Jupiter or an 
hospital; most likely it was a temple, for 
I can hardly imagine a pagan hospital in 
so horrible a place. 

The Swiss society of the Amis des 
Sciences naturelles is to hold a meeting 
at the hospital of the Great Saint Ber- 
nard in July next. Never has a learned 
society held its sittings so high. The 
convent will lodge these new and nume- 
rous Saussures, and while elsewhere a 
kind of jealous enmity subsists between 
the cloister and science, here it will be 
well received, treated as a welcome 
guest, and admitted to the hearth and 
banquet of the house. 1 


Valley of Aoslu. — Aosta. — Calvin's column. — Cathe- 
dral.— Tomb of Thomas II. — Saint Peter and Saint 
Orso.— Antiquities.— Arch of Augustus.— Cretins. 

The valley of Aosta, despite its beauty, 
variety, and Us rich vineyards,' docs not 
present the smiling contrast observed on 
entering Italy by Domo d'OssoIa. This 
valley retains for some distance the prin- 
cipal features of Alpine nature, such as 
torrents, forests, rocks, cascades, preci- 
pices, at the bottom of which is the rum- 
bling Dora. The antiquity of this mili- 
tary road, previously perceptible in going 
up the Great Saint Bernard, is still more 
so in the descent; and this narrow 
valley presents at every step the rcdoubt- 

1 This meeting took place on the 21st of July 1829; 
it wascomposed Of eighty-six persons, among wbom 
were several learned foreigners, such as the Ger- 
man Baron deBueh, known by his geological works, 
and MM.Bouvard and Micbaui, French naturalists. 
There were twositlings, on the 21st and22nd, under 
the presidentship of the Canon Biselx, rector of 
i.iuviy, in wliich several sclentllic papers were 
read ; and on the 23d, says a journal, the whole 

able traces of the two most warlike 
people in history, the Romans and the 

The valley of Aosta, the banks of the 
Dora, and the impressions they produce 
are eloquently painted in the different 
works of Count Xavier de Maistre, a sen- 
timental military writer, who is, as it 
were, the bard "of this little country. 
Aosta has 6,400 inhabitants. 

In the centre of the public square is a 
stone column, surmounted by a cross, 
erected, as the inscription shows, in 
commemoration of Calvin's second flight 
from the city of Ao=ta, on his return from 
Italy, in the year 1541. Might not one 
suppose, on seeing this singular column, 
that there was question of the repulse of 
some mighty conqueror, instead of the 
hasty retreat of an insulated wanderer, 
whose whole strength lay in his doctrines. 

The antique cathedral, restored in the 
fifteenth century, contains the tomb of 
one of those brave and skilful captains of 
the house of Savoy, duke Thomas II. ; it 
is a noble mausoleum of white marble, 
and from the superiority of the work- 
manship must be regarded as of the close 
of the fourteenth century or the begin- 
ning of the fifteenth. There are some 
good frescos in the sumptuous chapel of 
Saint Grat, erected in the sixteenth cen- 
tury by the marquis Roncas d'Aosta, 
minister of state. An ancient consular 
diptych in ivory, of the year 406, is the 
oldest in existence that bears a date, and 
is placed in the first rank of (hose fragile 
and curious monuments of antiquity. 

The collegiate church of Saint Peter 
and Saint Orso is reckoned the oldest 
church in the valley. On the arched 
roof of the choir, some antique paintings 
in the Byzantine style, of the beginning 
of the thirteenth century, represent the 
apostles. In the sacristy is a fine missal, 
ornamented on almost every page with 
the arms of the Challant family, the most 
illustrious in the valley, as- well as with 
some rich miniatures of good taste. 

The population of Cretins and Albinos 

company descended, equally pleased with the zeal 
and unanimity of the members of the society, and 
the manner in which the monks of Saint Bernard 
had done the honours of their convent. 

2 Tbe most esteemed w ines of the valley are those 
of Donasso and Arnazzo, and among tbe liner n lues, 
tbe torelia of Salnt-Plerre and the malmsey of 

Chap. VIII.] 


who inhabit the valley of Aosta, forms a 
singular contrast with the beauty of the 
site and the grandeur of the Roman 
antiquities found there, such as the arch 
of Augustus, the bridge, the gate, the 
pretorian palace, the amphitheatre, and 
the theatre. I saw some of these wretch- 
ed monsters under the arch of Augustus, 
and the human species seemed to me there 
much more degraded and decrepid than 
the monuments of eighteen centuries. 


The Foi'e$//ere.— Englishmen.— Inns. -Registers. 

Scarcely have you entered Italy, in- 
vested with your cha«acter of forestiere 
( foreigner ), before you find the conduct 
and manners of the various classes of its 
inhabitants totally different : the higher 
orders are very obliging, hospitable, and 
good-natured ; to the populace, on the 
contrary, the foreigner, notwithstanding 
the ceremonious formalities with which 
he is overwhelmed, is nothing less than 
a prey, a kind of booty at which every 
one runs, and endeavours to bear off his 
share to the best of his means ; the little 
half-naked urchin runs after the carriage 
crying out carita, until the period when, 
grown to manhood, he can take his ca- 
rabine and beg more nobly; iheperfidus 
caupo is no less cunning than in the days 
of Horace ; in short, voiturins, valets de 
place, postilions, chamberlains, boat mas- 
ters, all seem eager to bring about, in 
detail, a restitution to Italy of the tribute 
that invaders have but too often levied 
theie ; aadinthis respect none fail in the 
duties of a citizen. Some of the autho- 
rities do not disdain to join the league ; 
the everlasting and expensive visa of 
passports are but an indirect tax on the 
curiosity of travellers ; and in some se- 
condary towns, such as Ferrara, Reggio, 
Placentia, the price of tickets at the 
theatres has been doubled to foreigners 
for some years past, with the consent of 
the municipality. Independently of the 
paid services, the servants of the houses 
where you are received, the custode, the 
officer of customs, the gendarme, in fact 
every body holds out a hand ; it is not 
what one buys that costs dear, but what 
one is perpetually obliged to give; and 
even the poet of the locanda ( inn ), the 
author of a sonnet on your happy arrival, 

in which he has made the Tiber and 
Arno rejoice for the thousandth time, 
also asks for a donation. 

The forestiere must, therefore, be re- 
signed, and come to the determination 
of not being too minute in his accounts, 
or he will find the pleasures of travelling 
diminished : the struggle would not be 
equal, so great is the instinct and craft 
of these people for getting money. 

The English, by reiterated complaints 
and boisterousness, have contributed to 
the improvement of the Italian inns, and 
may even claim the glory of having re- 
formed them ; they are in general very 
tolerable now, and I think them even 
better than in France. The register, 
which the severity of the police obliges 
every hotel to keep accurately, is a book 
which I have often perused, nor is it 
destitute of its peculiar matter for medi- 
tation. The different names of all the 
travellers who pass, show the agitation, 
often very vain, of this world's things ; 
sometimes they recall the caprices of for- 
tune, and reveal the forgotten existence 
of adventurous persons, once celebrated 
and powerful, and whose old palaces 
were to thern but a kind of hostelry. 
The column condizioni of the inevitable 
register is to numbers of persons very 
difficult to fill up; they do not know 
exactly what they are, so uncertain are 
the fortunes of many in our days; so in- 
complete and temporary is the social 
order on some poiuts, notwithstanding 
its improvements. The Italians gene- 
rally take the title of nobile ; that of 
gentilhomme, or man of quality, is not 
taken by any Frenchman, although the 
Charter acknowledges a nobility, and 
even that there are two kinds ; the names 
of rentier and proprietor are certainly 
pleasant enough, but they are somewhat 
common. The eta (age) is another po- 
sitive question which, for the ladies, is 
embarrassing at a certain epoch; the 
number of ladies of thirty-eight who travel 
can hardly be imagined ; one would think 
it the best age for that enjoyment; the 
difficulty is sometimes complicated by 
the proximity of some charming girl, 
who already begins to be interesting, and 
proves that it is a considerable time since 
her mother was in the same circumstan- 
ces. But the best chapters are the names 
of your friends, who, like you, are tra- 
vellers; it seems that in finding and 
following their traces, you diminish the 




[Book II. 

sadness of separation, and that ibis sort 
of apparition restores them to you, as in 
the rencontre sung in the same place by 
the poet : 

Plollus et Vaiius Slnuessae, Virgiliusque 
Occurrunt, anlmao quales neqne candidiores 
Terra tulit, neque quis me sit devincllor niter, 

Nil ego conlulerim jucuudosanus amico. 

On toe 6eason for visiting Italy. 

Though winter is the usual season for 
travelling to Italy, I will advise no one 
to follow this custom, unless going under 
the advice of a physician. The winter 
does not suit that fine country ; its aspect 
is then but little different from that of 
our provinces : there is nearly the same 
humidity and the same cold ; the rivers 
are overflowed, heavy and continued 
rains obscure the sky and inundate the 
fields ; the trees arc dwarfish and look 
still worse when stript of their verdure, 
and the vine, which twined around them 
gracefully, is nothing but a species of rep- 
tile clinging to them, black and tortuous. 
The orange-trees seem charged to do the 
honours of the country alone, and to re- 
call some of its charms; but, despite the 
beauty of their fruit, there are not so 
many of them as is supposed, nor are they 
indeed higher than those of Versailles 
and the Tuileries. When I left Italy, 
generally towards the end of the year, 
and most frequently in very foul weather, 
while crowds of foreigners were going 
thither in elegant equipages, in my 
tenderness for that country, I thought 
with pain of the first impression these 
strangers would receive; I was tempted 
to cry out to them on the road that it 
was not Italy, the real Italy, that they 
saw. The poor English ladies' maids, 
cruelly exposed on seats before and be- 
hind, especially inspired me with true 
pity ; probably they had read the Myste- 
ries of Vdolpho, in which, amid a thou- 
sand horrors, is such a smiling descrip- 
tion of Italy in spring; how great must 
have been their disappointment on be- 
holding it thus ! But if nature loses her 
glory, the monuments of art are scarcely 
more to be recognised ; they are made 
for the light and the sun of summer, and 
not for the fogs of winter. What num- 
bers of pictures, basso-relievos, chefs- 

d'oeuvre of the best masters, disappear 
then in the obscurity of this dull season 
and the somewhat sombre light of the 
churches of Italy ! A singular instance 
of this disagreeable effect of an Italian 
winter occurred to two Englishmen at 
Rome in 1828; they arrived on the 10th 
of November, and set off on their return 
on the 11th, to the great regret of their; 
banker, M. Torlonia, with whom they 
had a credit of more than a hundred 
thousand franks. At the same period I 
also knew a young Frenchman at Rome, 
who, like others, had come to Italy in 
winter; on leaving Paris, he was fearful 
of his enthusiasm for that illustrious land, 
though when I saw him it was very se- 
date. This disappointed traveller had 
caught cold on the road j he was a dilet- 
tante, and the music he had heard was 
indifferent; Turin and Florence, which 
he had merely passed through, seemed 
to him, as regards the streets and people 
in them, nothing more than chief towns 
of a province, and the little shops of the 
Corso, or the hotels of the Piazza d'Es- 
pagna, where he had stopped, were but 
little calculated to excite that admiration 
which he at first, feared being obliged to 

The great number of foreigners who 
flock to Italy in winter also deprive the 
country of a part of its physiognomy ; the 
distinguished natives seem as it were to 
disappear, lost in the midst of this exotic 
bustling society ; one can only catch a 
glimpse of them, and it is less easy to 
gain their friendship or to derive advan- 
tage from their information, borne away 
as they are by the whirlpool. As to the 
popular feasts and pilgrimages to Nostra 
Signora del Monte, delta Grotta, dci Fiori, 
they have altogether ceased, and I have 
the bad taste to prefer them to the pom- 
pous routs of bankers or ambassadors. 
The foreigner, or countryman whom 1 
prefer and try to find in Italy is some 
artist, a painter or architect, sketching 
views, examining monuments on the spot 
instead of looking at them on paper, 
working, studying, and loving the long 
days, a cheerful companion in mountain 
excursions and the horrors of the lo- 
canda, or a passenger like yourself on 
board the rapid bark wafted to many a 
shore famous in fable or history. Such 
is the happy companionship that 1 wish 
to every real traveller; and certainly he 
will find it more agreeable than that of 

Chap. XI.] 



the fashionables who only cross the Alps 
for the Scala of Milan, the Cascine of 
Florence, the Corso of Rome, the Chiaja 
of Naples and other frivolous rendez- 
vous of European vanity. Italy, the 
inexhaustible source of mental enchant- 
ments and fanciful musings, is for such 
people no more than a spectacle to be 
gazed at, a kind of race or theatrical re- 
presentation, to which they travel post, 
-with no object but to show themselves, 
to see who is there, and talk of what they 
saw. At the period chosen by these vi- 
siters, the beautiful solitudes of Vallom- 
brosa, Mount Cassino, the Camaldoli, are 
almost inapproachable; and a person 
would return with a very imperfect idea 
of Italy, who had not been able to con- 
template them. 

It is, besides, my opinion that different 
countries ought to be viewed with the 
climates peculiar to them ; the hoary 
Winter to Russia, the sun to Italy. The 
summer is not so oppressive there as ge- 
nerally supposed ; there is always an air, 
and the inhabitants are much cleverer 
than we at protecting themselves from 
the heat. Italy doubtless owes its repu- 
tation for intolerably hot weather to the 
English and travellers from the North; 
but the temporary inconvenience it causes 
for a few hours in the day is amply com- 
pensated by the brilliancy and purity of 
the light, the magnificence of the morn- 
ing and evening, and the charms of 


|!vrea.— Bridge.— Caslle.— Prisons of Italy.— 
Cathedral.— Mosaic. 

Before reaching the road from Turin 
to Milan we come to Ivrea, which has a 
fine aspect at a distance, but is ill-looking 
within : the Roman bridge of a single 
arch, thrown over the Dora from the rocks 
on its banks, and the castle composed of 
four lofty towers joined by a high brick 
wall, have an imposing mien and seem 
in harmony with their picturesque loca- 
lity. The castle is a frightful prison, 
which bears no resemblance to the hu- 
mane penitentiary establishments of Ge- 
neva and Lausanne. It must have been 
very difficult to effect an escape from 
those ancient fortresses, and the jailers 
of the old rock no doubt kept a much 
stricter watch than the philanthropic 

managers of the new houses. This great 
prison, at the entrance of Italy, reminded 
me of the important part occupied by 
prisons in her history ; independently of 
the political imprisonments common to 
all nations and countries, never has any 
land had so many nor such illustrious 
captives; poets, literati, historians, ar- 
tists, whenever they have attained a 
certain degree of celebrity, have nearly 
all been confined. It seems as if a pri- 
son was in the destiny of every one that 
surpasses his fellows, and that it then 
becomes an accident, an ordinary event 
of life : it is to glory what ostracism at 
Athens was to popularity, or what the 
bowstring is at Constantinople ; one 
might say that it becomes a natural con- 
sequence. The prisons of Italy are a part 
of its monuments, and if their traditions 
were less vague, they would not be with- 
out their grandeur, since they have re- 
ceived such inmates as Tasso, Machia- 
velli, and Galileo. 

The cathedral possesses at the high 
altar, the relics of Saint Warmond Ar- 
borio, bishop of Ivrea, about the year 
1001, and in the sacristy a picture by 
Perugino, Saint Joseph kneeling before 
the Infant Jesus, ivith the Virgin on 
his right, and Saint Warmond on his 
left, leaning on the shoulder of the 
Canon abbot Ponzone d' Aseglio, who 
ordered this fine piece. A curious piece 
of mosaic in white, red, and black stones, 
framed in the wall of the seminary, and 
apparently of the twelfth century, repre- 
sents the five liberal arts of that time, 
Grammar, Philosophy, Dialectics, Geo- 
metry, and Arithmetic. 


Vercelli.— Invasion of the Barbarians.— SI. Andrew. 
—Mausoleum of T. Oallo.— Duomo.— Eusebius's 
book of the Gospels. — Saint Christopher. — Fresco 
by Gaudenzio Ferrari.— Noble example of the 
Marquis de Leganez.— Saint Julian.— library.— 

It was in the plains of Vercelli that 
Marius overthrew the Teutonic and 
Cimbrian army which several Roman ge- 
nerals had previously repulsed. The 
ancient invasions of the barbarians were 
natural, as the sun and abundance must 
have attractions for such people ; where- 
as nothing but the infatuation of the last 
years of the Empire could have induced 



[Book II. 

the chief of a civilised people to make 
conquests in the North, a solitary fact in 
the history of distant expeditions. The 
wars of Charlemagne had at least the 
pretext of converting the Saxons to Chris- 
tianity, or rather he yielded to the grand 
necessity for repressing in person the in- 
cessant inroads of the barbarians. '.' He 
had no wish," says Mdzeray, "to possess 
the ice and rocks or the North." 

One must go back to the epoch of the 
great Roman captain to enliven this dull 
and tedious road from Turin to Milan, 
which, on this side, does not present the 
imposing and majestic aspect of the 

Vercelli has some delightful walks and 
a few palaces. The ancient castle or ducal 
palace, where the blessed Amadeus IIF. 
died, is converted into barracks. At the 
Tizzoni palace, now Casa Mariano, the 
property of a Jew merchant, is a superb 
fresco by Bernardino Lanino, a great Mi- 
lanese artist of the sixteenth century, re- 
presenting the Assembly of the gods, in 
the style of the Farnesine fresco, a bril- 
liant decoration of an antique hall now 
turned into a granary. 

The vast church of Saint Andrew, 
surmounted with four steeples, of a fine 
demi-gothic architecture, built in 1219 
by Cardinal Guala de Bicchieri, legate 
in England the year before, has been as- 
certained to be from the same design as 
a church at Winchester, the plan of 
which, probably, Bicchieri brought away 
with him, as well as the 12,000 marks of 
silver, a sort of booty with which history 
reproaches him. This church has been 
recently restored in its primitive style at 
the expense of an association of pious 
persons. On the curious mausoleum of 
Thomas Gallo, first abbot of the monas- 
tery of Saint Andrew, who died in 
1246, a fresco of that day, the oldest pic- 
ture of Vercelli, and one of the most in- 
teresting in Italy for the history of the 
infancy of the art, represents him in his 
theological chair; among his six scholars 
is Saint Anthony of Padua, distinguished 
by a glory ; at the bottom of the mauso- 
leum a contemporary basso-relievo in 
stone shows Gallo kneeling before the 
Virgin and Infant Jesus, while his pro- 
tector. Saint Denys the Areopagite, stand- 
ing, affecliouately lays his hand on Gallo's 

The interior of the majestic Duomo 
is by the great Bologuese architect of the 

sixteenth century, Pellegrini, sarnamed 
the Reformed Michael Angelo by the 
Carracci, and the exterior by Count Be- 
nedetto Alfieri Bianco, the first architect 
of Piedmont. The silver tomb of the 
blessed Amadeus of Savoy, given by king 
Charles Felix in 1823, is from the design 
of a clever artist of Turin, S. Sevesi. 
The choir, in sculptured wood, of the 
year 1822 and by Ranza, an architect of 
Vercelli, is an ingenious construction 
which holds together without a single 
nail and can be taken down in a day ; a 
precautionary measure of the canons, as 
the first choir was burnt by the French 
who were lodged in the church in 1798. 
I saw in the treasury the celebrated book 
oftheGospels said to be copied by the hand 
ofEusebius, the first bishopof Vercelli in 
the fourth century, and which Lalande 
gives for the autograph of Saint Mark, 
although it is a Latin version, and the 
apostles wrote only in Greekand Hebrew. 
This manuscript, formerly sealed with 
the bishop's seal and never opened but by 
his permission, the covering of which it 
was only permitted to kiss kneeling, was 
shown to me without ceremony by one 
of the choristers : it is in very bad con- 
dition, and I think one may venture to 
wish it a more attentive librarian. I 
also remarked an autograph letter of 
Saint Francis de Sales to the duke of 
Savoy, dated from Annecy, the 17th Fe- 
bruary 1615, on the canonisation of 
Amadeus III.; it is elegantly written, 
and would deserve a place in the edition 
of the complete works of this amiable 
and kind hearted saint. 

Saint Mary Major, called the Ma- 
donna grande, a church of the last cen- 
tury, has replaced the ancient church of 
the time of Constantine, which was a 
remarkable monument; the remains of 
its portal, presenting a very curious as- 
tronomical basso-relievo, are preserved 
in the gardens of the Gatlinara palace. 

Saint Christopher, the ancient church 
of the Vmiliati, is recommended by the 
paintings of Gaudenzio Ferrari, a distin- 
guished assistant of Raphael, and chief 
of the Milanese school. The frescos, 
some of which have been retouched a 
few years since by an incompetent hand, 
representing divers subjects of the Life 
of Jesus-Christ and Saint Mary Mag- 
dalene, a large and pleasing composition, 
remarkable for the beauty of the heads 
and the graceful expression of the little 

Chap. XII. ] 


angels, are perhaps the most excellent 
work of this artist. The best preserved 
is the Adoration of the Magi. The 
fresco of the Martyrdom of saint Ca- 
therine, considerably damaged, contains 
the portraits of Gaudenzio Ferrari, of his 
master Jeronimo Giovannone, and of his 
ablest pupil Bernardino Lanino, of Yer- 
cejli. These paintings, which were or- 
dered in 1532 by Fra Angelo de'Corradi, 
recall a noble action of the young marquis 
de Leganez, a Spanish general, who died 
in 1711, in exile at Paris, after having 
been imprisoned as an Austrian at Vin- 
cenncs. When he besieged and took 
Vercelli in 1638, he forbade his bom- 
bardiers to fire on the church of Saint 
Christopher, lest the masterpiece of 
Ferrari should be injured, an act almost 
unknown, but which equals that of De- 
metrius Phalereus protecting the painter 
Protogenesand making war on the Rho- 
dians and not on the fine arts. 

At the church of Saint Julian, a pathetic 
Passion of Jesus Christ, by Bernardino 
Lanino, might well be attributed to Gau- 
denzio Ferrari, if the author had not 
apposed his name. 

The church of Saint Paul has the paint- 
ing of the Madonna delle Grazie, for 
the raising of the siege of Vercelli in 1553 
by the French troops, under the command 
of the duke ofBrissac; it is one of the 
best and largest of Lanino's paintings. 

The library of Vercelli, the Agnesi- 
ana, contains twelve thousand volumes. 
The archives, long neglected, though 
containing diplomas and documents to 
as far back as the eighth century, have 
been recently confided to the enlightened 
management of a distinguished Pied- 
montese, professor Baggiolini, who. had 
earned his livelihood as a schoolmaster, 
one of (hose talented Italians, as I myself 
have witnessed, whom adverse fortune 
prevents from gaining celebrity. 


Novara. — Duomo. — Capitulary Archives. — Library. 
— Fra ftestor Denis. — Saint Mark. — Saint I'eter 
at rosario. — Fra Duleino.— Saint Gaudenzio.— 

Novara isan old dirty Spanish town, but 

This name is derived from the resemblance of 
the holes where pigeons make their nests, whether 
In walls or dovecotes, to the little niches intended 

by the Romans to hold the urns of the samefamily. | ceremonies 

it has some rich and beautiful churches. 
The noble and elegant baptistry, once 
a columbarium, » belongs to the best 
days of Roman architecture. 

The antique portico of the Duomo, a 
kind of lapidarian museum, presents a 
curious collection of votive altars, in- 
scriptions, and funereal urns. The 
church is old and ugly, but has several 
paintings very remark.ible; in the chapel 
of Saint Benedict, the Christ, saint Gau- 
denzio, saint Benedict, and the Mag- 
dalene at the foot of the Cross, the heads 
ofwhich,supposed by Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
are exquisite ; in the chapel of Saint 
Joseph, the Sibyls, the Eternal Father, 
and the other poetic and sublime frescos^ 
unfortunately damaged, by Bernardino 
Lanino ; on the cupola the elaborate 
frescos of Giuseppe Monialto ; in the 
chapel of the Three Magi, a Nativity, by 
an unknown author, which has been 
deemed worthy to be attributed to Titian, 
Corregio, or Paris Bordone; in the sa- 
cristy, the imposing and graceful Mar- 
riage of saint Catherine, by Gaudenzio 
Ferrari ; a Last Supper, varied, by 
Caesar da Sesto, the best pupil of Leonardo 
di Vinci, the friend of Raphael, who de- 
licately said to him :— ' ' Is it not strange, 
that with a friendship like ours we reci- 
procally show each other so little regard 
in painting, and contend so much one 
against the other?" 

Among the documents of the capitu- 
lary archives, are some of the oldest in 
Italy : the Life of St. Gaudenzio and 
other Saints of Novara, written in 700, 
and the petition addressed in 730 by' 
Rodoaldo di Gansingo to the bishop Gra- 
zioso to obtain the consecration of an 
altar erected by this Rodoaldo to Saint 
Michael. A precious consular diptych, 
of ivory, gives the names of some ancient 
bishops, and has this singular inscription : 
—Ajraldus sublevita indignus domui 
precepto Arnaldisine manibus fecit oc 

The library of the seminary, public 
three days a week, has about twelve 
thousand volumes. Among the edi- 
tions of the fifteenth century may be re- 
marked the Dictionarium alphabetico 
ordine of Fra Nestor Denis, a scholar of 

The columbarium contained the remains of a great 
number of bodies in a small space; it was not 
lighted, except by the lamps used during the funeral 



[ Book II. 

Novara, the first author of a dictionary, 
less known thanCalepino who succeeded 
him, and, like others, plundered him 
without acknowledgment. The dedica- 
tion of the dictionary is addressed to 
Louis-the-Moor; it contains a splendid 
eulogium in hexameter verse of that 
prince, who, though criminal, was a pa- 
tron of learning and the arts, and kept 
at his court Leonardo di Vinci, Bra- 
mante, and Demetrius Chalcondylas : 
Louis having heen arrested in disguise 
near Novara, he was taken to France, 
and his captivity there must be regarded 
as a real calamity for literature. 

The church and fraternity of San Gio- 
vanni decollate, built in 1G36, is in the 
form of an antique tomb, and is remarka- 
ble for its singular construction . It rests 
on four columns of granite without an iron 
cincture. An Adoration of the Magi, 
in the choir, is by Charles Francis Nuvo- 
lone, who acquired and retained the 
surname of the Guido of Lombardy, 
an artist full of devotion to the Virgin, 
who never painted any one of his fine 
madonnas, so sought after by connois- 
seurs, without having first performed 
some act of piety. 

The church of Saint Philip de' Neri 
lias two recent works of art : the ancone 
of the choir, painted at Rome somewhat 
incorrectly by Professor Tofanelli ; and a 
not ungraceful statue of the Virgin, by 
S. Prinetti, a sculptor of Novara. 

At the church of Saint Euphemia, the 
front of which, executed in 1787, has no 
merit whatever, the Martyrdom of Saint 
Genes d' Aries, by John Baptist Costa, 
is deficient neither in expression nor co- 
louring, although the painter has clothed 
the registrar of the Roman prefect in a 
Spanish dress. 

Saint Mark, one of the most regular 
as well as most elegant churches of No- 
veza, is farther distinguished by its paint- 
ings. The Virgin, the Infant Jesus, 
and Saint Anne, by what author is un- 
certain, from its originality and soft na- 
tural expression, has had the merit of 
being attributed to Camillo Procaccini. 
The Procession made at Milan by Saint 
Charles Borromeo for the cessation of 
the plague, is by Moncalvo, a good pain- 
ter of the country in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, who has also painted on the cupola 
and' the gallery of the choir an Eternal 
Father and Saint Mark carried to Pa- 
radise by the angels; compositions at 

once vigorous, correct, and graceful. 
The Martyrdom of Saint Mark is ani- 
mated and poetic; it is by Daniel Crispi, 
one of those great old Italian masters, 
whose fame does not equal their merit, 
and who are scarcely known out of their 

In the small church of Saint Charles : 
— an Immaculate Virgin, a new work 
by S. Jacopo Conca, who seems to con- 
tinue the family of the indifferent and too 
much lauded painters to which he belongs; 
a Deposition from the Cross, by Cezano, 
a clever artist of Novara, a man of letters 
and courtier, who enjoyed the favour of 
Cardinal Frederick Borromeo ; a little 
Sacred 'JHeart, by the celebrated Andreo 
Appiani, one of the few sacred subjects 
treated by this painter of the triumphs 
of Napoleon, his inspirer and his hero; 
a large Martyrdom of Saint Agnes, 
which formerly served as ancone at the 
church of the nuns of that saint, by Gilar- 
dini, an artist of the last century, rather 
clever at this kind of work. 

Saint Peter al Rosario was formerly 
a convent of powerful Dominicans, who, 
in 1307, condemned the famous here- 
siarch of Novara, Fra Dulcino, head of 
the sect of the Gazzari, a barbarous sort 
of Saint Simonians, for having preached 
the community of goods and women. 
Dulcino was burnt with his concubine 
the beautiful Marguerite, a nun that he 
had abducted from her convent; they 
both showed extraordinary intrepidity 
amid the horrors of their execution. 
Dulcino was taken, after being defeated 
at the head of five thousand sectaries, on 
Maunday Thursday, in a pitched battle; 
this is the warlike monk for whom Dante 
represents Mahomet so interested, when 
he makes him say : — 

Or di' a Fra Dolcin dunque cue s' armi, 
Tu che forse vedrai il sole in breve, 
S' egli non vuol qui tosto seguitarnil : 
Si di vivanda, die slrelta dl neve 
Non rcchi la viltoria al Novarese, 
Cb' altrimenli acquislar non saria Here. 

The insurrection of Dulcino appears 
not to have been completely suppressed, 
as four years after his defeat the cloister 
of the Dominicans was attacked, while 
they were assembled, by a band of armed 
men, who dispersed them after wounding 
and killing a great number. The exist- 
ing church, finished in 1618, and pre- 

Chap. XIII. 



senting the architectural contradiction of 
the Corinthian order at bottom and the 
Ionic at top, is ornamented wilh some 
good paintings. A Paradise, composed 
altogether of Dominicans, on the cupola, 
and the frescos of the chapel of Saint 
Dominick, are by Gilardini. TheVirgin, 
Saint Peter the martyr, and Saint Ca- 
therine di Siena, on the ancone of the 
rich chapel of the Rosary, is a fine pro- 
duction and deservedly praised; it is by 
Giulio Cesar Procaccini, the ablest of the 

The superb basilick of Saint Gaudenzio, 
by the architect Pellegrini, is rich in 
paintings by the best masters of the Mi- 
lanese school. In the chapel of the 
Happy-Death, a Deposing of the Cross 
passes for the masterpiece of Moncalvo; 
and the different frescos, the Last Judg- 
ment, of Morazzone, prove the power, 
grandeur, and truth of his talents. The 
Guardian Angel, in the chapel of the 
name, by Hyacinth Brandi, the most 
celebrated pupil of Lanfranchi, recalls 
the lofty style of his master. There is 
some resemblance to Paul Veronese in 
the Overthrow of Sennacherib, a lively 
and intelligent composition by Antonio 
Ranzio, the Novarese painter of the 
seventeenth century. The ancone in 
six compartments of the chapel of the 
middle Madonna was painted, in 1514, 
by Gaudenzio Ferrari, at the command of 
the canons of Saint Gaudenzio, -who pa- 
tronised the arts ; it is his largest work 
in oil before hisjourney to Rome, and the 
last of his earlier style ; and, although the 
colouring is injured, it has his sweet, 
graceful, and natural expression. The 
chapel of the Crucifix has an earthen 
crucifix, by Gaudenzio Ferrari, who was 
also very clever in this kind of sculpture. 
The vigorous frescos of the four greater 
Prophets are by S. Ludovico Saba- 
telli, a Tuscan, professor in the academy 
of Milan. The Saint Augustine writing 
his treatise on the Trinity, in the chapel 
of Saint Barbe, is an esteemed perform- 
ance of Giuseppe Nuvolone. The two su- 
perb doors of the inner chapel of the tomb 
of Saint Gaudenzio are a solid mixture 
of cast steel and bronze : the four great 
bronze statues represent the patrons of 
the town and diocese of No vara; the 
Triumph of Saint Gaudenzio in fresco 
on the cupola, full of imagination, is the 
masterpiece of Stefano Legnani, a good 
painter of the Lombard school at the 

beginning of last century, celebrated 
for his frescos. The tomb of the saint 
may be compared for magnificence to the 
most splendid in Italy. The colossal 
high-aliar is resplendent with marble 
and bronze ; it was consecrated in 1725, 
by Cardinal Gilberto Borromeo, bishop 
of Novara, and suffers from the corrupt 
taste prevalent at that epoch. The sta- 
tues of the doctors of the church by 
Rusca of Milan, from their slender phy- 
siognomy, look like youthful old men, 
and the St. Jerome has the appearance of 
wearing a wig. The statues of S. Binetti 
are held in higher estimation, especially 
those of St. Andrew, St. Paul and St. 
Bartholomew. In the chamber of the 
chapter, the St. Jerome writing, by 
Spagnuoletto, has his energy and effect. 
The oldest document in the archives is 
the Acts of the life of St. Gaudenzio of 
the eighth century ; they also possess a 
consular diptych in ivory, still superior 
for its workmanship to that of the Duo- 
mo, and on which are sculptured two 
Roman consuls giving the signal for the 
public games. On the outside of the 
basilic is a St. Peter, a carving of the 
dark ages, and some Roman sepulchral 
stones. The steeple, a splendid struc- 
ture by Count Benedetto Alfieri, finished 
in 1786, was built with the funds 
proceeding from a lax of a farthing on 
every pound of meat sold. On each side 
of the entrance a Roman inscription is 
enchased ; one of them perpetuates the 
memory of a certain Tilianeoreus, who, 
although questor, owed nothing to the 
Republic (reipublicce nihil debuit), an 
unusual circumstance, it appears, among 
the Roman questors, since it was thought 
worthy of being transmitted to posterity 
in an epitaph. 


Iloule.— Bridges.— Roads in Lombardy. 

The road enters Lombardy on this side 
at Buffalora, on the Ticino : a magnifi- 
cent bridge has been built there of that 
fine hard shining stone found in the vi- 
cinity of Lago Maggiore, In no district 
has the administration des Ponts et 
Chaussees been more active or rendered 
greater services. The numerous rivers 
and canals on the road can now be passed 
without inconvenience. Agriculture 
flourishes in all this part of Italy, and 




every thing announces general pro- 
sperity; Austrian domination is there 
seen on its best side. The roads are real 
well-managed garden walks ; even the 

grass is pulled up as soon as it appears. 
The Austrian government, in general so 
economical and paltry, is nobly liberal 
in this respect. 1 




Trench aspect or Milan.— Royal palace.— Frescos of 
Appiani.— Villa. — Archiepiscopal palace. — Foun- 
tain.— Uomo di pielra.—G^Werj De Cristoforis. 
—Palace delta Conlabilita.—Til&rini. — House of 
visrnara.— Porta Orientale. 

It is impossible not to be struck, 
even in passing, with the appearance of 
wealth, commerce, and industry of 
this great city. The population now 
amounts to a hundred and sixty thousand, 
but about the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
lury it was three hundred thousand. 
Its French aspect, so much increased 
of late years, was already remarkable 
in the days of Montaigne. He found 
that " Milan pretty much resembled 
Paris, and was greatly like the towns 
of France." Tasso observed the same re- 
semblance, during the two years he 
passed at Paris in the suite of Cardinal 
d'Este, when he wrote his partial and 
unjust parallel between Italy and France. 
The Corso has at present all the magni- 
ficence of the Rue du Mont-Blanc , and 
one might imagine one's self on the 
Boulevards of Paris. 

1 The repairs of the excellent roads of the Lotn- 
bardo-Venetian kingdom cost 1,500,000 Austrian 
livres (that is, 52,200 pounds sterling) for fifteen 
hundred and eighteen Italian miles; rather more 
than 26f. the English mile. From the report read 

The French aspect of Milan appears 
still more conspicuous in the palaces 
of the prince, which are brilliant imita- 
tions of the imperial palaces of France . 
but less magnificent. Their number 
also is nearly the same; independently 
of the ordinary palace of the viceroy, 
la villa, with its English garden and 
its position in the interior of the city, 
is the EIys£e Bourbon of this bastard 
Paris ; and Monza, another royal resi- 
dence three leagues from Milan, reminds 
one of Sainl- Cloud. The frescos of 
Appiani, which are seen in these va- 
rious residences, especially the great 
fresco of the royal palace of Milan re- 
presenting the Assembly of the Gods, 
and the medallion of the principal saloon 
which presents JYapoleon under the 
features of Jupiter, are perhaps too 
much boasted by the Italians; but these 
showy decorative paintings produce a 
great effect, and seem moreover pretty 
much in conformity with the thea;rical 
glory which they consecrate. 

The different palaces of Milan are 
rather vast and costly houses than mo- 
numents; the courts, surrounded with 
piazzas, have, however, a kind of gran- 
deur. Despite the lavish use of the title 

to the committee of roads and canals by Baron Pas- 
quier, on the 6th of October, 1828, the expenditure 
on the roads of France is 1750 fr. a league (Ml. 
10s. the English mile); in England the cost Is from 

:;'./. to 61 /. the mile. 

lillAP. I. ] 


of palazzo among the Italians, these pa- 
laces do not commonly bear so superb an 
appellation, but, unless devoted to some 
public service, they are, in general, more 
modestly called houses. 

The architecture of the court of the 
Archiepiscopal palace is ingenious. 
The octagonal building of the stables, 
>viih its Greek vestibule, a beautiful work 
of the great Bolognesc painter and ar- 
chitect Pellegrini, were by Saint Charles 
deemed worthy of a nobler use, as they 
indeed are. In the square, in front of 
the palace, the Syrens of the fountain, 
by the sculptor of Carrara, Joseph Fran- 
chi, are reckoned among the best perfor- 
mances of recent times. 

In the Corsia de' Servi is the antique 
statue called by the people the Stone 
Man (Uomo dipietra), the Marforio of 
Milan, which has been taken for Cicero, 
Marius, and even Menclozzi, archbishop 
of Milan in the tenth century; it appears 
to be a Roman statue, and must always 
be regarded as one of the most ancient 
monuments of the town. 

The new De-Cristoforis gallery, fi- 
nished in 1832, from the elegant design 
of S. Pizzola, is lined with shops and co- 
vered in with glass, the first of this de- 
scription erected in Italy; this commer- 
cial monument may be compared with 
the finest of its kind, and, for the richness 
of its materials (the pavement is of bar- 
diglio and white Carrara marble) must 
even surpass them. 

The Durini palace, by Francesco Ric- 
chini, a Milanese architect, has a ma- 
jestic arcade. The house of Stampa 
Castiglioni, now dilapidated, was one 
of the first works of Bramante at Milan, 
and the paintings in claro-obscuro on the 
front were executed by him. 

The court of the seminary, by the 
Lombard painter and architect, Mcda, 
is a noble and clever structure. 

The palace della Contabilitd (the an- 
cient Helvetian college) by Fabius Mau- 
goni, a Milanese architect of the seven- 
teenth century, and Ricchini, passes for 
the finest in Milan : if the front is worth- 
less, the two courts produce great effect 
and recall the majesty of the plans of an- 

The palace of Erba Odescalchi, the 
ancient residence of the Sforza Yisconti, 
is light and elegant ; it is by Pellegrino 
Tibaldi or some one of his school. 

At the house of Pianca are fourteen 

portraits of the Sforzas in fresco, by Ber- 
nardino Luini, the Raphael of the Mila- 
nese school, also five other portraits of the 
Sforzas in marble, by Professor Marchesi, 
an able living sculptor. 

Among the Milanese antiquities and 
curiosities of the house of Origo, there is 
in the garden a coarse basso-relievo re- 
presenting, it is said, (he empress, wife of 
Barbarossa, crowned with her diadem, 
and occupied in one of the most secret 
duties of her toilet (in atto didepilarsi), 
an indecent production, formerly ex- 
posed to the public gaze, till Saint Charles 
Borromeo had it taken do>vn from the 
Porta Tosa. 

The most extensive of the palaces of 
Milan is that of Marini, remarkable for 
its fine front, built in 1525 by the skilful 
architect Galeas Alessi, for the farmer- 
general of Milan whose name it bears; it 
is still occupied by the minister of finances 
and the administration of the customs. 
At the end of the Slrada Marino is the 
house of Patellani, the abode of Pelle- 
grino Tibaldi, in which he died on re- 
turning from Spain, after having, as it 
were, founded the art of painting there. 

The ancient house of Bossi, at present 
Vismara, given by dukcFrancescoSforza 
to Cosmo, the father of his country, pre- 
serves on its front two superb figures of 
armed women, of the richest sculpture, 
the workmanship of the able Florentine 
statuary and architect, Micholezzo Mi- 
chelozzi, who was the first that got clear 
of the Gothic taste in Lombardy. 

The other principal palaces are those 
del Goberno, of Brera (palaceof the arts 
and sciences), and the houses of Serbel- 
loni, Pezzoli, Belgioso, Cusani, now 
the casino of the merchants, which has 
been thought worthy of Palladio; Litta, 
of very bad taste notwithstanding its 
magnificence ; Annoni, Melleri, Stam- 
pasoncino, where there are some very 
fine paintings; and Triviilzio, once the 
abode of a noble and amiable family, who 
had preserved the old baton of marshal 
of France, not less precious than all the 
masterpieces of their rich museum and 
rarities of their library. 

The new gate of Porta Orientale, re- 
cently finished, the work ofS. Vantini, 
is superb, and perhaps the finest of those 
monuments belonging to the revenue and 
police, placed at the entrance of modern 
great cities, and a pretty decisive charac- 
teristic of their kind of civilisation. 



IBook 111. 


Duomo.— Columns.— Slalue of Saint Bartholomew. 
— Tomb of St. Chnrles.-Mausoleuni ol' Cardinal 
Caraccioio.— Chapel of Giovanni Jacopo Medici. — 
Baptistry.— Ambrosia n rite.— Chapel delt' Albero. 

The Duomo, wilh its hundred pin- 
nacles, and the three thousand statues 
perched on it, is but an enormous toy, 
with more boldness and singularity than 
beauty ; all this marble crowd seems 
alike in form and expression, and its 
whiteness, like that of the building, is 
painful to the eye.' In reality there is 
no steeple; the temporary tower, a kind 
of pigeon-house which supplies its place, 
is ugly and ill-placed. The Gothic of the 
Duomo is deficient in naivete; being at 
the same time vague and elaborate, and 
not the Gothic in all its primitive gran- 
deur of the cathedral of Cologne. 2 The 
gates, which are of the Roman order, 
and by no means in unison with the gene- 
ral character of the edifice, are decorated 
wilh fine basso-relievos and ornaments 
by Cerani and Fabius Mangoni. The 
two gigantic columns, each of a single 
piece of red granite, standing one on each 
side of the principal entrance, were 
drawn from the quarries of Raveno, near 
Lago Maggiore ; they are perhaps the 
highest ever employed in any building. 
The architectonic painting of the roof, 
a kind of decoration, doubtless well 
executed and suitable enough for a new 
building, has a disagreeable effect in these 
old monuments where all is commonly 
so real. Several windowsof stained glass, 
manufactured at Milan after the solid 
and economical method of Bertini, have 
been since repaired, and their effect 
equals, if it docs not surpass, that.of the 
old which were destroyed. 

The four evangelists and the four 
fathers of the Church, in bronze, of the 
two pulpits, by Francesco Branibilla, 
notwithstanding some affectation and 
confusion in the drapery, are figures 

1 Should the edihee be completed, the number oT 
6latues will amount to four thousand live hun- 
dred; the front alone has nearly two hundred and 

a Some persons have supposed that the Duomo of 
Milan is an imitation of Ibis cathedral ; like all imi- 
tations, it must fall short of ils model, nor dues ( lie 
Impression lert on my mind by the Duomo of Milan 
Contradict this general rule. 

3 Nun me Praxiteles, sett Marcus finxit Agrales. 

sculptured and cast with great care and 

The seventeen basso-relievos of the 
upper part of the wall surrounding the 
choir, designed by the same artist, are 
of a rare delicacy of touch ; he also made 
the model of the grand and rich taber- 
nacle of bronze gilt on the high-altar. 
Over this last is the brilliant reliquary 
of the Santo Chiodo (one of the nails of" 
the true cross), a venerated relic, which, 
on the 3rd of May every year, the anni- 
versary of the terrible plague of 1576, is 
carried in procession by the bishop of 
Milan, in imitation of Saint Charles, 
after being withdrawn from the roof by 
some of the dignitaries of the chapter, 
theatrically raised to the place in a painted 
machine, in the form of a cloud sur- 
rounded with little angels. The wooden 
stalls of the choir are covered wilh su- 
perb sculptures from (he designs of Pcl- 
legrino, Brambilia, Figini, and Meda, 
representing divers incidents of the life 
of Saint Ambrose, and other bishops of 

The celebrated slatue, said to be St. 
Bartholomew, now placed behind the 
choir, seems to me but little worlby of the 
chisel of Praxiteles, in spite of the inscrip- 
tion rather presumptuously engraved be- 
neath by the artist. 3 This sort ol reality is 
horrible, nor can I think that the Greeks, 
who made so many statues of Apollo, 
ever represented the skeleton of Marsyas.4 

It would be difficult to avoid emotion 
on seeing in the subterranean chapel the 
body of Saint Charles, who is in a manner 
the hero of this country; the memory of 
this vast, ardent, unbending genius, this 
kind of governing saint, as also that of 
his family, is pre-eminent there above 
that of emperors and kings. 5 The holy 
archbishop is clothed in his pontifical 
dress enriched with diamonds; his mi- 
tred head reposes on a gold cushion; 
the sarcophagus is of transparent rock 
crystal, and the features even of the great 
man may be easily contemplated. It is 
true that the word humilitas, the family 

4 The antique statue, known by the name of 
Marsyas, formerly at the Villa Bjrphese, but now 
in the Hoyal Museum, does not belong to the best 
times of the art ; it is a Faun hung to a tree by the 
hands, and does not represent Marsyas skinned. 

5 The Horromeo family was originally from Tus- 
cany and San-Minialo ; tbeir establishment at Milan 
dales from the marriage of t'hilip, head of the 
family, witb Talda, sister oftlie uufortunate Beatrix 
Tenda, a relation of duke Philip Maria Visconti. 

Chap. II ] 


device of the Borromeo family, which is 
-written on the tomb, is rather in contrast 
with so great a display of riches. 

The tomb of Cardinal Federico Bor- 
romeo, not less worthy of remembrance 
than his cousin the saint, is less magni- 
ficent and even too simple. Cardinal 
Federico ought to have been canonized as 
well as Saint Charles ; but it seems that 
the expenses attending the canonization 
of the latter were so great that the family 
was obliged to decline this new honour. 
The interesting Promessi Sposi of Man- 
zoni, of which Cardinal Federico is, in 
a sense, the hero, have since made him 
amends and compensated for the injus- 
tice of fate. 

Under a glass cover, in a chapel, is the 
crucifix which was carried in procession 
by Saint Charles, as the inscription im- 
ports, during the plague of 1576 ■ this 
monument of tbe great archbishop's cha- 
rity is nobly exposed, as a real trophy, 
on an altar of his cathedral. 

The mausoleum of Otho the Great and 
Giovanni Visconti, uncle and nephew, 
archbishops and lords of Milan in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is 
surmounted by an esteemed work of 
Brambilla, the statue, seated, of Pius IV., 
maternal uncle of Saint Charles, one of 
the benefactors of the cathedral. 

The magnificent mausoleum of Car- 
dinal Marino Caracciolo, who died in 
1538, appears to be the last performance 
of Bambaja, an excellent sculptor of 
Milan, who first succeeded in working 
the hard marble of the quarries of Lom- 

Over a console of flowers interlaced is 
the statue of the illustrious pope Mar- 
tin V., seated and giving his benediction, 
by the famous Jacopino da Tradate, who 
is also compared to Praxiteles in the in- 
scription on the high altar, which he 
erected in 1418, so much does this exagge- 
rated comparison seem connected with 
the general lapidary style of the Duomo. 

The southern sacristy exhibits the 
ruins of the rich and antique treasury of 
this cathedral. The fine statue of Christ 
lound to the pillar is by Gobbo ; a great 
painting of St. Charles blessing the 
crosses, by Cerano ; two chalices orna- 
mented with little figures of children 
and divers groups are of wonderful 
workmanship ; a gold patine is a mas- 
terpiece of chasing, attributed to the 
Milanese Caradosso, and the principal 

group, & Deposing from the Cross, is of 
admirable expression, notwithstanding 
the smallness of the figures; lastly, the 
celebrated Pallium is here preserved, 
representing the Birth of the Virgin, 
embroidered by Louisa Pellegrini, a 
painter in needlework of the earlier part 
of the seventeenth century, who obtain- 
ed by her skiil the surname of the Mi- 
nerva of Lombardy. 

The statue of St. Ambrose is by Cesare 
Procaccini, equally great as statuary or 
painter; that of St. Satyrus, by Andreo 
Biffi, after a model by Brambilla. The 
great basso-relievo in marble of the 
chapel of the Presentation, so full of 
grace, nature, and truth, is by Bambaja ; 
a fine statue of St. Catherine, by Cris- 
toforo Lombardo, a clever Milanese ar- 
chitect and sculptor of the sixteenth cen- 

The chapel of Giovanni Jacopo Medici, 
marquis of Marignan, has been thrown 
open by taking down the iron railing that 
enclosed it ; this alteration allows a much 
better view of the splendid mausoleum, 
from the design of Michael Angelo, erect- 
ed by Pope Pius IV, his brother, to this 
bold captain, a mixture of hero, corsair 
and bandit, the unworthy uncle of Saint 
Charles. The statues and basso-relievos 
in bronze which adorn it are an esteemed 
production of Leone Leoni, a good sculp- 
tor, founder, and engraver of Tuscany in 
the sixteenth century. 

The Baptistry, by Pellegrino, is ele- 
gant and graceful ; the great baptismal 
basin, of porphyry, passes for having 
belonged to the hot baths of Maximian 
Hercules at Milan. As in the primitive 
church, the Ambrosian rite, which is 
followed in the diocese of Milan and 
differs in many points from tbe Roman 
rites, has preserved baptism by immer- 
sion, This rite not only dates from a 
period as remote, asis generally supposed, 
as that of Saint Ambrose, who at most 
only reformed it, but it seems to have 
borrowed its pompous liturgy from the 
ancient ceremonies of the East. 

The chapel dell' Albero, thus named 
from the superb bronze chandelier in the 
form of a tree, presented by the arch- 
priest of the cathedral, Giambattista Tri- 
vulzio, is ornamented with numerous 
very pretty basso-relievos by Brambilla, 
Andreo Fusina, Gobbo, and other excel- 
lent artists. 

The colossal statues of St. Ambrose 



[Book III. 

and St. Charles are esteemed productions 
of two good Italian sculptors of the pre- 
sent day, SS. Marchesi and Monti of 

From the top of the enormous pyramid 
of the Duomo, a sort of marble mountain, 
the view is truly admirable; the culti- 
vated plains of Lombardy appear an 
ocean of verdure beneath the azure sky ; 
the eye discovers at once the Alps and 
the Apennines, and this immense horizon 
it like a new and superb panorama of 

Near the Duomo, in the piazza dei 
Mercanti, is a colossal statue of St. Am- 
brose, by the young Milanese sculptor 
Ludovico Scorzitii ; it was erected in 183i, 
and is the present of another generous 
Milanese, S. Fossani. Saint Ambrose is 
represented in the simple episcopal cos- 
tume of his day ; the statue is expressive 
and the drapery good, in spite of the 
hardness of the marble, which is the 
same as that of the Duomo ; it nobly 
replaces a worthless statue of Philip II., 
formerly placed in the same dark dingy 
niche, and on the same pedestal as that 
of the courageous and independent arch- 
bishop of Milan. 


Santa Maria delta Passione. — Mausoleum of Birago. 
— Chalcondylas. — nostra Signora di San Cetso. — 
Slatues of Lorenzo Stoldi.— Cupola of Appiani.— 
Saint Nazarius. — Tiivulzio. 

The design of the front of Saint Ra- 
phael's church is by the great Pellegrino. 
Several of the pictures in this church are 
remarkable : the sublime St. Mattliew 
of Ambrosio Figini ; St. Jerome, by 
Cesare Procaccini ; Elijah sleeping, by 
Morazzone ; Jonah refusing to obey his 
father, by Cerano. 

The new steeple of Santa Maria dei 
Servi, is in horrible taste, and the cla- 
mour of the bells is so annoying that it 
has diminished the value of the houses 
near it. The inside of the church is 
richly decorated : the Virgin with the 
Infant Jesus and some angels is by 
Ambrosio Rorgognone; the Baptism of 
St. John by one of the brothers Catnpi ; 
the St. Philip Benizzi, by Daniel Crespi , 

1 Lomazzo lost liis sight at the age of thirty-three, 
If not twenty-three, years; he wrote poetry, com- 
posed several works, and dictated his Treuiise on 
Painting, regarded os the most complete in e\\s- 

the Christ in the garden of Olives, by 
Lomazzo, an illustrious Milanese painter, 
poet, scholar, geometrician, natural phi- 
losopher, and distinguished author.whose 
premature blindness was foretold by Car- 
dan from astrological calculations ; ■ a 
beautiful old Assumption, by an un- 
known author. The paintings of the choir, 
by Pamfilio IVuvoIone, are very good, 
and an Adoration of the Magi, in the 
sacristy, has been thought worthy of 
Bernardino Luini. 

Santa Maria delta Passione, by the 
architect Gobbo, with the exception of 
the ridiculous front by his obscure suc- 
cessor, is one of the best churches in 
Milan, and perhaps the richest inpictures. 
An Assumption in fresco by Pamfilio 
Nuvolone adorns the cupola. The Dead 
Christ, and the Virgin weeping, is by 
Bernardino Luini ; a small Descent from 
the Cross, by Cesare Procaccini ; a St. 
Francis, by his brother Camillo. The 
organ is by Carlo Urbini and Daniel 
Crespi, who have besides executed the 
different subjects of the Passion, in the 
best Titianesque taste, the fine paintings 
of the nave, and a St. Charles Borromeo 
breakfasting on bread and water, whose 
terrible physiognomy would make one 
think that he is meditating some violent 
fanatical act. A fine Last Supper is by 
Gaudenzio Ferrari. The Christ in the 
garden of Olives, and a Flagellation, are 
the best works of Talpino. The Infant 
Jesus escaping from the Virgin's bosom 
to run into the arms of St. Joseph, is 
one of the best holy families of Federico 
Bianchi. The paintings in the sacristy, 
by unknown authors, are remarkable, 
and exhibit the beauties of the ancient 
Lombard style. A St. Monica is by Giu- 
seppe Vermiglio, reckoned by Lanzi the 
first painter of Piedmont and one of the 
best of the seventeenth century. 

The mausoleum of bishop Daniel Bi- 
rago, erected by the great hospital of 
Milan, to which he bequeathed all his 
property, is a noble, elegant, and grace- 
ful monument by Andreo Fusina, one 
of the first Lombard sculptors in the 
fifteenth century. 

The tomb of Demetrius Chalcondylas 
bears the simple and touching inscription 
of his pupil Trissino. * The ashes of this 

lence, and even superior to the fragments of Leo- 
nardo diVimi, which arc collected under that title. 
» P. M. 

Demetrio Ch.ilrondylie Atbenlensl 

Chap. III.] 



Athenian fugitive among the Lombards— 
of this first editor of Homer, -who taught 
Greek to Benedetto Giovio, the brother of 
Paolo; to Gregorio Giraldi, count Casli- 
glione, and other learned Italians ; to the 
German Reuchlin, the English Linacer, 
the celebrated founders of Grecian learn- 
ing in their respective countries, — and 
the gratiludeof Trissino, the first restorer 
of the tragic art in Europe, show how 
much is due to this nation, and are, on 
the threshold of Italy, like an advanced 
monument of the services she has ren- 

There are some fine paintings at Saint 
Peter's in Scssate : St. Maur by Daniel 
Crespi ; several incidents in the life of 
the same saint, by Moncalvo; an image 
of the Virgin, under a glass cover, by 
Bernardino Luini. Atthe chapel of Saint 
Ambrose, the works of Bernardino da 
Trevilio and Butinone, painters of the 
fifteenth century, are remarkable for 
their perspective ; there is a Virgin at- 
tributed to Bramante. 

The old church of Saint Stephen Major 
was the scene of one of the most terrible 
catastrophes in Italy during the fifteenth 
century, the murder of Galeas Maria, the 
unworthy son of the great Francesco 
Sforza, assassinated in the midst of his 
guards, the day after Christmas 1476, by 
three courageous young men, Carlo Yis- 
conti, Lampugnano, and Olgiati, at the 
instigation of their master, the gram- 
marian Colas, of Mantua ; another in- 
stance of tyrannicide sterile for liberty. 
\'isconti and Lampugnano were killed 
in the scuffle, being abandoned by those 
who were to have seconded them : Olgiati 
was subsequently arrested and perished 
at the age of twenty-three by the hand 
of the executioner ; after the torture, 
when naked upon the scaffold, ready to 
be mangled with hot pincers and cut in 
pieces, the skin of his chest being torn 
off, he uttered these proud and melan- 
choly words : Mors acerba, fama per- 
petual stabit vetus memoria facti. 

The present church of Saint Stephen, 
embellished by Cardinal Federico Bor- 
romeo, has some valued paintings : St. 
Gervase and St. Protase, by Bevilac- 
qua, ia a tolerably good style, despite 

In studiis litlerarum grascarum 


Qui viiit annos LXXXVII mens. V. 

Et obiit anno Cliiisli MDX1. 

Joaunea Georgius Trissinus, Gasp, Alius, 

the violation of the rules of perspective ; 
the second good Holy family, by Bianchi; 
the painting of the Trivulzio chapel, by 
Camillo Procaccini ; a St. John the 
Evangelist, by his brother Cesare. 

Saint Barnabas is of a good architec- 
ture, attributed to the Father Antonio 
Morigia, a great preacher, afterwards 
bishop and cardinal. A. Dead Christ is 
an esteemed work of Aurelio Luini, who 
has not always preserved the nature and 
grace of his father Bernardino. The 
Virgin with the Infant Jesus, St. Ca- 
therine, and St. Agnes is superb, by 
Antonio Campi; St. Bartholomew, St. 
Francis, St. Bernardin, of a beautiful 
composition, by Lomazzo. 

Santa Maria della Pace, which was 
converted into a military magazine, and 
subsequently into a factory, has still 
some remains of the frescos of Marco 
d'Oggiono, the pupil and friend of Leo- 
nardo, of Gaudenzio Ferrari, and other 
clever painters. At the ancient refec- 
tory of the convent are a Crucifixion by 
this same artist, and the copy of the Last 
Supper, executed at twenty-two years of 
age by the learned and unfortunate Lo- 
mazzo, perhaps some little time before 
his cruel blindness. 

Nostra Signora di San Celso, with 
the marble columns, fine statues, and 
sculptures decorating its front, the mag- 
nificent paintings and frescos of the roof 
and chapels, the richness of the orna- 
ments, has already all the grandeur and 
splendour of the churches of Rome. The 
majestic court is by Bramante, the front 
by Galeas Alessi. At the entrance, the 
two statues of Adam and Eve, by the 
Tuscan sculptor Lorenzo Stoldi, have the 
grace and purity of the statues of anti- 
quity. The two Sibyls of the fronton, 
the four statues of the prophets, the Pre- 
sentation of J. C, the angels on the top 
of the church, are excellent productions 
of Annibale Fontana. A Repose in 
Egypt, a very fine picture of Raphael, 
now at Vienna, must have made the re- 
semblance greater formerly. The silver 
cross and six silver candlesticks given by 
Joseph II. are a feeble compensation for 
such a loss.' It is not positively known 
whether the plan of this building is by 

Praeceptori op'imo ct saaclissimo 


1 This Repose in Egypt has been engraved in a 

superior manner by a pupil of I.onghi. S. Ado Fio- 

ionl, and II procured i,im. in 1329, the gold medil 




I Book 

Bramante or Gobbo. The Martyrdom 
of St. Nazarius and St. Celsus, a Des- 
cent from the Cross, are by Cesare Pro- 
caccini, who also made the two marble 
angels putting the crown on the Virgin's 
head. Two Martyrdoms of St. Cathe- 
rine are by Cerano. The great painting 
of the altar is very fine; it is by Paris 
Bordone, as well as the two prophets and 
St. Rock painted in fresco, above and 
below. The Resurrection of the Sa- 
viour, easy and original, is by Antonio 
Campi. The St. Maximus, an Assump- 
tion, the Christ leaving his mother at 
the moment of the Passion, — a painting 
which, according to Lanzi, loses nothing 
by being placed near the best Lombard 
works in this church, — are by Urbini. 
The Baptism of Christ, accurate and 
graceful, with a very fine glory of an- 
gels, is by Gaudenzio Ferrari; a St. 
Jerome seated, by Calisto Piazza ; the 
Conversion of St. Paul, superb, by 
Moretto, who contrary to his custom has 
signed it, as if he attached particular 
importance to this picture ; an Assump- 
tion, by Camillo Procaccini. A St. Se- 
bastian is attributed to Correggio. A 
group of angels well disposed is by Pam- 
filio Nuvolone. There are some small 
figures in claro-obscuro executed in per- 
fection by Giovanni da Monte, a pupil of 

The frescos on the cupola by Appiani, 
representing the four Evangelists and 
the four fathers of the Church, with an- 
gels and clouds, are one of the most 
etherial and most boasted productions of 
this brilliant decorator. 

The statues put in the niches are by 
the clever Lorenzo Stoldi, with the ex- 
ception of the St. John by Fontana, who 
is also the author of the statues and 
basso-relievos in the chapel of the Virgin. 
The stalls of the choir, of great beauty, 
were designed by Galeas Alessi. 

The elegant front of St. Paul's is by 
Cerano, not less clever in architecture 
than in painting; the nave is probably 
by Galeas Alessi. St. Charles and St. 
Ambrose is one of the irreprochable 
productions of Cerano, and even superior 
for colouring to the after-mentioned paint- 
ings by the Campi, who however are sin- 
gularly brilliant in this church. These 
paintings are : the Martyrdom of St. 

at die eitilblllou of the Academy of lino arts at 

Laurence, the Beheading of St. John, 
the Fall and the Death of St. Paul ; 
the Baptism of the same saint; the 
Miracle of the dead man brought to 
life, a Nativity, by Antonio ; the Virgin, 
the Infant Jesus, St. Joseph, and some 
other figures, by Giulio; the Saviour 
giving the keys to St. Peter, by Bernar- 
dino, who does not seem of this family. 

The church of Saint Euphemia, re- 
markable for its beautiful portico of the 
Ionic order in front, has : the Adoration 
of the Magi, by Fernando Porta, an 
unequal painter and an imitator of Cor- 
reggio ; a Presentation in the temple, 
sublime and well designed, by an un- 
known hand ; and the picture of the Vir- 
gin, with angels and saints, one of the 
best works of Marco d' Aggiono. 

The basilick of Saint Nazarius, built 
in 382, received the body of the saint 
from Saint Ambrose. Before entering 
this edifice, you must cross the mauso- 
leum of Giovanni Jacopo Trivulzio and 
his family ; opposite the door, and almost 
midway between the lofty ceiling and 
the floor, is the tomb of this adventurous 
Italian,— this celebrated marshal, who 
created the French militia, and died in 
disgrace at Chartres or Arpajon as a lord 
of the French court,— and on it is inscrib- 
ed the epitaph composed by himself :— 
Joannes Jacobus Trivultius, Antonii 
filius, qui nunquam quievit, quiescit. 
Tace. The other tombs of the family, 
seven in number, are of the same height 
The effect of these great suspended stone 
coffins is very singular ; they really seem 
as if they aspired to bear even to the 
skies the "magniflque temoignage de 
notre ne'ant;"' but these tombs are 
empty, and in accordance with the rule 
established by the council of Trent res- 
pecting burial, Saint Charles had the 
bones of the Trivulzio transferred to the 
vaults under the church. At one of the 
chapels the tomb of Manfred Settala, a 
mechanician, somewhat pompously sur- 
named the Archimedes of Milan; a man 
whose travels and whole life were de- 
voted to the sciences, letters, and arts, 
contrasts with the warlike tomb of the 
Trivulzio. The paintings are : an As- 
sumption, by Lanzani, and four large 
and good paintings of Giovanni da Monte 
in the inner portal ; a very fine Last 

Chap. IV. ] 



supper by Bernardino Lanino, an imi- 
tation of the one by Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
his master, at the church della Passione. 
The chapel of Saint Catherine, ad- 
joining Saint Nazarius, and built after 
the design of Bramante, is still remark- 
able for the expressive and picturesque 
frescos, executed in 1546, by Bernardino 
Lanino, representing the Martyrdom of 
the Saint, and which leave nothing to 
be wished, except a little more attention 
to the drapery; by a whim then common 
among artists, the painter has represent- 
ed below his master Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
in bis usual dress, disputing with another 
of his pupils, J. B. de la Cerva, while he 
himself in a black cap is attentively lis- 
tening to them. 

Saint Antony the Abbot is extremely 
remarkable for its paintings. The roof 
is by the brothers Carloni of Genoa, able 
fresco painters of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, who also worked in the choir with 
Moncalvo, whose St. Paul the Hermit 
maintains an honorable rank beside their 
1 works. A Conception, charming, is by 
Ambrose Figini; St. Charles with the 
holy nail, by Foi Galizia, a clever female 
painter of the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. A Nativity, the Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony, are by Camillo 
Procaccini ; a Descent from the Cross, 
a Resurrection, by Malosso. The Christ 
carrying his Cross, is by the younger 
Palma ; an Annunciation, by Cesare 
Procaccini, a graceful masterpiece, per- 
haps too graceful, in which the mutual 
and almost roguish smile of the Angel 
and the Virgin appears somewhat out of 
place. St. Gaetanus, an Assumption, 
are by Cerano. The Virgin, the Infant 
j Jesus, St. Catherine, St. Paul, a beau- 
tiful composition, is by Bernardino 
Campi : the glory of angels was added 
by Camiilo Procaccini, An Holy Ghost, 
judicious, but faint in the colouring, is 
I by Fiorentino. A Nativity, by Anni- 
i bale Carraccio, appears scarcely worthy 
j that great master. The Adoration of 
the Magi, by Morazzone, has all the ef- 
fect and luxury of drapery of the Vene- 
tian masters. 

The sacristy of the church of Saint 

Satyrius, in the shape of a little octagonal 

temple, is famed as a work of art : the 

I architecture, by Bramante, is worthy of 

I him; the heads, larger than nature, and 

| the little children, are the distinguished 

performances of Caradosso, a clever 

sculptor, and highly-spoken of as an en- 
graver, very much admired by Benve- 
nuto Cellini, who knew him at Home. 
The miraculous picture of the Virgin is 
of the eleventh century; the act of the 
madman who stabbed this image is by 
the cavaliero Ferruzzini, a good painter 
of Ancona, who died at Milan, and who 
was an imitator of the Carracci and 
Guido; the Flight into Egypt, by Fcde- 
rico Bianchi. St. Philip de Neri, pleas- 
ing and well designed, passes for one of 
the best paintings of Peroni. In another 
sacristy are some ancient paintings and 
a St. Barnabas, attributed to Bellraffio, 
an amateur and good Milanese painter 
of the sixteenth century, the pupil of 


Saint Sebastian.— Saint Alexander in Zebedia.— Paul 
Frizi. — Saint Eustorge.— Mausoleum of Saint Peler 
the Martyr.— George Merula— San la Maria delta 
Vittoria.— Columns, ctutrcu of Saint Laurence.— 
Monaster*) Maggiore. 

The church of Saint Sebastian, founr'ed 
by Saint Charles, from the plans of Pel- 
legrino, is one of the most splendid ar- 
chitectural monuments in Milan. The 
Martyrdom of the saint, by Bramante, 
is the best of his paintings in this city, 
and refutes the opinion of Cellini, who 
said that he had no talent for painting. 
The Annunciation, the Massacre of the 
Innocents, by Joseph Montalto, recall 
the elegance and grace of Guido, his 
master. St. Charles, St. Philip, a Cru- 
cifix with the Virgin, St. John and 
Magdalene, are by Francesco Bianchi 
and Antonio Ruggieri, painters of the 
eighteenth century, inseparable artists, 
who have left a better example of concord 
and friendship than of taste. 

Saint Alexander in Zebedia, in spite 
of the abominable taste of the front, is 
rich and magnificent. Divers incidents 
in the Life of the saint and of other 
martyrs, the Trinity, several subjects 
fromthe Old Testament, on the roof, in 
the choir, and at thehighaltar, are large 
and sublime paintings by Federico Bian- 
chi, Philip Abbiati, and of his expeditious 
pupil, Pietro Maggi. The paintings in 
a chapel adorned with exquisite sculp- 
tures, and two others relating to the 
Life of St. Alexander, pleasing works. 
full of expression, although somewhat 
elaborate, are by Agostino Saint Agos- 



[Book III, 

tino, the cleverest cf the three Saint 
Agostini. A good Nativity, the As- 
sumption, and a Crucifixion, are by 
Camillo Procaccini. There is a chape! 
painted by Ludovico Scaramuccia, a dis- 
tinguished pupil of Guido and Guercino; 
he was also a writer on the arts, being tt.e 
author of the book entitled Le Finezze 
de' pennelli italiani{on the superiority of 
the Italian pencil). The Beheading of 
St. John the Baptist, the Adoration 
of the Magi, very fine, in the sacristy, are 
by Daniel Crespi : the roof, composed of 
graceful little angels, is by Moncalvo. 
Saint Alexander contains a splendid 
tomb, erected to the memory of the ce- 
lebrated mathematician and natural phi- 
losopher Paul Frisi by Count Pietro 
Verri, a noble Milanese, like this Barna- 
bite, a partisan and propagator of new 
notions on social improvement. 

Saint Eustorge, uniformly restored by 
Ricchini, is one of the oldest churches in 
Milan. On the outside, at the entrance, 
is the pulpit, a kind of large stone gal- 
lery, from which, according to the in- 
scription, Saint Peter the Martyr refuted 
the heretics of his lime. These religious 
traditions are touching; no one knows 
what has become of the pulpits of Bos- 
suet and Massillon ; the religious faith of 
ihe middle ages was less indifferent and 
ungrateful to its great men than the ra- 
tionalism of our enlightened civilisation. 
The mausoleum of this saint, executed 
by Giovanni di Balduccio of Pisa, is a 
very curious remnant of the art in the 
fourteenth century. It is the master- 
piece of one of those primitive artists 
who were so full of nature and truth; 
the Gothic Caryatides which represent 
the different virtues of the saint and sup- 
port the whole structure, arc a combina- 
tion of boldness and grace ; the oddity of 
some of the details belongs to the epoch 
and not to the artist, and this work would 
be perfect if imagination at that period 
had been regulated by taste. The archi- 
tecture of the chapel of Saint Peter, 
founded by Pigello Portinari, a clerk of 
Cosmo di Medici, seems by Mithelozzi : 
a painting of the lime represents the 
pious and industrious founder kneeling 
before the saint; the ceiling is one of the 
fine frescos of the elder Civerchio. A 
mausoleum ornamented with columns 
supported by lions, of the close of the 
thirteenth century, was devoted by Mat- 
thew Yisconti the Great to one of his 

sons, Stephen, who by his courage had 
contributed to retrieve his father's for- 
tune. The altar of the first chapel, in 
three compartments, representing the 
Virgin, the Infant Jesus, St. James 
and St. Henry, is a good painting by 
Ambrosio Borgognonc : the head of the 
last saint is the best. The very fine roof 
of the chapel of Saint Vincent is by Carlo 
Urbini. The chapel erected in 1307 by 
Cassone Torrione, in which his son Mar< 
tin reposes, has a Beheading of St. John, 
in good keeping, although executed by 
the hands of three painters, Cesare, Ca- 
millo, and Antonio Procaccini. There 
are some fine frescos by Daniel Crespi in 
the chapel of the Annunciation. The 
bodies of the three Magi, which are still 
worshipped at Cologne, were in a chapel 
at Saint Eustorge, whence they were 
taken, in the invasion of Federico Bar- 
barossa, by the archbishop of Cologne 
who accompanied the conqueror. On 
the wall of this chapel is a basso-relievo 
in marble of the Passion, a work of the 
fourteenth century, author unknown, 
which is destitute of neither simplicity 
nor grace, and shows that the arts at that 
early period had made great progress in 
Lombardy. The coffin which held the 
doubtful and pompous relic still remains 
atSaintEustorgewiththestrange inscrip- 
tion : — Sepulchrum trium Magorum. 
Near the sacristy is the tomb of George 
Merula, the pupil and mortal enemy of 
Philelphus; Ihe adversary of Politian, 
Calderino, and Galeotti Marzio ; one of 
the best and most disputatious scholars 
of the revival of the arts, who treated 
printing as a barbarous invention (bar- 
barum inventum), a paradox since main- 
tained by other Morulas less erudite 
that this laborious critic and historian. 
The tomb of this good hater was, how- 
ever, erected to his memory by a friend, 
his pupil, the poet Lancinus Curtius : 
the inscription he has put thereon is even 
somewhat touchiug. 1 

The church of Santa Maria della 
Vittoria owes its name to the victory 
gained near it by the Milanese over the 
emperor Louis the Bavarian. Though 
not finished on the outside, it is of beau- 
tiful architecture, and thought to be by 
Bernini. There are two remarkable 

' Visi aliis inter spinas, mundique procellas. 
Nunc hospes ccell Merula vivo niibi. 
Lancinus Curiius t. amicus posult. 

Chap. V.] 



I paintings : St. Charles administering 
\the communion to persons smitten with 
Ithe plague, by Giacinto Brandi; and 
[St. Peter delivered from prison, a 
[painting executed at Rome, where the 
author, Ghisolfi, an excellent perspective 
painter, was attending the lessons of 
Salvator Rosa. The angels supporting 
this painting are an excellent production 
of Antonio Raggi, called the Lombard, 
a clever pupil of Bernini. 

The sixteen antique columns of Saint 
Laurence, uniform and placed abreast, 
exhibit a superb wreck and prove the 
grandeur, the importance, and the magni- 
ficence of Milan in the olden lime. These 
beautiful columns, probably transferred 
from some antique edifice to their present 
position, are even higher than those of the 
Pantheon : one might really imagine 
them erected there as a portico to the 
ruins and ancient monuments of Italy. 

The present church of Saint Laurence 
was rebuilt by Saint Charles from the 
bold and noble designs of Martine Bassi. 
The Baptism of Christ by Aurelio 
Luini seems worthy of Bernardino ; the 
Assumption is by Rivola, one of the best 
pupils of Abbiati. The chapel of Saint 
Anthony was painted by Federico Bian- 
chi, Lcgnani, Molina, Vimercati, the last 
a clever pupil of Ercole Procaccini. A 
Visitation, by Bianchi, is altogether 
worthy of this favoured disciple of Cesare 
Procaccini. The chapel of Saint Aquila 
has a martyrdom otSt. Hippolytus and 
St. Cassian, by Ercole Procaccini. In 
the sacristy, Jesus Christ appearing to 
St. Thomas, by Giambattisla della Cer- 
va, expressive, animated, and harmoni- 
ous, is one of the best paintings of Gau- 
denzio Ferrari's school. 

Saint George al Palazzo, an old 
church restored, takes its title, it is said, 
from the ancient palace of Trajan or 
Maximian having been in Us Yicinity. 
There is a St. Jerome by Gaudenzio 
Ferrari. The different subjects of the 
Passion, painted by Bernardino Luini 
and his pupils, present a happy effect of 
light. The countenance of the Saviour 
in the Flagellation is admirably affecting. 

Over the portal of Saint Sepulchre, the 
Dead Christ between the Marys, a fresco 
by Bramantino, the favorite pupil of Bra- 

mante, has a wonderful effect in the per- 
spective : the legs of the Saviour, from 
whatever point they are viewed, seem 
turned towards the spectator, the first in- 
stance of this kind of tour de force which 
has since been so frequently attempted. 
In the subterranean oratory, made fa- 
mous by the fervent meditations of Saint 
Charles, the Christ crowned with thorns 
is an admirable work of Bernardino 
Luini. I Some statues of burnt clay, by 
Caradosso, representing the Virgin in 
a swoon at the sight of her dead son, 
with the Marys and some saints, form a 
very pathetic scene. 

On the heavy front of Saint Mary 
Porta, the basso-relievo in marble of 
the Crowning of the Virgin is a fine 
work by Carlo Simonetta, who has also 
in the interior a good Magdalene, to 
whom an angel is administering the 
communion. There is a St. Joseph 
by Ludovico Quaini, a distinguished 
pupil and imitator of Guercino and Cig- 
nani ; the Adoration of the Magi in the 
chapel of the Madonna is by Camillo 

The church of Saint Maurice, or the 
Monastero Maggiore, the marble front 
of which, simple and in good taste, is at- 
tributed to Bramantino, has many admi- 
rable frescos of Bernardino Luini ; the 
principal of them represent the Apostles, 
the Flagellation of the Saviour, and 
divers incidents in the lives of Martyrs. 
The Adoration of the Magi, at the high 
altar, by Antonio Campi, a Deposing 
of the Cross, by Piazza, are excellent 


Saint Ambrose. — Ancient and modern pulpits. — 
Serpent. — Paliolto. — Mosaic. — Anspert, — Chapel 
of Murcellina. — Missal. — Monastery. 

The church of Saint Ambrose, the 
oldest monument of Christian antiquity 
at Milan, erected in 387, by the great 
saint whose name it bears, presents a 
real chaos of architecture ; these works 
of various and remote ages compose a 
shocking medley : the Italian architects 
are too often guilty of the fault of not 
paying attention to the primitive cha- 

1 Six precious frescos of this great master, his 
sons, and pupils, are preserved in an adjacent house, 
now the liin of the Cross of Malta ; they were taken 

thither in 1786 from the oratory of the hospital of 
the Holy Crown, which was removed at that lime. 



[Book I nM 

racier of the edifices when repairing 
them, which is never the case with good 
architects in France. ■ Before the church 
is one of those spacious courts which the 
architects of the middle ages had already 
imitated from those of antiquity, and 
which are found before many of the Ita- 
lian churches. It was there that, during 
the existence of paganism, the profane 
remained, and where, in aftertimes, the 
rigorous public penances of the early 
ages of the church took place. There is 
something religious in the aspect of these 
old porticoes, and they nobly separate 
the sanctuary from the tumult of cities. 
Some portions of this portico of the ninth 
century evince a taste and imagination 
singularly remarkable at that epoch. I 
regretted that, according to some anti- 
quarians, the present gates are not those 
which Saint Ambrose shut against, Theo- 
dosius, after the massacre of Thessalo- 
nica, * when liberty had fled to religion 
for refuge; when the remonstrances and 
acts of its ministers, men elected by the 
people, were the only resource, the only 
opposition against absolute power and the 
violence of the emperors. With these tra- 
ditions before us, it is easy to conceive why 
the republican conspirator of Milan, por- 
trayed by Machiavel, at the moment of 
delivering his country from the tyrant Ga- 
leas, in company with hisaccomplicesin- 
voked Saint Ambrose, after having heard 
mass and contemplated his statue. 3 

In this church there is an immense old 
pulpit of marble, opposite to the modern 
one; it is pretty much like the gallery 
used by the Romans, in which the orators 
had room to walk about. It struck me, 
while contemplating it, that in form 
as well as independence, the Christian 
pulpit had replaced the suggestum of 
earlier days. These old pulpits are in 
much better taste than the kind of deal 
box suspended in our churches, above 
which rises a man who twists and agi- 
tates himself and seems ill at ease in so 
narrow a space. Were not one habi- 
tuated to this manner of 
would appear a very singular exhibition. 

In the nave of Saint Ambrose is placed 

For instance, the beautiful restoration of the 
Louvre by MM. Percler and Fontaine, of the palace 
of Fontainebleau by Fleurtaud, and even the works 
of the Palais-Royal M. Fontaine could easily have 
surpassed the Indifferent architecture of these 
buildings, but he has made the new constructions 
correspond vt lib the old. 

on a column the famous brazen serpe 
that some have gone so far as to take f 
the one Moses raised in the desert, or 


least made of the same metal, and rfjtiM 
which the learned have discussed at sue 
a prodigious length. The populace a*4W 
persuaded that it will hiss at the end ••«»( 
the world ; and the sexton one day i i«A 
dusting it having somewhat deranged i ini* 
the alarm become general when the om vj * 
nous reptile was seen turned toward W" 
the door; it was necessary to put it rigt 
immediately, in order to allay the t«r b&W 
rors of those who already thought the Vh 
heard it. om al 

Such is theantiquily of the monument itfjt! 
of this church, that the father Allegranz; Jtfi 
pretended to recognise in the great sar m 
cophagus of white marble placed undei ustdil 
the present pulpit, the tomb of Stilicor H 
and his wife Serena. On a pilaster is an wtti 
antique portrait of SaintAmbrose, which, ftol 
according to the inscription, a barbarous 
Latin quatrain, was taken from life; the] 
marble of the countenance is black, thai 
head attire and the garment of a lighter 
shade. Saint Ambrose, being born in 
Gaul, must have been white, and it !«_,„, 
difficult to image to one's self the bees de- <tm 
positing their honey in the mouth of this fres 
species of blackamoor. 

The celebrated gold Paliotto of the 
altar, give by the archbishop Angilberto 
Pusterla, a wonderful production of a 
Lombard artist of the tenth century, the 
goldsmith Volvino, is deemed worthy to 
be compared to the finest ivory diplychs 
which the sacred museums boast. 

Beyond the choir two large slabs of 
while marble, covered with inscriptions, 
point out the burial place of the emperor 
Lewis II., a conqueror and lawgher, 
who died in 875, and that of the illus- 
trious archbishop of Milan, Anspert. his 
contemporary, the founder of Saint Am- 
brose, a charitable, active, and enligh- 
tened pontiff, full of courage and inde- 

Effector voti, propositiijue tenai, 

as his epitaph says, 4 and who seems to 

■ It is said that these gales are only of the ninth 

3 see the address of Giovanni Andreo to the statue 
of Salut Ambrose, booli vii. of the History of Flo- 

4 The verses preceding this give u good sketch of 
the character of Anspert : 



If II 

I % 






AP. V. ] 



te the Saint Charles Borromeo of the 
-fo ddle ages. 

^aThe curious mosaic of the choir, re- 
oiesenting the Saviour on a golden 
uclrone embellished with precious stones, 
arid beside him Saint Gervase and Saint 
'O'otase, appears to be the work of some 
"reek artists of the eleventh century. 
i-Ujnolher mosaic, of the ninth century, is 
roij'ry curious : Saint Ambrose has fallen 
'I Icep while saying mass, and a sacristan 
'A striking him on the shoulder to waken 
'■ m and show him the people waiting. 
ilfhat a singular moment for the artist 

make choice of in the life of this great 

flint! It is known that Fenelon fell 

a Jeep during the sermon ; Saint A mbrose 

' deep standing before the altar is still 

ss edifying. On the external wall of 

ie choir, the Christ in his agony sup- 

orted by two angels, an affecting fresco, 

ne of the best paintings of this basilic, 

tough attributed to both Luini, and 

anino, appears to be by Ambrosio Bor- 


The chapel of Saint Satyr or of Saint 
'ictor in ciel oVoro, thus called from the 
nlique and brilliant gilt mosaic which 
■ urmounls it, has some lively and spirited 
escos, representing the Shipwreck of 
ft. Satyr and the Martyrdom of St. 
r ictor, the work of Tiepolo, the last 
f the great painters of the Venetian 
chool, to whom Bettinelli dedicated his 
oem on painting, in which he praises 
iim for having revived the masterpieces 
nd the golden age of his art. 
The rich chapel near it has : St. Am- 
brose receiving the viaticum, one of the 
lestworksof AndreoLanzani; the chapel 
f Saint Sebastian, the Saint unbound 
rom the stake, a beautiful production of 
Lmbrosio Besozzi. 

The chapel Marcellina, formerly Saint 
latherine's, has been since decorated 
villi all the elegance of modern art by 
he Marquis Cagnola, • a celebrated Mi- 
mese architect, author of the arch of 
he Simplon ; the statue of the saint in 
larble is a beautiful work of Pacetti. 
tut has not the painter of the embellish- 
icnts thought proper to place large 
gures from Herculaneum on the roof, 

Die jnrct Anspertus, nostra: clarissimus urbls 
Antistes, uta, voce, pudore, fide, 
•£qui sectator, turba> prelargus egenee. 

be other verses of the epitaph recapitulate the 
•inctpal acts of this great man's life, who is for- i 

which form a strange contrast with the 
holiness of the place and the modest air 
of the saint ! One of these figures carries 
a lamb on its head, and in this whimsical 
picture the Iamb of the bacchanals may 
have beeu often taken for the paschal 

The chapel of Saint Bartholomew 
has that saint and St. John before 
the Virgin, by Gaudenzio Ferrari. 
Near them, the Dead Christ with the 
Virgin, the Magdalene weeping, and 
other figures, is but a superb wreck of 
a painting by the same artist. In an 
adjoining chapel, the Madonna dell' 
ajuto is a good painting of the Luini 
school. At the entrance of the sacristy 
are two remarkable frescos : Jesus dis~ 
puting with the doctors, by Borgo- 
gnone ; the Virgin, the Infant Jesus, 
St. Ambrose and St. Jerome, of the 
old Milanese school. In the chapel 
beyond, a Nativity, by Duchino, is gra- 
cious, well drawn, and full of morbi- 
dezza; the figures around and the roof 
are by Ercole Procaccini. On the altar 
of the chapel of Saint Peter, the Christ 
giving the keys to the saint, is a dis- 
tinguished work by the daughter of Cor- 
nara. The paintings on the cupola of 
the last mentioned chapel, by Isodoro 
Bianchi, are fine. 

The Missal preserved in the archives of 
the basilic of Saint Ambrose, a vellum 
manuscript of the end of the fourteenth 
century, is splendid and curious : the 
chief ornament is a rich miniature re- 
presenting the coronation of Giovanni 
Galeas Visconti, as first duke of Milan. 
Among the ambassadors and persons of 
importance who attended Galeas in the 
procession and assisted at the ceremony, 
may be remarked a bishop of Meaux in 
the quality of ambassador of the king of 

The vast monastery built by Lewis the 
Moor from the plans of Bramante, an 
edifice of an architecture at once striking 
and noble, a real monument, and one of 
the most splendid of its kind, is now a 
military hospital. In the refectory a 
vast fresco representing the Marriage 
of Cana, is the masterpiece of Calisto 

gotten in most or the historical dictionaries. It is 
there remarked that be rebuilt the walls of the 
town, and restored the antique columns of Saint 
' Died August 24, 1833. 



Book lit. 

Piazza, a clever imitator of Titian and 
probably bis pupil. This composition 
has however one strange peculiarity; the 
artist has put six fingers to the hand of 
a woman on the right side of the 


Saiol Victor.— Santa Maria (telle Grazie.— Ccr-naru- 
lum. — Saint Angelo. — Count Firmian. — Saint 
Mark. -Church of the Garden.— Saiut Fidclls. 

Saint Victor al corpo, a fine majestic 
church, is of the architecture of Galeas 
Alessi. On the cupola St. John and 
St. Luke are superb compositions by 
Bernardino Luini; the roof of the choir 
is by Ambrosio Figini, who has also 
painted a beautiful St. Benedict, in a 
chapel; the roof of the centre and a 
St. Bernard, on the door, are by 
Ercolc Procaccini ; a good Saint Peter 
is by Gnocchi. In the splendid chapel 
of Aresi, from the designs of Quadri, the 
statue of the Virgin and the prophets, 
by Vismara, are esteemed. The last 
chapel on the right has three fine paint- 
ings by Camillo Procaccini, representing 
certain scenes in ihe life of Saint Gre- 
gory ; the Virgin, and St. Francis, 
by Zoppo, a painter correct in colour- 
ing, but too imaginative; St. Paul the 
Hermit, by Daniel Crespi ; St. Ber- 
nard Tolomei, by Pompe Batoni, a 
Roman painter of the last century, 
who contributed to the reformation of 
taste; St. Benedict, St. Bernard, St. 
Francis, and St. Dominick, near the 
entrance, pass for the best works of the 
Cavalicro del Cairo. Santa Maria delle 
Grazie scarcely retains the shadow of 
her primitive beauty. The majestic cu- 
pola, the choir, and the semicircular 
chapels of the sides are by Uramante. 
The remains of the Flagellation, and of 
other paintings of Gaudcnzio Ferrari, 
still bear witness of their ancient per- 
fection; a St. John the Baptist is at- 
tributed to Count Francesco d'Adda, a 
noble amateur or the sixteenth century, 
who imitated Leonardo Vinci; the fine 
frescos on the cupola of Ihe choir belong 
to the school of this great master. In 

■ The faithfulness of this copy has been much 
diluted. The clever Roman mosaist, Hafaelli, has 
had the good sense to approach nearer the original. 

' Cardinal Frederick contided its preservation to 
a pupil or Giulio Cesarc rrocaccini, Andrea Uiancbl, 
surnamed Yeapino. 

the sacristy the anonymous paintings re- 
presenting subjectsfromtbe Old and New 
Testaments, are curious, and particularly 
remarkable for the end of the fourteenth 
century and the beginning of the fif- 

The Ccenaculum, by Leonardo Vinci, 
placed in the refectory of the old mo- 
nastry of Santa Maria delle Grazie, is 
not so difficult to be recognised as 1 
should have thought ; through the mists 
of ruin that envelope it, and the bung- 
ling retouching it has undergone, one 
may still discover the spirit, expression, 
variety, and life of this admirable compo- 
sition. The enthusiasm that it caused 
in the victorious Francis I., may easily 
be conceived, who, as he could not carry 
it to France, took the author with him 
and cultivated his friendship, though at 
that period he was advanced in years. 
Parini, an ingenious and elegant Italian 
contemporary poet, would have himself 
carried in his latter days, before the Coe- 
naculum; he said that a man capable of 
such a conception could have produced 
a poem ; the sight of these fine paintings, 
in spite of their damaged condition, ex- 
cited and fed the pious musings which 
alleviated his sorrows, and, if death had 
not intervened, he would have described 
and explained them. A mosaic of the 
Last Supper, after an oil copy by Bossi, 
placed in the pinacotheca of Brera, al- 
though executed in 1809 at the expense 
of the Italian government, has been sent 
to Vienna : ■ S. Gagna, an esteemed 
painter, made a new copy of it, in 1827, 
for the king of Sardinia. This lardy 
homage of kings, conquerors, and em- 
perors, seems some reparation for i he 
barbarous abandonment in which the 
Dominicans had formerly left the Carna- 
culum, of which the great Cardinal Fe- 
derico Borromeo already regretted that 
he had only found some slight remains 
which he endeavoured to save j » and of 
revolutionary outrages inflicted in 1797 
on this masterpiece of Leonardo, when 
the apartment which contains it served 
as a stable and granary. 

Saint Thomas in terra amara, an in- 
auspicious surname of doubtful origin, 3 

3 It is supposed by some to be derhed from the 
punishment inflicted by Giovanni Maria Viscouli on 
a priest of this church, whom he had interred alhe 
for refusing to bury a person whose family were 
not able to pay the expenses, nonevcr, the name 
appears to he of older date. 



J 9 

has been recently embellished with an 
elegant pronaos. The fine St. Charles 
with angels is by Cesare Procaccini. 

The ancient gothic church of Santa 
Maria del Carmine, has a portal of rich 
composition, attributed to Ricchini. In 
the Grst chapel, the Virgin with the 
Infant Jesus and several saints is by 
Camillo Procaccini. The statue of the 
Virgin, with the angels, is an excellent 
work of Volpi. In the chapel of Saint 
Anne, a fine fresco by Bernardino Luini 
represents the Virgin, the Infant Jesus, 
and some saints. 

Saint Simplician, Gothic, has an An- 
nunciation, by Bernardo da Trevilio, 
the friend of Leonardo, the architecture 
and perspective of which are clever, but 
the figures and drapery of a miserable 
taste ; St. Benedict is by Talpino ; 
two subjects from the Old Testament, 
in (he chapel of the Corpus Domini, are 
by Camillo Procaccini. The paintings of 
the dome are admired ; the two great 
paintings of the chancel, by Francesco 
Terzi, a Bergamese artist of the sixteenth 
century, though somewhat dry in the 
designing, are effective in the colouring. 
The Crowning of the Virgin, in the 
choir, is an excellent fresco by Am- 
brosio Borgognone. 

Santa Maria incoronata, composed 
of two churches, has some fine basso- 
relievos of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries; the frescos of the roof are by 
Ludovico Scaramuecia ; the lateral fres- 
cos, by Ercole Procaccini and Montalto. 
There is a fine mausoleum of Giovanni 
Tolentino, who died in 1517; it bears a 
touching epitaph, expressing his fare- 
well to his wife and children. ' 

Saint Angelo, a majestic church, which 
was for a lime converted into an hospital, 
still has some good paintings: the Mar- 
riage of the Virgin, by Camillo Procac- 
cini, who has also done the ceiling of 
the choir and the three paintings which 
adorn it ; the side fresccs are by Barab- 
bino; the Virgin surrounded by saints, 
by Caravaggino ; the Christ between the 
two thieves, by Bramantino; a head of 
the Saviour, a small fresco, from its 
beauty attributed to Bernardino Luini. 

The architecture of the church of Saint 
Bartholomew is magnificent, but defi- 

1 Toga et armis vale Tydea conjux, valete Iiberl, 
nee In delnecps conjux nee vos eiilis libcii Joannis 
Tollentinalls senat. com. eq. q. MDXVII. 

» One of tUcui, Pagano della Torre, who died in 

cicnt in taste. The illustrious Firmian, 
who for twenty -three years conducted the 
government of Lombardy in so wise and 
paternal a manner, reposes in this church ; 
the mausoleum of this friend of letters, 
arts, sciences, and humanity, is a supe- 
rior production of the sculptor Franchi. 

Saint Mark is superb. Several of its 
paintings have great reputation : the 
Virgin, and the Infant Jesus who is 
presenting the keys to Saint Peter with 
a politeness somewhat singular, is by 
Lomazzo ; a St. Barbe, the colouring of 
which is beautiful, by Scaramuecia. 

The chapel of the Crucifix has some 
esteemed frescos by Ercole Procaccini, 
Montalto, and Busca; ^Crucifixion, by 
the last-named, with the Virgin, Mag- 
dalene, and St. John, weeping, is very 
moving. At the Trotty chapel are a 
St. Augustine, by Talpino, and some 
fine frescos, by Stefano Legnani. The 
rich high-altar has been tastefully em- 
bellished by professor Jocondo Alber- 
tolli. The two great pictures by Ca- 
millo Procaccini and Cerano, placed in 
the choir, opposite each other, are very 
beautiful; the one by the latter artist is 
generally preferred, the Baptism of St. 
Augustine. In the sacristy the Virgin, 
the Infant Jesus, St. Syrus, and St. 
Joseph, an excellent production of An- 
tonio Campi, bears the date of 1569. 

The little church of Saint Joseph, in a 
plain but good style of architecture, by 
Ricchini, has the Death of the Virgin 
by Cesare Procaccini ; a Holy Family, 
by Lanzani ; St. John the Baptist, by 
Montalto. The church of Saint Mary of 
the Garden, now turned into a storehouse 
for the city, is famous for the height and 
reputed wonders of the arches support- 
ing the roof, a singular structure of the 
fifteenth century, but extolled beyond its 

Saint John alle case rotte (of the de- 
molished houses) occupies the site of the 
palace of the Della Torre family, for- 
merly popular chiefs of the Milanese, de- 
magogues who grew into despots, => whose 
residence was pulled down in a riot in 
1311. The present building is by Ricchini, 
and the roof in compartments is very fine. 

The church of Saint Fidelis, unfi- 
nished, is a splendid monument of Pello- 

i2-'ii, seems to have been really loved by tbc Mila- 
nese, who erected him a tomb in the cemetery of 
the convent of Chiaravalle. See post, book iv. ch. li. 



[Boos III. 

grini. With an architectural extrava- 
gance altogether Italian, the richness of 
the front is continued with even greater 
splendour along the lateral wall of the 
edifice. The St. Ignatius is by Ce- 
rano ; a Transfiguration, by Bernardino 
Campi ; a Piety, by Peterzano, one of 
Titian's pupils, as his signature proudly 
testifies {Titiani discipulus). The paint- 
ings of the choir are great and good works 
of the brothers Santi-Agostini. The ma- 
jestic columns of polished, red granite 
from the quarries of Baveno, like the two 
gigantic pillars of the dome, are of a 
single stone : Milan is one of the richest 
of the Italian cities in this kind of mag- 
nificent rarities. 


Splendour of the Altors.— Closing of the churches In 
Italy.— Benches.— Hangings. 

The sumptuousness of the Italian 
churches, until one becomes used to it, 
appears truly wonderful . The altar and 
even the pulpit are sometimes set with 
agates and other precious stones. It 
must be difficult to speak in the midst 
of all these riches, and eloquent words 
must be requisite to touch an audience 
thus dazzled. I much fear that the pre- 
cept of Horace may be often applied to 
the sermons delivered in these pulpits, 

Segnius Irritant animus deniissa per aurem, 
Quam qua? sunt oculis subjecta lidelibus. 

Nevertheless, I have never shared the pre- 
judices of the economists against sump- 
tuousness in altars. This sumptuousness 
tends to neither corruption nor dissipa- 
tion like that of the world, but it is con- 
servative and useful. There are some 
ornaments^ also which can be appro- 
priated to no other purpose, such as 
precious stones ; it would be difficult to 
put these objects of national pride in 
circulation ; then, is it not better to place 
them on an altar, where they add to the 
majesty of religion and excite neither envy 
nor hatred, than to make them ornaments 
for the forehead of a courtisan or the 
sword of a despot? 

The churches of Italy are generally 
shut for some hours in the middle of the 
day, namely, from twelve to four or 
five. There are none open during the 
whole day but the cathedrals, such as the 
Duomo of Milan, Saint Mark of Venice, 

Saint Peter of Rome, and other basilics. 
This regulation of closing the churches 
has something of protestantism about it; 
it seems opposed to the religious manners 
of the Italians as well as to catholic 
usages; it is, moreover, inconvenient to 
travellers, who frequently have but little 
time to visit these churches, partly tem- 
ples, partly museums. The entrance of 
strangers is annoying to the worshippers, 
and not less disagreeable and painful to 
themselves. One feels uncomfortable 
and confused at finding oneself standing 
alone, guide-book in hand, in the midst 
of a crowd of persons kneeling and pray- 
ing, occupied in counting the columns of 
vert antique, Carrara marble, and lapis— 
lazuli, surrounded by half naked beggars. 
If you enter in the middle of a sermon, 
the embarrassment is not less ; the fire 
of the orator, the echoing bursts of his 
voice amid the silence of his auditory, 
the fierce and animated expression of his 
countenance, contrast strangely with the 
cool indifference and somewhat awkward 
air peculiar to persons who are gazing 
around as if seeking for something. 

How many limes has the piety and 
fervour of the worshippers appeared to 
me the better part ! And how vain the 
restless curiosity of the traveller beside 
the sublime simplicity of the believer! It 
would be adviseable to leave the morning 
to the services of worship; for noon, the 
time of closing, is the precise moment 
when the light is the most favourable for 
the paintings. Despite Italian indo- 
lence, a more serious consideration aught 
to put an end to this injudicious practice ; 
independently of the frequent need of 
prayer that the soul experiences, how 
many faults, crimes even, have been pre- 
vented by fortuitously entering a church! 
It is said that every body sleeps at that 
hour, but the unhappy and evil-doers 
sleep not, and the passions do not know 
a siesta. 

At a period when there has been so 
much talk of ultramontanism, our clergy 
would not do amiss to copy the Italians 
in the benches and the cleanliness of their 
churches ; France is the country perhaps 
where the Deity is worst templed, and 
our negligence on that point is a dis- 
credit to our high civilisation. 

But there is one excess of zealous at- 
tentions that I will take care not to pre- 
scribe, since itisone of the greatest vexa- 
tions for the traveller. I allude to the 

Chap. VIII.] 



mania which possesses the Italians for 
hanging their churches on holydays. On 
the eve of such days, the upholsterer, 
armed with his hammer and ladders, 
takes possession of the monument ; curi- 
ous inscriptions, tombs of great men, all 
disappear under his hangings; magnifi- 
cent columns of granite and Carrara 
marble are smothered under his tinselry ; 
and there may be seen hanging on the 
front or to the vaulted roof of some old 
basilic, or elegant temple of Bramante, 
Palladio, or Michael Angelo, long strips 
of various stuffs, yellow, white, pink, etc., 
as at the shop fronts of our linendrapers. 
This ludicrous embellishment, applied 
wilh such bad taste, is the same to archi- 
tecture as paint is to the human face. I 
have even seen Saint Peter's decked out 
in this showy manner; it is true that the 
vastness of its vaults made the uphols- 
terer's task difficult enough, and that 
the little square bits of crimson cloth 
that he had put up against the walls were 
hardly perceptible. The noisy labours 
of this artisan sometimes not being com- 
pleted when the fete begins, are an- 
noyingly continued during the services, 
while on other occasions, he is in such 
haste that he begins to take down his 
finery before they are concluded, lest the 
brilliancy of such fine colours should be 



The jests of some travellers on the 
grimaces, exaggerations, and buffooneries 
of the Italian preachers appeared to me 
unmerited. Withtheexception, perhaps, 
of some popular sermons, their preaching 
is in general quiet and familiar ; but, 
though inclining to a species of gossip, 
it has at least the merit of being applicable 
and practical. Notwithstanding the great 
crucifix in the pulpit, these sermons are 
but little less cold than our own ; but the 
musical language and animated phy- 
siognomy of the speaker give them 
an appearance of warmth and vivacity. 
If among the orators of the Italian pulpit, 
there is none to oppose to the four emi- 
nent ones of France, the style of their 
panegyrics seems preferable to ours : they 
have neither the same dryness nor mo- 
notony ; they are more ornate and 
poetic, like their other sacred harangues ; 
and this kind of embellishment is not un- 

suitable to the marvellous histories of the 
greater part of the saints of both sexes. 
Besides, the end of the preaching in the 
two countries is essentially different ; in 
Italy faith and errors in conduct are com- 
mon ; there are but few properly called 
libertins ( freethinkers ), and the Confe- 
rences of M.Frayssinous, although trans- 
lated, will be less serviceable than at 
Paris. The preacher must combat the 
passions and frailties of the upper classes, 
and the excesses, and the impetuous, 
degraded appetites of the populace j while 
argumentative preachers are necessary 
for the more moral, but more incredulous", 
population of France. 

The reformer of the Italian pulpit was 
the father Segneri, a Jesuit and contem- 
porary of Bourdaloue ; but this Roman 
missionary, who was so powerful over the 
people of the provincial towns and villa- 
ges, when named theologian ofthe palace 
and preaching at the Vatican, fell short 
of himself, and regretted his former pro- 
miscuous audience, nor has he impressed 
on his reform the correct literary taste of 
our orators of the age of Louis XIV., 
addressing an elegant and polished court. 
The genius of the Italian language, being 
less precise, less didactic, less regular, 
and far more metaphorical than the 
French, must always be better adapted 
for popular eloquence. I have heard some 
very good judges criticise the purism on 
which some ofthe modern Italian prea- 
chers pride themselves, who, instead of 
modulating harmonious and frigid ser- 
mons, would have done better had they 
remained missionaries. 

The natural simplicity and unrcstrain 
edness of the Italian character may be 
found even in their sermons; the au- 
dience, notwithstanding the solemnity of 
the place.hears without surprise effusions, 
avowals, and confidences, all personal to 
the orator ; and this description of sym- 
pathy produces in men of talent the efTects 
ofanewandmovingeloquence. Ayoung 
preacher, Fra Scarpa, of Padua, after 
having with success preached at Rome 
during Lent some years ago, entreated 
his audience to join their prayers to his 
for the welfare of his mother ; that was 
the only reward he asked for his labours, 
nor was it the only time that he had in- 
troduced the subject of his beloved mo- 
ther in the pulpit. After one discourse 
by this true orator, a collection was made 
for the poor, and, as it frequently hap- 


[Book I 

pens in Italy, the country people, who 
had no money, were seen to throw into 
the purse their rings and ear-rings, ordi- 
nary jewels, it is true, and of but little 
value, but the sacrifice of them showed 
to what an extent their owners were 
capable of having their feelings wrought 
upon. One can scarcely conceive a si- 
milar movement among our peasants of 
Gonesse or Villejuif. 

1 was fortunate enough to know at 
Rome one of the men who confer the 
greatest honour on the Italian pulpit, the 
reverend Fra Jaba\ol, procureur-general 
of the Dominicans of the Minerva, a 
Frenchman by origin, who would even 
have shone in France; he died in 1837. 
An ardent and most evangelical orator, 
Fra Jabalot was besides an able lo- 
gician ; I was told that he had learned 
English in three months, that he might 
translate a very fine sermon on faith, 
hope, and charity, delivered at the dedi- 
cation of the catholic chapel of Bradford, 
in Yorkshire, by Mr. Baines, bishop of 
Siga, a very excellent and most lucid 
recapitulation of the chief proofs of the 
truth of Catholicism, and throughout full 
of the tenderest charity towards the pro- 
testants. The Italian translation of Fra 
Jabalot is very correct, and it evinces 
that the original author, in more than 
one respect, resembles his eloquent in- 


Ambrosian Library.— Petrarch's Virgil.— Palimp- 
sesli. — Letters and hair of Lucrezia Borgia.— Mys- 
terious catalogue. 

I went several times every year to the 
Ambrosian Library, which was shown 
me by the abbes Mazzucchelli,- Bentivo- 
glio, and Mancini, director, subdirector, 
and clerk ; men full of learning, modesty, 
and politeness. It contains sixty thou- 
sand printed volumes, and about ten 
thousand manuscripts. 

The famous Yirgil of Petrarch, in which 
is his impassioned note on Laura, after 

» An apoplectic attack had produced on the abbe 
Mazzucchelli, in his latter days, a most extraordi- 
nary effect; It had untaught him how to read. I 
went one evening to his house, the day previous to 
one ofray visits to the library, whither he no longer 
went ; however, on the morrow he would be there, 
but he acknowledged that he could not even spell 
the name of I'etrarca, and to his death this learned 
librarian was unable to read. 

his death belonged to Galeas Visconti, 
fifth duke of Milan, as may be seen by 
his name, now almost effaced, written 
on the leaf detached in 1795 by the abbe 
Mazzucchelli. 2 

Another inscription by Petrarch, less 
noticed, regards the death of his natural 
son Giovanni, at the age of twenty-five, 
canon of Verona, who had robbed his 
father and given him much trouble. ' 
This Virgil seems the depository and 
confidant of Petrarch's sorrows. The 
curious miniatures, by the celebrated 
painter of Siena, Simon Memmi, as we 
are informed by a Latin distich, repre- 
sent Virgil seated, invoking the muses, 
and jEneas in a warrior's costume ; a 
shepherd and husbandman typify the 
Bucolics and the Georgics, and Servius, 
the commentator, is drawing back a thin 
curtain to indicate his explaining and 
removing the difficulties of the Latin 
poet. Though rather incorrect in the 
design, these miniatures, very probably 
executed from the ideas of Petrarch, a 
friend of the artist's, are deficient in 
neither originality, colour, nor truth: 
the figure of iEneas is one of the best. 
An inhabitant of Pavia succeeded in 
abstracting this precious volume, and 
in concealing it when that town was 
taken and the library carried away by 
Louis XII., in 1499; three centuries 
after it did not escape the commissioners 
of the republic : if it had made part of 
the literary booty of the monarchy, it 
would have remained with us like" the 
Sforzeide and other valuable articles of 
the same library now deposited in the 
Bibliotheque du Roi, and so well des- 
cribed by the good, learned, and cver- 
to-be-regretted Vanpraet ; but this pil- 
lage by the revolution had not twenty 
years' date ; that kind of political pres- 
cription which renders every thing lcgw 
timate was not acquired, so the volume 
was taken back in 1815. The marginal 
notes of Petrarch, and those on the 
bottom of the pages, seem rn the same 
handwriting as the note on Laura ; but 

* A fac simile of the eight lines of Petrarch's note 
is given in the edition of the Rime, published at 
Padua by Professor Marsand 1 1819-20, 2 vol. ) ; it is 
followed by some historical remarks and very accu- 
rate criticisms, in w hlch the professor rectifies se- 
veral errors committed by the writers who hud 
previously given the text. See 1. 1, p. 358. 

Giup. IX.] 



these lengthy and numerous notes, with 
quotations from other ancient authors 
and critical collations, must be little 
worthy of this erudite poet, since S. 
Mai has not thought them of sufficient 
importance to publish: Perhaps they 
are of Petrarch's youth, when his father 
snatched from him, and threw into the 
fire, the Virgil he was secretly reading, 
instead of studying the Decretales. 

The Josephus, translated by Ruffin, a 
priest of Aquilea, but which Muratori 
for good reasons thinks the work of one 
of the literati employed by Casssiodorus 
to translate from the Greek the works of 
antiquity, is perhaps, with the Gregorian 
papyrus of Monza, the most singular of 
the manuscripts written on papyrus and 
on both sides; according to Mabillon, it 
is now about twelve hundred years old. 

A Greek manuscript of a life of Alexan- 
der, without the author's name, thought 
by Monlfaucon to be Callisthenes, at 
first inspired me with unfeigned respect. 
I only knew Gallisthenes by the Lysi- 
maque of Montesquieu, that admirable 
portrait of Stoicism, of which Gallisthe- 
nes is as the hero and representative. 
The life of Alexander by a man of such 
talent and virtue, who had been so 
cruelly the victim of Alexander's wrath, 
seemed to me a veritable monument. 
The learned de Saint-Croix has since 
demonstrated that Callisthenes was only 
a rebellious courtier; being Alexander's 
historiographer, he had servilely main- 
tained his pretensions to divinity by a 
thousand fables, and subsequently, not 
thinking himself adequately rewarded, 
he became a conspirator. The History 
of Alexander, attributed to Callisthenes, 
copies of which are not scarce, S. Mai 
having published it, is nothing in fact 
but a long and wearisome romance full 
of improbabilities and absurdities. 

I could not suppress a species of lite- 

1 The manuscripts of Saint Colbmbnn de Bobbio 
amounted to seven hundred in number; half of 
them were sold to Cardinal Frederick ; the rest 
went to the Vatican. 

2 Every body has read the elegant translation of 
the Ilespublica by M. Yillemain, with his eloquent 
preliminary discourse. The learned labours of Pro- 
fessor Le Clerc, in reality the first editor of Cicero's 
complete works, on the Fragments, increased by 
these new discoveries, are almost a creation, from 
the order and connection which he has effected 
among these scattered shreds, so confusedly thrown 
.ogelher in preceding editions. Another French 
professor not less distinguished, M. Cousin, has 

rary emotion, on seeing, in a large square 
wooden chest, the celebrated palimpsesti 
of the pleadings of Cicero for Scaurus, 
Tullius, and Flaccus,— on the writing of 
which the poems of Ledulius, a priest of 
the sixth century, had been transcribed, 
— as well as several unpublished sen- 
tences of the discourses against Clodius 
and Curio, till lately covered over wilh 
a Latin translation of the acts of the 
council of Chalcedon; the first discoveries 
of S. Mai, and the prelude of his suc- 
cessful labours. In contemplating these 
old sheets, black and calcined, perforat- 
ed in some parts by the action of oxyge- 
nised muriaticacid, I loved toseemodern 
science rushing to the rescue of ancient 
eloquence and philosophy, and chemistry 
stripping off and annihilating the ignoble 
text which concealed a sublime original. 
It was impossible not to be struck at the 
sight of this second species of ruins, and 
this determined searching, if one may 
be allowed the expression, of the monu- 
ments of thought and genius, relics of 
the greatest orator of Rome, found again 
after more than ten centuries, under the 
Gothic lines of a versifier of the middle 
ages and the protocol of ecclesiastical 
decrees. The palimpsesti of the Ambro- 
sian Library proceeded in part from the 
monastery of Saint Colomban de Bobbio, 
situated in the recesses of the Apennines, 
where, as well as at mount Cassino, a 
mass of precious manuscripts were stor- 
ed ; » in those barbarous times the cloister 
and the mountains were the asylum of 
letters ; these learned remnants, publish- 
ed, annoted, translated by clever writers 
and experienced editors of our times, 
are gloriously promulgated through- 
out the civilised world; and Cicero, in 
his eloquent orations, is again listened 
to by a greater number than ever heard 
him in the forum or the Comitia. 2 
The manuscripts of the Ambrosian also 

found in the manuscripts of the Ambrosian many 
various readings to the commentary of Proclus on 
the first Alclbiades. See lii. of his edition 
of Proclus, published in 1820. Though the ground 
has been passed over by such librarians as Muratori, 
who has given four quarto volumes of his Anecdota 
ex Ambrosiance bibliolh. codicibus, and S. Moi, the 
Ambrosian may still furnish new discoveries of an- 
cient authors. As to the moderns, what might not 
be the importance, for the history of the revival of 
letters which has yet to be written, of the collection 
forming more than twenty volumes of manuscript 
letters, in Latin and Italian, of a great number of the 
literati and illustrious personages of the sixteenth 



' Book HI. 

afforded S. Mai at a later period a 
part of his happier and more complete 
discovery, the Letters of Marcus Aure- 
lius and of Pronto,— found under a 
history of the council of Chalcedon, 
which also came from the monastery of 
Saint Colomban de Bobbio, — a curious 
monument of Roman manners, history, 
and literature, in which the young prince, 
so enamoured of philosophy, so virtuous, 
pure, and gentle, appears very superior 
to his master, who remained a sophist 
and rhelorician, notwithstanding the 
praise he had formerly obtained and the 
celebrated inscription beneath his statue: 
Rome, the mistress of the world, to 
Fronto, the king of orators! 

But there is a manuscript less imposing 
than these palimpsesti, namely, ten let- 
ters from Lucrezia Borgia to cardinal 
Bembo, at the end of which is a piece of 
Spanish verse by the latter, breathing an 
exalted spirit of the purest Platonism; 
the answer of the lady is much plainer, 
and she accompanied it with a lock of 
her flaxen hair. Thus does the bottom 
of this mysterious portfolio, this strange 
pedantic medley of poetry, philosophy, 
and sensualism, offer a striking charac- 
teristic monument of the corruptness of 
Italian manners in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. 1 This lock of a lady's hair, in a 
great library, in the midst of old ma- 
nuscripts, is a striking singularity ; one 
would scarcely have expected to Gnd it 
there, and it seems strange to confide 
the custody of such a charge to the doc- 
tors of the Ambrosian Library.* 

I perused the manuscript of Philelphus 
De Jocis etSeriis, a collection of serious 
and humorous epigrams, epistles to 
princes and nobles, which consist of ten 
thousand verses equally divided into ten 
books; of this manuscript, said to be 
unique, the first book and part of the 

century ? We are indebted to M. Renouard for the 
edition of the Letlrcs de Paul Manitce, published 
at Paris in 1834. 

' The verses of Bembo are printed in the folio 
edition or his works; Venice, 1729, t. ii. p. 54. Yo 
pienso si me mwiese. The letter ol Lucrezia Borgia 
is given verbatim at the end of Foscolo's Essays on 
Petrarch, p. 253 of the Italian translation of S. Ca- 
millo Ugoni, to whom we are indebted for tliepub- 
llcalion of this singular document. 

» The librarians of the Ambrosian have the title 
of doctors ; but, although priests, they ore relieved 
by the founder of a part or their ecclesiastical func- 
tions, to enable them to attend more closely to their 
duty In the library. 

tenth are wanting ; but S. Rosmini has 
made them sufficiently known. 3 The 
Joca et Seria remind us much more of 
the licence of Horace than of his simplici- 
ty, grace, and judgment ; and Philelphus, 
a necessitous suppliant, a badly paid pen- 
sioner, a scheming father/ has not, in 
his panegyrics, the address, ease, and 
almost familiarity of the opulent and 
voluptuous flatterer of Augustus and 
friend of Maecenas. 

One manuscript, which forms a con- 
trast with the violent and abusive man- 
ners of Philelphus as a man of letters, is 
a kind of elegy entitled Lamento or 
Disperata, composed by Virginia Ac- 
caramboni, on the murder ofher husband 
by banditti; this unhappy woman her- 
self perished with her brother by the 
hand of Ludovico Orsini, her brother- 

The seventy miniatures, the remains 
of a fine manuscript of the Iliad in 
uncial letters, published by S. Mai and 
printed in the royal office at Milan, have 
that kind of artless fidelity which be- 
speaks their great antiquity, and they are 
one of the monuments which prove the 
unintermitted study of the pictorial arts 
in Italy. 

The five large volumes of flowers so 
pleasingly painted, appear to be by 
Giamballista Morando, an artist of the 
early part of the seventeenth century. 

I should have liked to find at the Am- 
brosian the sketches of some new plays 
which Saint Charles Borromeo had en- 
gaged the provost of Saint Barnabas to 
examine, and on which he had himself 
written marginal notes. These dramatic 
criticisms of Saint Charles would be a 
curiosity at this day; one can scarcely 
conceive the licentiousness of the first 
Italian farces. 5 It is very likely that the 
manuscripts of these comedies were be- 

3 Vita di FileKo. See the various rejected quota- 
tions in the Monwnenti inedili ot the three volumes. 

4 It appears that one of the daughters of Philel- 
phus was particularly anxious to get married, for 
he is continually begging a dowery for her, whether 
he address his verses to Francesco Sforza, the du- 
chess Bianca Maria his wife, Genlilis Simonetta, 
knight of the Golden Fleece, or even Gaspardo dl 
Pesaro, the duke's physician. 

Nam sine dote quldem, quam multumponderctau- 
Nulla placere pulet posse puella vlro. L rum, 

Non genus «ut probllas in sponsa qurcrilur: aurum 
na?c facit, et formam comprobat esse bonam. 

5 Sec the work entitled I sentimenti di San Carol 

Ciup. IX.] 



queathed by Saint Charles, •with his 
other books, to the chapter of Milan, the 
library of which was suppressed in 1797, 
when, probably, they were lost in the 

It is, moreover, particularly difficult 
to make researches at the Ambrosian. 
Would it be believed that its illustrious 
founder, cardinal Federico Borromeo, 
has forbidden the making of a catalogue? 
It is said that it cannot be effected with- 
out a dispensation from Rome. The 
existing apology for a catalogue is truly 
a mere cipher; the authors are arranged 
by their Christian names, which in Italy 
certainly have more importance than 
with us ; in this list there is a crowd of 
Johns, Jameses, and Peters, and to find 
Petrarch, one must look for Francis. 
To increase the perplexity still more, 
there is no title on the backs of the books ; 
the aspect of these nameless volumes co- 
vering the walls of the immeuse hall, is 
somewhat intimidating, and were it not 
for the good fame of the founder, one 
might think ill of all this occult science. 
The librarians, however, know pretty 
well what they have and what they 
have not; but they only consult their 
memory, and the catalogue is purely 
traditional. It is not easy to explain the 
prohibition of cardinal Federico ; he 
had sought and collected at great expense 
books and manuscripts in all Europe and 
even in the East, had appointed learned 
men to explain and publish them, had 
attached to the Ambrosian an excellent 
printing-office no longer in existence, 
and yet he timidly concealed a part of 
these very discoveries; it is impossible 
to show at the same time more zeal and 
love for learning, and to take more pre- 
cautions against it. 

Of the physico-mathematical manu- 
scripts of Leonardo Vinci, there only 
remains now at the Ambrosian a single 
volume, which is of great size, called the 
Codice Atlantico, containing machines, 

Borromeo intorno agli spellacoli, Bergamo, 1759, 
In quarto, which I read at Milan, aad which I re- 
gret is not to be found in (he libraries of Paris. 

1 The numerous manuscripts of Leonardo Vinci 
are now dispersed : the Tiivulzio library has some 
of them; fourteen small Tolumes and some loose 
sheets of the same kind are in the library of the 
lnstitut at Paris, and have been well described in 
the essay read to the first class in 1797, by M. J. B. 
Venlnri (Paris, Duprat, 1797), who has remarked 
that Leonardo Vinci had pointed out the molion of 
the earth, before Copernicus, from the fall of heavy 

figures, caricatures, and notes collected 
by Pompeo Leoni. The letters are 
written from right to left, in the Eastern 
manner, and can only be read with a 
mirror. Like his worthy rival Michael 
Angelo, LeonardoVinci was also scholar, 
sculptor, architect, engineer, chemist, 
mechanician, and man of letters; with 
such men the multiplicity of accomplish- 
ments, instead of injuring each other, 
seems, on the contrary, to extend and 
strengthen them. The sight of this sin- 
gular manuscript, with its reversed cha- 
racters, proves by its manner, how the 
influence of the East was reflected on 
Italy in Leonardo's age, and to how great 
an extent the genius of Italy was indebt- 
ed to it for warmth and brilliancy.' 

There is a small but rich museum in 
the Ambrosian library, in which may be 
seen the cartoon of the School of Athens, 
the first simple and sublime sketch of 
that immortal composition. M. de Cha- 
teaubriand, standing before that paint- 
ing, said, "I like the cartoon as well." 
And the latter, having been carefully 
restored, seems likely to outlast the paint- 
ing, which is daily falling to decay. A 
portrait of Leonardo Vinci, in red crayon, 
done by himself, is a true patriarchal 
countenance; the features are calm and 
mild, notwithstanding the bushiness of 
the eyebrows and the vast exuberance of 
beard and hair. Several charming paint- 
ings by Bernardino Luini, such as the 
young St. John playing with a, lamb, 
the Virgin at the rocks, which were 
brought back from Paris, are also at the 
Ambrosian; there is likewise a very fine 
fresco of the Crowning with thorns, 
which in my opinion has less reputation 
than it merits: its figures pass for the 
portraits of the deputies of Santa Corona, 
a charitable institution to which these 
premises originally belonged. 

A monument has been erected at the 
Ambrosian to the ingenious Milanese 
painter and writer, Joseph Bossi ; the de- 
bodies. The most important of Leonardo's ma- 
nuscripts is the one which belonged to the library 
of king George III., given by his son to the British 
Museum; this manuscript offers divers figures, 
heads of horses and other animals, subjects in op- 
tics, perspective, artillery, hydraulics, mechanics, 
and some drawings with the pen, among which is 
a sketch of his own Last Supper, regarded by Ca- 
nova as more precious than any thing else he had 
seen in England. There are also some of Leonardo's 
manuscripts in Earl Spencer's library. 



[Book III. 

sign and basso-relievos are by SS. Palagi 
and Marches!, and the bust, which is 
colossal, is a work of Canova's, full of 
life and expression. 


Library of Brera.— Observatory.— Oriaui. 

The library of Brera is principally 
composed of the old library of the Je- 
suits, and others proceeding from con- 
vents and religious houses suppressed 
in 1797, of a part of Haller's books, 
Count Firmian's, and the small but pre- 
cious collection bequeathed by cardinal 
Durini. The cabinet of medals occupies 
a very handsome apartment; it has a 
numismatic library tastefully selected by 
the conservator, S. Cattaneo; this ar- 
rangement is very convenient for stu- 
dents, as they are not obliged to have 
recourseto the great library for the books 
they may require, and which probably 
might not be in their places. The li- 
brary of Brera has only a thousand ma- 
nuscripts, among which are the famous 
choir books of the Chartreuse of Pavia ; 
but it contains a hundred and seventy 
thousand volumes, and is the best fur- 
nished of all the Italian libraries with 
modern books of science, natural his- 
tory, and voyages. The great number 
of readers is another resemblance be- 
tweeri Milan and Paris, and in crossing 
the great hall with its superb book- 
shelves, one might almost fancy oneself 
at the library in the rue de Richelieu. 

The elegant palace of Brera was for- 
merly a college ; its architecture is by 
Ricchini, except the front by Piermarini. 
In one of the porticoes, among other 
illustrious Milanese, is the bust of Parini, 
with an inscription which is exceeding- 
ly touching, when we remember that it 
was there that this excellent poet per- 
formed the duties of a professor, and 
formed youth to eloquence and virtue. 

The observatory of Brera, founded in 
1766, after the plans of the learned Father 
Boscovich, and well supplied with the 
best of instruments, has been ornamented 
in these latter days by the discoveries of 
the great astronomer and mathematician 
Barnabas Oriani, who for more than fifty 

It is said that Oriani was fond of pointing out 
at Linlcrno near Milan, (see liv. iv chap, i.) a little 
wall at which he had worked when a mason. 

years assiduously watched the stars 
there ; he was a man not less superior by 
his virtues and simplicity than hisgenius.' 
Oriani was created count and senator by 
Napoleon, but he continued a scholar and 
a priest. He died at the age of eighty, 
on the 12th of November 1832, and divided 
his property into two portions, one for 
charitable purposes, the other for the 
advancement of science. 


Trlvate libraries.— Trivulzio library.— Verses by 
Gabrielle d'Estrces. 

In Milan there are many remarkable 
private libraries ; as the Fagnani, which 
has a fine collection of Aldine editions; 
the Melsi, rich in Italian works of the 
fifteenth century; the Reina, i Litta, Ar- 
chinto, Trivulzio. By a kindness ol 
which I shall preserve a lasting memory, 
I obtained access to the last mentioned, 
which does not count less than thirty 
thousand volumes and about two thousand 
manuscripts. A minute detail of the 
Trivulzio library , transmitted by its owner 
to M. Millin, was inserted in the in- 
nales encyclopediques, of 1817, t. VI. ; 
but it is not exactly correct now, a part 
of the books having passed into another 
branch of the family, and the enlightened 
zeal of the last marquis Jacopo Trivulzio, 
who died in 1831, one of those Italians 
that have accorded the noblest encourage- 
ments to letters, having been continually 
making additions to the part which re- 
mained. Lady Morgan has likewise 
given a description of some articles; such 
as the book of Hours, or primer for the 
useoftheyoungMaximilian, son of Louis 
the Moor, with some beautiful vignettes 
by Leonardo Vinci, — characteristic pic- 
tures, which are a kind of portraiture of 
princely education at that epoch ; in one 
of them the young duke is represented 
on horseback^ contemplated by the ladies 
(il principe contemplato dalle donne) 
The Trivulzio library is rich in manu- 
scripts and early editions of Dante, Boc- 
caccio, and Petrarch. A very fine ma- 
nuscript of the last is of his own time, 
and may be in his own hand, as the 
writing is exactly like the note in the 
Virgil at the Ambrosian ; the Paduan 
edition ( 1472 ) is ornamented with charm- 
ing miniatures of Mantegna's school. 
Lady Morgan mentions an edition of the 

Chap. XII. ] 


same poet, printed, as she informs us, 
only fifteen years after his death, a slight 
oversight of half a century. There is a 
beautiful manuscript on vellum, which 
her ladyship preferred describing, though 
the little she. says is inaccurate; it is the 
oration of Isocrates to king Nicocles, 
■with some charming verses by Gabrielle 
dEstrees, to whom the manuscript had 
belonged, after having been at first 
Henry II. 's, to whom it was dedicated 
when Dauphin. These are some of Ga- 
brielle's verses : 

De vraye amour aultre amour reciprocque 
C'est le parfaict de son plus grand desir; 
Mais st l'amour de l'aultre amour se mocque 
Pour ung amour trop moings digne choisir, 
C'est ung ennuy qni ne donne loysir, 
Temps ne repos pour tronver reconfort. 
Le desespoir est pire que la mort, 
Et jalouzie est ung vray desespoir. 
foy rompue, o trop apparent tort ; 
Pour tous me fault pis que mort reeepvoir. 

From the place where these almost 
unknown verses are found, they are 
doubtless authentic and of the time, an 
advantage that some other more cele- 
brated verses have not, like the Adieux 
de Marie Stuart, printed, I believe, for 
the first lime, in Monnet's Anthologie, ' 
or the verses of Henry IV., Wens, au- 
rore. These verses confute the tradition 
of her intellectual inferiority, and what 
is more, they are honourable to her as a 
lover and a sensible woman : why should 
not the infidelities of Henry IV. have in- 
spired this bitter expression of unfeigned 
grief at that love qui de l'aultre amour 
se mocque? The fact of Gabrielle's 
having read the discourse of Isocrates 
concerning the administration of a king- 
dom, proves that this royal mistress 
meddled with state affairs, and, perhaps, 
that she had sought arguments against 
Sully in the Athenian rhetorician. 

The Trivulzio library possesses many 
manuscripts bearing the arms of Mathias 

1 They are also inserted at t. ii. p. 126, No. 878 of 
the Bibliolheca Roveriana, whence the book has 
passed into the Trivulzio library, but we readers of 
catalogues pay but little attention to such trifles. 
The following Terses, written on the first page of a 
blank leaf at the beginning of the book, are more 
to our taste as they prove the bibliographic fact : 

Co livre est amoy Gabrielle, 
Qui voudrois bien avoir l'esprit 
Et le scavoir semblable a celle 
Qui l'a mis icy en eseript. 

Corvin, to whom they previously belong- 
ed ; I remarked among the manuscripts 
eight autograph madrigals and ten sonnets 
of Tasso, which were first published at 
Venice in 1827 ; the treatise on architec- 
ture addressed to Francesco Sforza by 
Averulino or Filarete of Florence, a cle- 
ver pupil of Donatello, the architect of Hie 
grand hospital of Milan, is a manuscript 
on cotton paper, of which there only ex- 
ists one other copy at the Magliabecchi- 
ana of Florence; 2 an unpublished treatise 
on music composed by the priest Flo- 
rentio, and dedicated to cardinal Ascanio 
Sforza, a charming manuscript, on the 
frontispiece of which Leonardo Vinci, 
who had been recalled to the court of 
Ludovico Sforza as musician, is repre- 
sented holding in one hand a lyre, a kind 
of large mandoline, an instrument of his 
own invention. One of the last curious 
acquisitions of the marquis Trivulzio was 
a first clear copy (Cabozzo\ in good pre- 
servation, of the. Dictionary ofCalepin, 
the original of which I have since sought 
in vain at Bergamo, where it formerly 
was at the convent of the Augustines, 
now turned into barracks. It is impos- 
sible to hold in too great esteem those 
dauntless individuals that first broke up 
the desert fields of science. The name 
of Calepin which has been disfigured by 
latinizing it, was Galepio, an anciSnt and 
illustrious family, as were many other 
names of scholars at the revival of letters. 3 
This name has become immortal, as it 
has added a word to the language, and that 
word has been employed by Boileau. 


Austrian domination.— Schools.— Printing, book- 
trade. — Liberty of conscience. — Improvemeut. 

Notwithstanding the accusation of the 
Edinburgh Review and the general opi- 

2 The genius of Filarete was singularly fertile 
and exuberant ; it is he of whom it was said that he 
would have liked to rebuild the world and would 
have thought he had improved it. Vasari does not 
seem to think very highly of this architectural trea- 
tise : — E commeche alcuna cosa buona in essa 
si ritrovi, e per lo piu ridicola e tanto scioccu, 
che per avventura e nulla piu. 

3 Lascaris, Bessarion, Francesco and Hermolao 
Barbaro, Poggio, Bude, etc. 




nion, the absolute government of Austria 
is not a gouvernement d'obscurantisme 
in the ordinary acceptation of the word. 
After Scotland, perhaps, popular educa- 
tion is more encouraged, and more widely 
spread there than in any country in Ku- 
rope. The Scotch parish schools are known 
and praised by eyery body, but there 
has been little enough said of the Aus- 
trian. These schools, founded by Maria 
Theresa, were extended in 1821 to the 
Lombardo-Venetian kingdom ; and every 
parish, however small, must have its 
school or contribute to the support of 
that which admits its children. * The 
effects of this general education are very 
perceptible in Lombardy, and one may 
hope to see a very fine expression of the 
late emperor's realised there. When 
advised to establish an extraordinary ju- 
risprudence for that province, on ac- 
count of the too great mildness of the 
Austrian laws, he refused ; he contended 
that his code would some day become as 
beneficial there as in Austria by the pro- 
gress of civilisation, and nothing more 
was required but its advancement: — 
'* When the people can read, " said he, 
<l they will no longer kill." 

In spite of the literary piracies inevi- 
table in a country divided into little 
states like Italy, the book-trade and 
printing flourish in Lombardy, and at 
Milan more books are published than at 
any other town in Italy. 9 The works 
printed by the Typographic Society of 
Italian Classics are in general remark- 
able for clearness and accuracy. The 

1 By the returns of 1830, out of two thousand two 
hundred and thirty-seven parishes in Lombardy, 
only one thousand one hundred and seventeen were 
destitute of schoolmasters. Elementary instruction 
was there extended to one hundred and seventy- 
seven thousand eight hundred and eighty-six chil- 
dren. The number o( children received in the 
schools of the Venetian provinces in 183V was se- 
venty-eight thousand nine hundred and seventy- 

2 The number of works published in Italy in 
1836 amounted to three thousand two hundred and 
sixty-four. Their subdivision and classification fur- 
nishes the scientific and literary statistics of the 
country : five hundred and twenty-two appeared at 
Milan; two hundred and ninety-seven at Venice 
(one thousand six hundred and thirty-one in the 
Lombardo-Venetian kingdom); two hundred and 
eleven at Turin (four hundred and fifty-four in 
Sardinia); at Parma and in the duchy, one hundred 
aiiueleten; at Modena and in the duchy, thirty- 
four; one hundred and twenty-five al Rome (three 

History of the campaigns and sieges 
made by the Italians in Spain, from 
1808 to 1813, by S. Vacani, dedicated 
to the arch-duke John, and printed in 
1823 at the Royal Office of Milan, not- 
withstanding some typographical pecu- 
liarities, is very superior to the books not 
long since printed with the old-fashioned 
letter of the Royal Office at Paris. The 
Fragments of the Iliad, proceeding from 
the same press, and published in 1819 
by S. Mai, from a manuscript in the 
Ambrosian, with the figures apparently 
of the sixth century, whilst the scholia 
are dated in the thirteenth only, are 
also a very beautiful book. Among the 
publications by private individuals is 
a work entitled Famiglie celebri 
d' Italia, published by Count Pompeo 
Litta, which is at once magnificent and 
national. The Collection of ancient 
Greek historians translated into Ita- 
lian, about sixty volumes of which have 
already appeared, is a good specimen of 
typography; some parts of this collec- 
tion are held in esteem. The publi- 
cation of the complete works of Ennius 
Quirinus Visconti, the archeological 
and literary parts of which are edited 
by Doctor Labus and the plates execu- 
ted by S. Palagi, would do honour 
to the best French house in the trade. 
As to liberty of conscience, I doubt 
whether it is anywhere more religiously 
respected ; there is not the least sem- 
blance there of priestly interference 
in government, and, by an unneces- 
sary exertion of aulhorily, the preachers 

hundred in the Roman State); twenty-seven at 
Lucca ; one hundred and two at Florence (one hun- 
dred and fifty-one in the grand duchy); two hun- 
dred and sixty at Naples (five hundred and fifty- 
six in the kingdom). Of the three thousand two 
hundred and sixty-four works, six hundred and 
fifty-one were theological ; one hundred and eighty 
on jurisprudence, fifty-six of which were criminal 
trials in the Two Sicilies ; three hundred and eighty 
on geography, history, archeology, and mythology; 
one hundred and twelve biographical ; seventy-five 
philosophical ; seventy-two on political economy 
and government ; sixty-one mathematical ; ono hun- 
dred and thirteen on physics and chimistry ; two 
hundred and ninety on medicine and surgery ; 
thirty onliterary history; seventy-one on philology; 
four hundred and thirty-five poetical; one hundred 
and eighty-two romances, tales, and novels , five 
liundredand fifty essays, theses, and incidental Writ- 
ings, and one hundred and twelve theatrical pieces. 
Fifty Italian works were printed abroad, chiefly a 1 
Paris and La 

Chap, XIII. ] 


have been interdicted from declaiming 
against heresy. The jubilee of J 825 
was in a manner subjected to a block- 
ade in the Austrian states ; it was for- 
bidden to be celebrated, and in despite 
of Italian fervour, in the Lombardo- 
Venetian kingdom, passports were re- 
fused for pilgrimages to Rome. While 
the infamous Ghetto, that species of 
pestilential bagnio founded by fanati- 
cism, still defiles some of the finest 
cities of Italy, the government of the 
Lombardo-Venetian kingdom consults 
its delegates on the state and means 
of ameliorating the lot of the men 
that are elsewhere condemned to it; the 
emperor, a religious prince, himself 
visited, in 1828, the house of refuge 
and industry at Mantua, and the Chan- 
cery of Vienna officially congratulated 
the Israelite society of that city on its 
beneficent zeal. 

The introduction of infant schools 
took place in 1835. In the month of 
May 1837 there were four of them, re- 
ceiving more than three hundred chil- 
dren; and this number was then about 
to be doubled. Singing is taught in 
them, and the children execute moral 
and religious melodies, which some- 
times are not without benefit to their 
parents also. The administration courts 
the assistance of new and different means 
of social improvement ; vaccination is 
generally practised ; 1 a savings' bank, 2 
and a Ore assurance company have 
been established at Milan ; the spirit 
of association is progressing every clay; 
the land registry office, which is con- 
tinued uninterruptedly, occupies the old 
convent of the Jesuits, and statistical 
professorships have been founded at 
Pavia and Padua. This foreign go- 
vernment is doubtless rigorous on some 
points, but it is not that rough, severe, 
and savage despotism admired by the 
abbe Galiani. 

1 In the bills of mortality at Milan there is not a 
single death from small pox during the years 1822 
and 1823; the number for the following years is 
Tery small. The physicians in Lombardy who dis- 
tinguish themselves by their zeal in propagating the 
cowpox are rewarded by prizes of 400, 500 or 600 fr. 

2 The deposits in the Lombard Savings-bank 
were in 1831, 1,133,943 francs; the sum total of the 
deposits and interest amounted to 3,545*896 francs 
in 1832. 


Military College. 

The military college of Milan, in- 
tended for the children of the soldiers 
in the eight Italian regiments, is a well 
conceived establishment, and might 
serve as a model for others. It was 
begun in 1802 by general TheuliS, then 
minister of war, whose portrait may 
still be seen under the vestibule. 3 The 
pupils are three hundred in number, 
and fifty of them are sons of citizens 
paying a small annual sum. The titles 
of the other children are the services, 
the wounds, or the death of their fa- 
thers on the field of battle ; difference 
of religion is no obstacle, provided the 
religion is acknowledged by the state, 
and the tolerance of the Austrian go- 
vernment on that point is well known. 
I have visited this young military colony 
with extreme pleasure several times ; 
it is under the management of colonel 
Young, a man of great capabilities, who 
treats these young soldiers with paternal 
care .- their highly improved gymnastic 
exercises ( which the able director has 
composed by selecting from the different 
methods whatever was best) are appli- 
cable to warlike operations, such as the 
passage of rivers, precipices, assaults of 
forts, etc.; the course of instruction con- 
sists of writing, arithmetic, the German 
and Italian languages, geography, his- 
tory, topographical drawing, etc. Si- 
milar institutions, to the number of 
fifty-one, exist for the other regiments 
of the Austrian army; they must attach 
the inferior officer and the soldier to his 
colours, since in his absence neglect and 
want no longer threaten his family. It 
is probable that these establishments 
are one of the causes which have pre- 
served this same army from destruction 

3 General Theulie, of French origin, was born at 
Milan, and was a barrister in that city when the 
French army arrived there. He then entered the 
service, and commanded the first Cisalpine legion. 
This much esteemed man was killed by a cannon 
shot at the siege of Colbert in 1807. Foscolo in- 
tended to write his memoirs, and had collected con- 
siderable materials for that purpose. Marocco the 
barrister has published a panegyric of Theulie. 


Book 111. 

during twenty years of defeat and mis- 

The military college is one of those 
establishments founded by good sense, 
justice, and humanity, which leave the 
most pleasing impression on the mind 
of the traveller. Other states support 
at a vast expense schools for pages, 
young ladies, and brilliant officers ; 
there the soldier's orphan serves his 
apprenticeship, to his father's trade ; 
there he is taught honour, order, obe- 
dience, to love his prince and his coun- 
try, and those military virtues, which 
are so simple, resigned, and intrepid. 
Such a creation would have been worthy 
of Louis XIV.; he who had opened so 
noble an asylum for the old age of 
our soldiers was worthy to prepare the 
gymnasium of their infancy. 


Pinacoleca of Brera.— Milanese school.— Raphael's 

Sposaliiio. — Uncrciuo's Agar. — Expositions. — 
Pino, Longhi, and Palagi collections. 

The splendour of Florence, Bologna, 
and Rome, and long-existing reputation 
of their museums, perhaps cause that 
of Brera to be too much neglected, 
which was begun no farther back than 
1805. If it has no great Titians, and 
is also destitute of other masterpieces, 
it possesses some admirable paintings 
of the first masters of the Milanese 
school, such as Gaudenzio Ferrari, its 
chief ; Bernardino Luini, Bramantino, 
and others of this productive school, so 
distinguished for simplicity, expression, 
force, and the marvellous gift of per- 

The Marriage of the Virgin, a 
charming work of Raphael's youth, is 
a painting which in after years he would 
not have done so well in doing it belter: 
talent, when arrived at perfection, at 
times loses something of its simplicity 
and grace. Raphael was twenty-one 
years old when he gave Lo Sposalizio; 
Voltaire composed his UEdipus at the 

1 For instance, the lino verse 

Jcunc,ct dans 1'ac.ehcureux qui meconnalt la ctainle, 

which Voltaire replacod, in the later editions, hy 
the common verse, 

same age, — brilliant essays which thus 
early revealed all the grandeur of their 
future compositions, and >\hich after- 
thought variations could only weaken 
and disfigure. 1 The Agar dismissed by 
Abraham, by Guercino, is one of his 
finest works. This painting electrified 
Byron, according to the account of his 
shrewd cicerone at the museum of Brera.* 
A head of the Eternal Father, hy Luini, 
breathes fhe simple, antique, and sub- 
lime spirit of the Bible. His little 
painting of JYoah's drunkenness, not- 
withstanding some traces of the four- 
teenth century (vestigia ruris), is one of 
his best performances. The other re- 
markable paintings are St. Peter and 
St. Paul, by Guido ; the graceful Dance 
oftoinged Loves, by Albano; the Woman 
taken in Adultery, by Agostino Carracci; 
the Woman of Samaria, by Annibale: 
the Canaanilish woman, byLudovico; 
ihe Virgin, St. Petronio and other 
saints, by Domenichino; the Adoration 
of the„Magi, by the elder Palma ; the 
Moses taken out of the water, a simple 
and harmonious masterpiece by Gior- 
gione ; the St. Mark preaching in 
Alexandria, a vast and lifelike compo- 
sition by Gentile Bellini, to which, from 
his residence at Constantinople and in 
the Levant, he has been enabled to give 
an oriental colouring ; the portraits of 
the Dukes of Urbino, by Fra Bartolom- 
meo; the St. Mark and other saints, 
in several compartments, by JVlanlegna ; 
the Annunciation, attributed to Peru- 
gino, though in reality by Francesco 
JFrancia ; St. Peter the martyr, by Co- 
negliano ; a Crucifixion, by Jiramanlc; 
an admirable Head of an old man, by 
Titian. There is an interesting though 
somewhat ordinary painting by Giovanni 
Sanli or Sanzio, the father and first 
master of Raphael, a poor painter, but 
a man of good sense, who felt that his 
lessons were insufficient for such a pupil, 
and accordingly lost no time' in consigning 
him to Pcrugino. 'i he different paintings 
of herds and shepherds, by Londonio, 
the Milanese painter of the last century, 
are very natural. 

An-dcssus dc so;i age ■ au-dessus de la crainte. 

- Letter of M. H. Be] le to Madame llelloc on Lord 
Byron, and Byron's Lite, vol. iv. chap. v. 

Chap. XIV. j 


By chance I had the good fortune to 
be present, in 1827 and 1828, at the ex- 
hibition of the works which had disputed 
(he prizes offered by the Brera academy 
of fine arts, as well as at that of olher 
pictures by artists and dilettanti. These 
two exhibitions gave a favourable idea 
of the present state of the Italian school. 
,S. Palagi, of Bologna, 5. Hayez, or Ve- 
nice, would not be disowned by the 
masters of those two schools. S. Palagi 
exposed a fine copy of Giorgione's Cesar 
Borgia; in the original the bastard of 
Alexander VI. has his hand onhis poniard, 
and in the back-ground are seen a war- 
rior and a woman who seem to be his 
intended victims. This last doubtless 
alludes to the story of those nuns of Ca- 
pua, who wilhdrew into a tower at the 
time the city was sacked by Borgia's 
army, and of whom, according to Guic- 
ciardini, he chose, after a minute exami- 
nation, forty of the handsomest to send 
to his seraglio at Rome. The copy being 
intended fort Count Borgia, the artist, 
from delicacy, had thought proper to 
suppress the poniard, the woman, and 
the warrior ; this disarmed, inoffensive 
Borgia lost part of his terrible physiog- 
nomy, in spite of the merit of its exe- 
cution. There might not, perhaps, be 
any great cause to boast of such an an- 
cestor, were it not that, by a strange 
contradiction, names made famous by 
vice or even crime become in course 
of time titles of nobility. A charming 
subject, J\'eu>ton discovering the refrac- 
tion of light in soap bubbles which a 
child is blowing, presented some fine 
details-, the woman and child were grace- 
ful, but the figure of Newton was wiihout 
character or genius.; V'eturia and the 
Romanladies going to meet Coriolanus, 
in Ihe camp of ihe Vokcians, was anolher 
good painting by S. Palagi ; with respect 
to costume, however, it was somewhat 
deficient : the dress of these Roman ma- 
trons, who at that period were still ruslic, 
was by far too elegant and refined. The 
paintings of S. Hayez, representing the 
Death of Clorinda, at the moment of 
her being baptised by Tancrede; Ihe 
Meeting of Mary Stuart and Leicester, 
as she is proceeding to her execution, a 
subject taken from Schiller, and the mo- 
ment of her ascending the scaffold, pro- 
duced a strong sensation. Italy has not 
escaped that taste, that craving after a 
reform in arts and letters, which tor- 

ments some spirits in France; and the 
bold and even capricious talent of S. 
Hayez, reckoned by his admirers the 
first Italian painter now living, belongs 
to the new school. The Voting Toby 
restoring his father's sight, by S. Diolti, 
was also an interesting picture. The 
Subterranean Chapel of the families 
of Verona, and other interiors by S. Mi-- 
gliara, were quite in vogue, and indeed 
they are charmingly natural and very 
picturesque paintings. There were also 
some Roman banditti at the Brera exhi- 
bition, but they were not so good as 
those of M. Cogniet and Leopold Robert. 
Two basso-relievos by S. Marchesi, one 
showing the Sepulchral monument of 
Lord Dungarvon's daughter, the other 
representing Ihe Vision of a mother on 
the loss of her seven children, were full 
of grace and feeling. The colossal group 
by the same artist representing the Piety 
of S. Giovanni di Dio, founder of the 
congregation of the Fatebene fratelli, 
and destined for their convent, excited the 
ardent, admiration of the Milanese, and 
seemed a work of merit. 

The exhibition of 1828 presented no- 
thing by SS. Palagi and Hayez, but there 
were many and excellent pictures by S. 
Migliara, such as Ihe Condemnation of 
Jacques Molay, the Castle of the Inno- 
minate, several paintings of Gothic in- 
teriors by S. Moja, his happy imitator 
and almost rival ; two landscapes by S. 
Gozzi, [he senior Italian landscape- 
painter, and like our Boguet, always 
graceful and vigorous, notwithstand- 
ing his eighty years ; a superb pencil 
drawing by S. Anderloni, after one of 
Raphael's Holy Families, now in the 
Stafford gallery in England, and of which 
there are several copies in existence at 
Rome and Naples, taken by his pupils. 
In sculpture there were some important 
works •• an Apollo sleeping, executed 
after an earthen model of Pacelti, by 
S. Cacciatori, his pupil ; the model of the 
lornb erected to the noble Melzi, at Bel- 
laggio. by his nephew, the work of S. 
Nesti of Florence, and another cenotaph, 
dedicated by the inhabitants of Chiari, a 
large village four leagues from Milan, to 
the clever lapidarian writer Morcelli, 
their proyost; * a distinguished pcrform- 

1 The provost is a kind of superior rector ; (here 
are four clergymen at Chiara, v. ho arc ecciesias-' 
tically subject to the provost. 




Book IK. 

ance of S. Monti of Ravenna. This vast 
and splendid monument, erected by 
husbandmen to a learned and virtuous 
priest, is a new proof of the popularity 
of the arts in Italy ; such an idea would 
never enter the heads of our peasants who 
most respect their clergyman, and I am 
not aware that a single individual has 
here received a like honour from his pa- 
rishioners. The divers plans of a calhe 
dral before a large square surrounded by 
piazzas, announced that architecture also 
was well studied at Milan. 

The finest private collection of paint- 
ings at Milan, that of general Pino, was 
still for sale in 1828; it contained a great 
Titian, Moses defending the daughters 
of Jethro ; the Woman taken in Adul- 
tery, by Poussin, St. Joseph and a 
child, by Guido ; and an admirable 
Christ bearing the Cross, by Sebastian 
del Piombo. 

The gallery of Longhi was of no great 
extent, but was composed with the taste 
that might be expected of so clever an 
artist, who is besides distinguished as a 
poet and writer. I saw at his house in 
the same year a very fine drawing of 
Michael Angelo's Last Judgment, by 
S. Minardi of Rome, which he had begun 
to engrave, a work that he left nearly 
finished, and which, with the fine copy 
by Sigalon, will make known and pre- 
serve, in some degree, that masterpiece, 
which has suffered so much from the 
ravages of time and man, and is seen to 
such disadvantage. 1 

The collection of S. Palagi is rich in 
Egyptian antiquities, and contains also 
divers Etruscan and Greek monuments, 
which make it a real museum. 


Beccaria.— Punishment or death. 

In the strada di Brera is a handsome 
hotel which was inhabited by Beccaria, 
whose medallion and those of eight other 
celebrated Milanese of bolh sexes are 
seen on the front. 2 Beccaria, a genius 

1 Longhi died on the 2nd of January, 1831. at Ihc 
age of 65 years. 

- Namely : Lecchi, Giulini (the historian of Mi- 
lan); Agncse (a celebrated female mathematician); 
Frisi, Verri, Parini, Domenico Balestrieri (who trans- 
lated Tasso into Milanese); Fumagaili. A nation, 

full of paradox in his passionate love of 
virtue and humanity, a philosopher, 
whose opinions were daring and rash 
while his life was prudent, virtuous, and 
peaceable, has recently acquired parti- 
zans in the old and new worlds; his 
principles on the punishment of death 
have regained favour with the friends of 
enlightenment. But, notwithstanding 
the superior merit of some discourses 
and essays, I think that the instinct of 
self-preservation which prescribes the 
destruction of the homicide, the con- 
science of men, and that simple lex ta~ 
lionis, anterior to all positive laws, will 
always be stronger with the people than 
all arguments: nor do I think that such 
an innovation can be compared to civil 
liberty, religious toleration, the abolition 
of slavery, and other just and natural 


Monti. — Pindemonte. — Manzoui. 

When I saw Monti, he was almost 
crushed benealh his sufferings, but still, 
despite his infirmities, his physiognomy 
was noble and his look full of poetry. 
He spoke in an interesting manner of 
the Italian language and literature, and 
of the derivation of the former from the 
Provencal ; he appreciated the laborious 
researches of M. Raynouard, and alluded 
to a work on the same subject, to which 
he had begun to devote himself, aided by 
Perticari, whose dealh interrupted the 
undertaking. 3 He asked ine for news 
of Botta, the first historian of Italy, as 
himself was the first poet. The affection- 
ate and assiduous attentions (hat he re- 
ceived from his daughter, the widow 
of the generous Perlicari, and the grace 
and talents of this young lady, reminded 
me of one of Milton's daughters under 
an Italian sky. 

I was subsequently acquainted, at 
Verona and Venice, with Ippolito Pinde- 
monte, another great contemporary poet 

which, under a foreign domination, has counted 
such characters, and which in onr own limes has 
Manzoni, lias certainly received no ordinary endow- 

3 Respiting these researches, sec (he twelfth 
chaylcr of the Difesa of Dante, (>y Perlicari. 

Chap. XVli.] 



that Italy lost about the same time.i It 
is impossible to see such monuments dis- 
appear -without feeling a profound emo- 
tion ; these superior persons were also 
excellent men, plain, religious, and sin- 

S. Manzoni, who, though differing on 
some theoretical points, seems called to 
succeed them, is recommended by the 
same qualities of the heart and by prin- 
ciples perhaps still more exalted. His elo- 
quent treatise Sulla Morale cattolica is 
a new proof of the might of Italian ge 
nius, always on a level with the great 
principles of civilisation, in spite of the 
obstacles which embarrass it. Such cha- 
racters do singular honour to Italy, if, as 
we think, literary characters are a toler- 
ably just expression of public manners, 
representing them with not less fidelity 
than their works. 

In the same years 1828 and the same 
month, died also at Ravenna the cele- 
brated F. Cesari, orator, theologian, 
grammarian, critic, biographer, burles- 
que poet, commentator and translator 
of Horace, Terence, and Cicero. I had 
visited him at Verona, his country -, he 
was a quick, ardent, restless elderly man, 
a really complete abbate, very obliging, 
eccentric in his dress and deportment ; a 
determined Cruscantist, Cesari pretend- 
ed to make Cicero speak precisely as he 
would have expressed himself in Italian in 
the sixteenth century. 2 Notwithstanding 
his whims, irritability, and deficiency of 
judgment and taste, his admirers were 
numerous, and his loss was blended, in 
the patriotic and literary regrets of the 
Italians, with that of Monti and Pinde- 


La Scala. — Theatre.— Italian female singers. — Bow- 
ing to the public. —Decorations. —Ballet. — La 
Scala, society of Milan.— Camevalone. 

In 1826 I did not see La Scala at the 
season of its splendour. At that time 

1 Monti was born on the 19th of February 1757, 
and died on the 9th October 1828 ; Pindemonte, who 
died on the 17th of November, was born in the same 
year as Monti : if they differed in talent, the one 
being harsh, impassioned, and brilliant; the other 
gentle and melancholy, their course was perfectly 
equal. Scarcely had a month elapsed after the dealh 
of Monti, when a subscription was opened in Italy 
to raise him a monument in one of the squares of 
Milan. Verona was not less grateful towards Pin- 

there was no opera ; the performance 
consisted of a kind of tragedy called 
Dirce, written by the actor who played 
the principal character; both the piece 
and the actors were exceedingly bad, and 
indeed this time I went for nothing but 
to see the theatre, which seemed to me 
more spacious and lofty than magni- 
ficent. La Scala has accommodation 
for more than four thousand spectators ; 
it was embellished in 1830, and has, at 
all events, the chief merit of a theatre of 
that kind, namely, that of being perfectly 
resonant, notwithstanding its immensity, 
this advantage is principally owing to the 
form of the roof, a clever construction by 
Piermarini, a pupil of Vanvitelli, and the 
restorer of good architecture in Lombardy 
in the last century. 

1 have since been present, in Septem 
ber 1827, at some brilliant representa- 
tions of Mose and the Ultimo giorno cli 
Pompei, a chef-d'ceuvre of Pacini. This 
opera had immense success at Milan ; 
peopled returned from the country, and 
some even came from distant towns to 
hear the Ultimo giorno and madame 
Meric-Lalande, a French singer then 
very much liked in Italy. I found in 
the register of an inn the name of a 
prince, grandson of Louis XIV., and 
like him an admirer of the opera ; he 
had written that he came to Milan, with 
his attendants, to hear the grand opera 
of the Last day of Pompeii. The piece 
was wonderfully executed by Rubini 
and Tamburini ; madame Meric-La- 
lande, who is even lauded as a tragedian, 
appeared to me affected. It is true that 
affectation seems customary and almost 
insisted on among the actresses of the 
Italian theatres ; the grimaces, finical ges- 
tures, and conlorsions of the Italian fe- 
male singer are shown in every part of 
her person : the arms, fingers, and feet 
of these harmonious puppets, especially 
at the end of the air, start into mo- 
tion simultaneously with the voice, to 
increase the effect. The perpetual salu- 
tations of the actor add still more to 

demonte ; his memory is to receive the same ho- 
nour there, and his old and worthy friend, the ba- 
roness Silvia Curtoni Verza, is at the head of the 

2 For instance, he makes him say V uovo di 
Pasqua,inun credo, un vespro siciliano, etc., ex- 
pressions which he defends in the preface intro- 
ducing his translation of the second volume of 
Letters. Milan. 1826. 



[BOOK 11/. 

this defect of truth. As soon as the actor 
receives applause, forgetting his part, in 
the middle of the most touching scenes, 
he advances towards the pit, places his 
hand on his heart, and bows respectfully 
over and over again ; I have seen Tan- 
crede less occupied with saluting his 
native land than in bowing to the public. 
The first woman's parts at La Scala were 
played by French actresses, for madame 
Comelli, now madame Rubini, was there 
and sung in Mose; I have since heard a 
madame Casimir at Venice. Verger and 
Duprez, excellent singers, are French- 
men ; the latter, a favourite tenor, since 
engaged at our grand Opera where he 
has obtained such brilliant success, is a 
pupil of that excellent and impassioned 
master of song, Choron, director of 
the school of religious music, a useful 
establishment which was wrongfully 
neglected and suffered to fall in 1830 
owing to its epithet of religious. Neither 
are tnglish actresses rare in Italy ; I 
have seen them take the first parts at 
Turin and Genoa, and madame Cori 
Palloni, an English lady favourably re- 
ceived by the public of La Scala, was 
prima donna in 1828. Foreign invasion 
extends even to the stage. 

They played in 1828 la Prova d' tin' 
opera seria, an old work, the music 
and words of which are by Gnecco ; 
it is a very amusing picture, a kind 
of Comic Romance of the singing troops 
of Italy, and I was delighted with it. 
The opera buffa, which in France, beside 
(he scenes of Moliere, seems only an un- 
meaning buffoonery, appeared to me in 
Italy, on the contrary, gay, natural, and 
true ; it is a plant of the soil that dete- 
riorates when transplanted. The deco- 
rations of La Scala are magnificent, and 
superior for effect, if not for painting, to 
all i hat is elsewhere seen. I remember 
nolhing so astonishing as the eruption of 
Vesuvius in the Last day of Pompeii, 
by S. Sanquirico. There was, however, 
in the last act, a trifling circumstance 
sufficiently ridiculous : on one of the 
pillars of the forum was a large transpa- 
rency with these words .- Si representa 
col velario ; this scene-shifter's erudition 
would have been hissed at Paris, and 
properly loo The passing of the. Red 
Sea in Mose, so feebly given at our 
grand opera, had not been executed ; but 
it was not caused by timidity on the 
part of such clever persons : all the ma- | 

chinery of the theatre was employed in 
the preparations for Vesuvius, and the 
sea, which in nature produces and feeds 
rolcanos, could not be represented be- 
cause of the volcano of La Scala. 

Ballets have an action and interest in 
Italy which we knew nolhing of before 
the charming Somnambule. They gave 
at La Scala in 1827 a ballet entitled Zaifa, 
which I expected to find very bad; I 
imagined it difficult by gestures and ca- 
pers to render the feeling and passion of 
such a piece; the ballet, however, was 
well got up, and presented a fine spec- 
tacle ; it was there that I first had the 
pleasure of admiring the aerial graceful- 
ness of Taglioni, since called to reform 
the stiff and starched motions of our an- 
cient opera, and to replace them by her 
natural, elegant, pure, and almost poet- 
ical dancing. In the year following I 
saw a long and tedious ballet entitled 
Agamennone, a kind of dancing parody 
of the piece by Alfieri and Lemercier, 
which was represented in the Italian 
style, between the two acts of Ceneren- 
tola and la Prova d'uri opera seria, to 
give the singers a little repose : thus 
were all the horrors of the palace of 
Argos diversified with the mad tricks of 
Don Magnifico and Maestro Campanone, 
two humorous characters marvellously 
well played by Lablache. Tragic ballets 
are performed in Italy in great num- 
bers, these serious pantomimes being 
more easily got up on account of the 
small number of subjects for the dance, 
as well as the mimic talent natural to the 
Italians; Gioja, the Italian Gardel, has 
composed a ballet on the Death of 
Casar;l was present in 1828 at Bo- 
logna at the representations of his Ga- 
brielle de Vergy, and they promised a 
ballet entitled Atreo for the ensuing 

La Scala is all the society of Milan . 
and people really know 7 not how to pass 
the evening if there be no performance, 
for tbey have not there, as at Florence, 
Rome, and Naples, a corps diplomatique 
to give receptions. Notw iihstanding the 
great fortunes and generally easy circum- 
stances of the inhabitants, no one thinks 
himself obliged to be at home. The 
practice of receiving visits at the theatre, 
so injurious to the spirit of society, is not 
to be eradicated in Italy : every lady is 
a queen in her box, and like Caesar she 
will prefer the first place in that lilllfi 

bkP. XVHI.1 



empire to the second in a drawing- 

The out-of-door life at Milan is merry. 
Its brilliant carnival, called Carnevalone, 
is prolonged to the Saturday after Ash- 
Wednesday, and during those four days, 
in spite of the solemn warning of the 
Church, balls, masquerades, and every 
species of carnival extravagance are kept 
up with greater spirit than before. 


Comic actors in Ilaly. — Italian Theatre.— Nota.' 
Philo-dramatic theatres. — Fantoccini. 

There is one observation lhat has struck 
me in visiting the various theatres of 
Italy ; which is, that if the lyrical depart- 
ment shows symptoms of decline, the 
performance of comic pieces seems to 
have attained a high pitch of perfection. 
Were the several actors of that country 
united, who are now dispersed and belong 
to different companies, they would com- 
pose probably the best comic troop in 
Europe. Demarini was an excellent co- 
median, ' Vestri is very natural and 
lively; Bon, an esteemed dramatic au- 
thor, is original and piquant; Modena is 
noble and pathetic; Dominiconi is full of 
warmth ; signoras Marchionni, Luigia 
Bon, Internari, Pasqualini, Belloni-Co- 
lombelli, Polvaro-Carlotta, have sensi- 
bility, grace, and delicacy, and I doubt 
whether there exists a more genteel sou- 
brette than signora Romagnoli. It is 
true lhat none of these actresses equal 
mademoiselle Mars, but the talent of that 
inimitable actress would be scarcely 
adapted for Italian comedy and the cha- 
racters it represents. The Italian man- 
ners being all exterior, if one may be 
allowed the expression, and generally 
uniform in the higher class, seem hardly 
suitable for the scenes and action of 
comedy. There is not sufficient variety 
and contrast in their vanities to require 
a lesson -, the satire of reason, the first 

1 He died in 1830. 

2 The Tattling of the Ladies. 

3 The thirteenth and fourteenth editions of Note's 
Comedies appeared about the same time at Florence 
and Milan. M. Baudry gave an elegant and correct 
edition of them in Paris, in 1829 ; la bonna ambi-^ 

principle of the vis comica, would be loo 
strong and too serious for people so habi- 
tually indifferent; and the negligence and 
indolence of individuals are less comic 
than the pretensions, disappointments, 
and annoyances of our social state. The 
difference of dialects is another obstacle 
to the improvement of the Italian stage : 
the pieces which are written in these 
dialects, are the only merry and popular 
ones, but they are not intelligible to the 
whole nation ; the others, written in the 
book style, a kind of dead language not 
resembling the vernacular tongue, cannot 
supply those spirited and natural expres- 
sions which excite the laugh peculiar to 
good comedy, sudden and free, Ions, 
hearty and communicative. The duke 
of Modena's company played in 1827 at 
the Re theatre, a very pretty comedy of 
Goldoni, / Pettegolezzi delle Donne, 2 
with an ensemble that we might wish 
some royal companies to imitate. . In 
this comedy one of the characters was 
a ridiculous Frenchman, too common in 
the pieces of Goldoni ; but this Parisian 
en perruque of the last century was but 
little like those of our day, who are more 
in favour in Italy. The antipathy for the 
French is of the preceding century. Ac- 
cording to Addison, it was very strong, 
particularly among the lower classes ; 
Louis XIV., so admired by Europe, was 
odious to them : the Genoese had not 
forgotten the bombardment of their city; 
the Venetians were dissatisfied with the 
alliance between the French and the 
Turks; the Romans with the menaces 
made to Innocent XI., Naples and Milan 
by the humiliation inflicted on their sove- 
reigns. The Germans were greatly pre- 
ferred to the French. 

Nota, the modern Goldoni of Ihe Italian 
stage, was, like him, a lawyer ; 3 the bar 
may become a good dramatic school, if 
declamation and prolixity be carefully 
avoided; the legal exposition of facts 
demands the same perspicuity as the 
drama ; Ihe peroration is the denotimenl : 
action and intrigue even are necessary to 
the two kinds of composition ; Ihey com - 
bine eloquence, passion, and humour : 

2iosa, translated in French, and from the French 
into Russian, has been played at Moscow, on the 
occasion of the emperor Nieolas's coronation. Some 
of Nola's pieces are inserted in the translation oi 
the Thedlres Strangers. 




[Book III, 

the pleadings of Beaumarchais are the 
best of his pieces. The comedies ofNota 
are sensible, regular, natural, interesting, 
well conducted, and written with purity, 
an advantage which he has over Goldoni ; 
but they are deficient in originality and 
gaiety, and the characters are somewhat 
superficially drawn. La Fiera (the Fair), 
perhaps his best work, has some excellent 
scenes, a spirited dialogue, true cha- 
racters, and a moral object. L'Atrabi- 
lare is another good comedy of Nota's, 
but its hero has some similarity with the 
Misanthrope and the Tyran domesti- 

It is singular enough that, at the mo- 
ment when imitations from the foreign 
siage are recommended incessantly as the 
only resource of our exhausted dramatic 
literature, the foreign theatres only exist 
on translations and imitations of the 
pieces produced on our stage, and even 
of those least to be recommended. Our 
melodramas, it is said, become sublime 
in Germany, thanks to the nebulous 
genius of the language; our most ordi- 
nary comic operas are stock pieces in 
the theatres of England and Italy; and 
in the private theatres at Turin, Flo- 
rence, Rome and Naples, it is our vaude- 
villes that are sung and played by com- 
panies composed of the most illustrious 
foreigners. The French stage, though 
so depreciated in France, is still univer- 

The Italians of the present day are 
strongly attached to theatrical repre- 
sentations, and philo-dramatic or pri- 
vate theatres exist even in the smallest 
towns ; sometimes this taste appears a 
real mania ; at Bologna, during carnival, 
there have been as many as thirty of 
these theatres. They also afford an 
opportunity for beneficence when pay- 
ment is required, for the receipts are 
bestowed as a portion on some poor 
girl, or employed in charitable actions. 

I was taken to the filodrammatico 
theatre of Milan, an establishment ex- 
ceeding well conceived, and skilfully 
managed, which has existed for more 
than thirty years. The performances 
take place once a week in a charming 
private theatre painted by Appiani , 
which is almost as large as our great 
ones, and, iike all those of Italy, ar- 
ranged in a manner infinitely more 
commodious and agreeable. Actors who 
have appeared in public are not after- 

wards allowed to play on this stage, and 
the company ( if such a name may he 
applied to them ) is composed of young 
men engaged in trade or in the public 
offices, and of girls or young women 
belonging to respectable families of the 
city. Independently of the ease and 
grace acquired by this description of 
exercise at once domestic and public, 
such an establishment must also conlri- 
bute to raise the profession of dramatic 
artists in public opinion ; as it occasion- 
ally associates with this class persons 
of liberal education, whose powers have 
there an opportunity of revealing them- 
selves; it may again increase the mass 
of talent by opening the theatrical career 
to a greater number. The filodram- 
matico theatre has already become 
very illustrious in this way; it wit- 
nessed the first attempts of the artist, 
who, with Talma, has most excelled in 
our days in the tragic art; it was on 
this tranquil stage, in the presence of 
friends, relations, and a few strangers 
whom Italian courtesy had conducted 
thither, that signora Pasta gave the 
prelude to her high theatrical renown. 
There is one observation on the sub- 
ject of the filodrammatico theatre 
that I must by no means omit : that a 
private theatre subsisting more than 
thirty years is a fact honourable to the 
moral character of a nation, and evinces 
an absence of petty jealousies truly pro- 
digious, of which perhaps no other people 
is capable, 

These particulars respecting the Ita- 
lian stage would still seem to me incom- 
plete, were I to pass over the Fantoc' 
cini, who are, though I dare scarcely 
acknowledge it, the performers that I 
visited the most. In consequence of the 
prejudice existing in France, at first I 
went to the opera only, and these 
wooden actors then appeared to me the 
most natural I had seen in Italy. It is 
a fact that they had not the sensitiveness 
and gratitude of the actors at La Scala, 
for they never bowed to the spectators, 
amid the well merited applause that they 
elicited. Were I the director of the 
Fantoccini, I would have them bow 
for some time and very profoundly too, 
that the parody might have the effect 
of abolishing such a ridiculous practice. 
The performances of the theatre of Gi- 
rolamo or Fiando generally consist of 
a grand piece and some ballets. The 

Sap. XIX.] MILAN. 

former are sometimes a little too pathe- 
tic; for multiplicity of adventures and 
exaggeration of sentiment and language, 
they might be called melodramas in 
miniature ; but the dances and panto- 
mimes are lively and animated, and 
the decorations perfect. Girolamo, a 
Milanese buffoon, is an indispensable 
part in all the grand pieces : this half- 
Sancho, half-Sosie, is ugly and cow- 
ardly, a glutton and a babbler; as soon 
as he appears all the audience is in a 
roar of laughter, nor is there a more 
national or popular personage in the 
world. I well remember the transports 
that he excited in a grand piece called 
Alcesla, or the descent of Hercules into 
hell ; Girolamo, armed with a little 
halberd, was the companion of Hercules, 
who dragged him down in his descent 
very much against his will ; the terrors 
of this reluctant but merry Pbiloctetes, 
in Charon's boat, at the sight of Cer- 
berus, and before Pluto, were excellent 
buffooneries. As at La Scala the ballet 
came between the acts of this interest- 
ing spectacle, probably to allow a little 
repose to the interlocutors of the Fan- 
toccini, who, however, do nothing but 
speak, though in a clear and well ac- 
cented tone. The Fantoccini are one 
of the best theatrical undertakings in 
existence ; there are neither freaks of 
fancy, caprices, indispositions, extra- 
■ ordinary gratifications nor leave of ab- 
! sence : I do not think that there has ever 
been either vacations or any of those 
performances which are but little belter; 
i this active and indefatigable troop is 
i always at its post. 



Great Hospital.— Of great hospitals.— Nariglio 

Italy possessed the first and the larg- 
est hospitals in Europe. The founding 
of the one at Milan represents very 

1 The average number of patients was one thou- 
sand eight hundred and thirty-six, at an annual 
expense of 614, (Al Austrian livres (528,080 fr.) the 

well the history and revolutions of the 
Italian states in the fifteenth century. 
This foundation is due to Francesco 
Sforza, — the victorious usurper of the 
duchy of Milan, the first Italian captain 
of his day, and the illegitimate son of 
Jacopo Attendolo, a peasant; — to his 
wife Bianca Visconti, a natural daughter 
of the last duke ; and to the voluntary 
contributions of the people, who for a 
moment had attempted to establish their 
independence and form themselves into 
a republic. The partial foundation of 
a hospital by a cruel and warlike prince 
such as Sforza, seems a sort of amends t'o 

The Great Hospital of Milan, partly 
by Antonio Averulino or Filarete, is 
one of the finest edifices of its kind. 1 
The Waviglio canal, a fine hydraulic 
structure partly erected by Leonardo 
Vinci, passes by it, and serves as a 
river to carry away all the filth. The 
portico on the right on entering is by 
Bramante, and the vast court in the 
centre by Ricchini. The church is of 
good taste, and has a beautiful Annun- 
ciation by Guercino. 

The vast foundations for which we 
are indebted to the piety of long past 
ages, certainly admirable for the faith, 
repentance, or patriolism which they 
put us in mind of, are not perhaps 
without inconveniences in practice •• the 
number of patients is too great for 
them to be equally tended ; moral dis- 
eases, a kind of depravity more incur- 
able than the ills of the body, are 
engendered by the crowding together 
of so many unfortunate wretches ; branch 
houses containing three or four hun- 
dred patients seem preferable to these 

The Great Hospital of Milan has no 
Sisters of Charity, but some attempts 
have been made recently to introduce 
them. The period of our domination 
would have been a favourable occa- 
sion, and it is to be regretted that it 
was not taken advantage of; among 
many honourable traces left in Italy 
by France, the Sisters would not now 
be the least useful, nor the least affect- 

daily cost of each patient was 78 centimes, which is 
something less than that of the hospitals of Parts. 


I Book HI. |j 1P j 


Arena.— Arco della Pace. 

The Circus or Arena, intended for 
races and naumachy, is capable of 
holding nearly forty thousand spectators, 
and is truly an antique monument — 
this work of the French, and of the 
clever Italian architect Ludovico Gano- 
nica, is wanting in Paris. Perhaps 
there is no more worthy ornament of 
a great city than these arenas destined 
to receive the people, where they may 
sit to be amused by (he spectacle of 
games, in which agility, strength, and 
address bear off the prize. But I think 
it would be requisite to make some 
changes in the order established by 
Augustus, who had thrown back the 
women to the farthest seats, wilh the 
exception of the Vestals, the empress, 
and ladies of the imperial family and 
of the chief patricians. French polite- 
ness would never consent to this rude 
etiquette of the Roman emperors. Cer- 
tainly we do not claim, under Chris- 
tianity and the ease of our civilisation, 
the panem et circenses that the 
haughty Rome lavished on the people 
she had conquered. Such coarse plea- 
sures would not suit us ; there are 
now other generous illusions to satisfy, 
and the ennobled race of man has a 
right to something better than such 

1 Voyage en Italic, by M. Siraond, t. i. p. 19. 

2 Except the capitals, which are of Carrara mar- 
ble, Ihearch is entirely of the fine marble of Creosla, 
found in the mountains near Milan, by the archi- 

The Gate of the Simplon, now the Arco 
della Pace, at the end of the immense 
Piazza darmi, is now nearly complete, 
The statue of Peace, as on the arch of 
the Carrousel, succeeds to that of Na- 
poleon ; the car is drawn by six bronze 
horses, a greater number than was 
customary among the ancients ; four 
other horses mounted by figures of Fame 
are placed at the angles. The figure 
of Peace and the horses are truly su- 
perb, and honour the talent of (he 
sculptor S. Sangiorgio, and the skill of 
the founders, the brothers Manfredini, 
who seem to have recovered the method 
of the ancients. The rich ornaments 
executed under the direction of the 
clever artist S. Moglia, surpass, for 
taste and effect, those which were 
previously selected. The brilliant basso- 
relievos, three of which have been 
boldly decided by a traveller to be su- 
perior to those of the Parthenon, 1 are 
by Pacetti and SS. Monti of Ravenna, 
Monti of Milan, Acquisli, Pizzi, and 
Marchesi. One of the basso-relievos 
represents the emperor Francis enter- 
ing his capital in triumph after Napo- 
leon's fall. The arch of Peace, all dazzling 
with marble 2 and sculpture, is the 
largest which the moderns have con- 
ceived. It has cost three millions and 
would amount to more than double at 
Paris ; and. if it yield in height to the 
Arc de l'Etoile, it is infinitely more 

tect of the monument, the marquis Cagnola, who 
was succeeded, on his death, by S. Pevcrelli, his 
pupil. The eight columns are each a single atone. 







Eterno — Petrarch's house; his treatise On the 
remedies against either fortune.— Popularity of 
the first men of letters. 

Near Garignano, about half an hour's 
de from Milan, are Ihe remains of a 
nail house inhabited by Petrarch, 
hich were discovered some years 
SO. 1 Nothing of his time now re- 
tains, except the two columns of the 
)urt on which his cipher is legible, 
te windows, the floor, and the vaulted 
)ofs of two chambers that overlook 
te country. The present proprietor is 

Milanese, who is pretty careful of 
te preservation of all these vestiges 
f the poet. The Italians are not in 
aneral so barbarously negligent in 
mt respect as ourselves. Petrarch's 
ouse was situated in a deep valley 
hich then bore the somewhat inat- 
aclive name of the Inferno, which he 
filh some ostentation converted into 
Jnterno, in memory of Sfcipio, the 
ero of his Africa. Such privileges 
o not belong to literature, except at 

1 The Adda does not pass I<y I.interno, as is slated 
i Ging-uene {Hist. litt. d'ltalie, II, 408), it runs on 
e other side of Milan, at ten leagues from Lin- 
rno. We are indebted lo the researches of Pro- 

early epochs, and perhaps no where 
but in Italy. Hamilton could not change 
the name of the giant Moulineau into 
that of Pontalie; that bank of Ihe Seine, 
in spite of the countess of Grammont, 
still retains the name of the ingenious 
and methodical possessor of the ram. 2 
The men of letters at the period of the 
revival of learning, Petrarch, Danfe, 
Boccaccio, like the philosophers, ora- 
tors, and poets of antiquity, being known 
by the people and artisans with whom 
they mixed and conversed in the streets 
or their work-shops, had a much great- 
er, and much more direct influence, 
than that of court authors or academi- 

The details given by Petrarch of Ihe 
life he led at Linterno are curious, and 
offer a new instance of that singular 
popularity. " I have taken for the 
summer a countryhouse in the environs 
of Milan ; it is truly delicious, the air 
is very pure... I continue here my 
ordinary course of life, and am freer 
and less disturbed by the annoyances 
of the town. I want for nothing, and 
the peasants rival each other in bring- 
ing me fruits, fish, ducks, and game of 
all kinds. Near it there is a fine 

fessor Marsand and the marquis J. J. Trivulzio for 
having ascertained and determined tho true posi- 
tion of Linterno. 
2 7> Belier, by Hamilton. 




Charterhouse recently built, where I 
can enjoy al any time the innocent 
pleasures that religion affords. At first 
I wanted to take up my abode in the 
interior of the cloister, and the good 
monks consented to it, and appeared 
even to desire it; but I ultimately de- 
cided that it was better only to live 
near the convent, that I might assist at 
all their holy exercises : their door is 
always open to me, a privilege granted 
to but few." Such was the high re- 
nown that Petrarch enjoyed, that while 
monks and peasants were so prepos- 
sessed in his favour, the proud Mala- 
testa, lord of Rimini, not content with 
having sent a painter that he might 
have his portrait, being infirm, had 
himself carried to his house at Linterno, 
into those very chambers that I saw 
filled with heaps of Indian corn, and 
which were, then occupied by the hus- 
bandmen of a Milan lawyer. 

Petrarch retired to Linterno in 1355, 
seven years after Laura's death; and he 
there composed some of the sonnets in 
which he deplored her loss. It was 
there also that he wrote his treatise On 
the remedies against either fortune, a 
kind of dry nomenclature of the good 
and evil things of life, divided into books 
and chapters ; the first book, which is 
devoted to the good things, has one 
hundred and twenty-two chapters, while 
the second, which treats of our ills, 
exceeds that number by ten ; it is a long 
dissertation in dialogues between the 
moral beings personified, as Joy, Hope, 
Reason, Pain, and Fear, — a philoso- 
phical treatise full of moral sentences, 
maxims, quolations, witty remarks, 
names of celebrated persons taken from 
mylhology or history, which will never 
dry up a tear, because it belongs more 
to the author and scholar than to man 
and misfortune. 1 This treatise was de- 
dicated to Azzo dc Correggio, the fallen 
sovereign of Parma ; who, one day a 
wanderer, another a captive, always in 
jeopardy, must have found it a cold 

1 In the chapter of the book of Misfortunes, De 
impvdica uxore, Reason, who in this book combats 
Pain and Fear, as she did Joy and Hope in tho first, 
gives forconsolation some of Montaigne's arguments. 
— "Pudicitia insignis imperiosas ellicit matronas; 
nihil metult qnse sibi nihil est conscia. lluic malo 


Charterhouse of Garignano. — Slaronno. — Castol- 
lazzo. — Chiaravalle. — Pagano delia Toro. — 

The Charterhouse of Garignano, with 
its vaulted roofs and painted walls, co- 
vered with Carthusians, the best of 
Daniel Crespi's works, seems peopled 
and full of life ; it is Le Sueur magni- 
fied, and in fresco. The Resurrection 
of the Doctor is especially admirable 
for its remorse, grief, and despair, 
whereas the painting by Le Sueur on 
the same subject is cold and feeble. 
Byron could scarcely tear himself away 
from the Damned of Crespi. '' We 
saw him excited even to horror," re- 
lates his faithful and discreet companion: 
" out of respect for genius, we silently 
remounted our horses and rode on to 
wait for him at a mile from the Charter- 
house." 2 The Duke of Calabria dis- 
covering the Hermite while hunting, 
is another of those paintings much 
and justly boasted. Notwithstanding its 
neglected condition, few monuments 
have still a more superb effect than 
this edifice, now only the parish church 
of a village. 

The church of Nostra Signora di Sa- 
ronno, independently of its venerated 
image of the Madonna, is a wonder of 
art ; the choir and cupola are reputed to 
be by Bramante. The numerous frescos 
of Bernardino Luini, in Raphael's man- 
ner, and in good preservation, are in the 
rank of his best productions ; he has 
painted himself under the guise of a 
venerable old man standing among the 
rabbins in the Dispute with the Doctors. 
There are also some other paintings of 
value : the Last Supper, by Camillo 
Procaccini; St. Martin and St. George, 
by Gaudenzio Ferrari ; his slight fres- 
cos, diversified, on the cupola, present- 

igilur hoc saltern boni inest ; esse jam molesla 
minus incipiet, minusquo insolens; la?sa enim 
consoientia faemineum premit animi tumorem, et 
saepe obsequentior to reliquis Tiro est, qua; se m*. 
minit impudieam." 
2 Stendhal's Lord Byron in Italy. 

I St 



Jhap. 11.1 



ng a choir of angels, great and small, 
singing or playing on instruments ; St. 
Sebastian and St. Roch, by Ferrari's 
ilever pupil, Cesare Magno; and several 
ncidents from the Old Testament, 
gracefully treated by Bernardino La- 
aino. A chapel recently repaired pre- 
sents a Deposition from the Cross, a 
basso-relievo by Marches!. In the sa- 
cristy, the Glory of the Virgin, with 
St. James, St. Charles, and St. Am- 
brose, by Cesare Procaccini, has the 
sublimity of the school of the Carracci, 
bis masters, whom he left on account of 
Ian offensive expression of Annibal J s, 
lifter having struck the latter in his 

; Castellazzo is an old Italian manor of 
ihe Arconati family, at present the pro- 
perty of the marchioness Busca, much 
less visited than the house of Simonetta, 
which stands at a short distance from 
it: the echo of the latter, which repeats 
la pistol shot thirty-six times, being much 
more to the taste of certain travellers 
ihan the fine basso-relievos of Bambaja, 
ihe remains of the mausoleum of Gas- 
ton de Foix. The tomb of this young 
hero is strangely dispersed ; one part of 
the sculptures which adorned it is at 
ithe Ambrosian, another at Brera; Giu- 
iseppe Bossi had some of its fragments; 
there are also portions of it in the houses 
i of Trivelli and Biglia, in the chapel of 
prince Belgiojoso's villa, near Pavia; 
and Cicognara, who had even found 
some of it as far off as Paris, thought 
that there were still more. The eulo- 
gium of Vasari, who found that these 
marble basso-relievos had the appearance 
of wax-work, may very well be applied 
I; to those at Castellazzo, whieh are, I 
'believe, the most considerable portion, 
land which independently of numerous 
rornaments of exquisite taste, represent 
\ Gaston's entry into Milan, the Tak- 
ing of Brescia, of Bologna, the 
Battle of Ravenna, the Funeral pro- 
cession of Gaston, etc. Some of the 
figures are only rough-hewn, owing to 
the precipitate retreat of the French 
from Italy in 1522 and the establishment 
of Francesco Sforza's aulhorily. Nearly 
all the heads of these basso-relievos 
were broken off, and that on the very 
eve of the sale, when they passed into 

I J According to the inscription, it was in 1712 that 
Count Giuseppe Arconati formed the collection of 
Bambaja' s basso-relievos which are still seen there. 

the hands of Count Giuseppe Arconati. 
after the demolishing of the old church 
of Saint Martha's monastery, where they 
stood. It is said that a nun had en- 
gaged herself that they should be ad- 
judged to a purchaser whom she pro- 
tected ; incensed at seeing Count Arco- 
nati obtain the preference, in Ihe night 
she committed these ravages. The first 
tomb erected by the army to Gaston de 
Foix in the cathedral of Milan, against 
the high altar, and composed of arms 
and standards taken at Ravenna, was 
destroyed by the Cardinal of Sion, at 
the head of his bands; the second, two 
centuries after, 1 was fated to be muti- 
lated by a nun. 

At Castellazzo is a fine colossal statue 
of Pompey, brought from Rome, which 
pretends, as well as that of the Spada 
palace, and no doubt with as good 
grounds, to the honour of having seen 
Caesar fall at its feet. 2 An inscription 
taken from Pliny, which is much admi- 
red by the antiquarians, notices the 
vast conquests rather than the great 
actions of Pompey, his thirty years of 
warfare, and the twelve millions one 
hundred and eighty-lhree thousand men 
whom he had taken, defeated, subjected, 
or slain ; a sort of statistical account of 
his glory which leaves a chilling sen- 
sation, because these pompous feats 
have no hold on the soul, or the nature of 

Three miles from Porta Romana are 
the church and monastery of Chiara- 
valle, the Italian Clairvaux, founded by 
Saint Bernard, which is not now quite 
worthy of its name, the atmosphere 
there being much darkened by fogs occa^ 
sioned by the irrigating of the neigh- 
bouring ricefields. The steeple, which 
Lalande thought of an absurd and 
dangerous Gothic, is much rather rich 
and bold. Some basso-relievos on wood 
by G. Garavaglia, masterpieces of the 
kind, representing the life of Saint 
Bernard, adorn the ancient stalls of the 
monks; but now the church is only a 
common parish church not kept in very 
good order, and there are in it, though 
half destroyed, some large frescos by 
the brothers Fiammenghini, artists of 
the seventeenth century, full of fire but 
exaggerated. At the top of a staircase, 

2 After Giuseppe Bosse's opinion, quoted by Ci- 
cognara (Stor. dellasculi. lib. v. cap. y), this status 
is a Tiberius. 



Book IV. 

the Virgin, the Infant Jesus and 
some angels, a beautiful fresco covered 
with glass, shamefully restored, is by 
Bernardino Luini. A bust of Saint 
Bernard, very fine, formerly in the 
convent library, is now in the church: 
the features are gentle, almost graceful, 
and form a contrast with the rigour, 
power, irresistible eloquence, and agi- 
tated life of this great hermit. 

A small stone in the wall of the ce- 
metery of the convent of Chiaravalle 
poinls out the burial-place of Pagano 
della Torre, podesta of Milan, who 
died in 1241. So mean a monument 
to such a personage, of so great a family, 
— a monument creeled by the people, 
whose affection La Torre had merited, 
if the epitaph, which for once appears 
sincere, may be credited, — shows a 
republican simplicity perfectly antique. 
This tomb is for the middle ages like 
the stone slab of the Scipios, and both 
are more worlhy of respect than the 
splendid mausoleums, the master-pieces 
of art, which succeeded them. 

In the cemetery of Chiaravalle, in 
1-282, the heretic Guillelmina was in- 
terred as a saint, and afterwards ex- 
humed in 1300 as a witch, and burnt 
with two of her living followers; she 
had pretended to found an apostlcship 
of women, lo have successors of her 
own sex, like Saint Peter, and to re- 
place Ihe Roman ponliticate by a female 
papacy. One of the two sectarians burnt 
with the corpse of Guillelmina was the 
abbess Maifreda, a nun of the order 
of ihe Umiliale, whom she had ap- 
pointed her vicar, with the same powers 
as the vicar of Jesus-Christ, but who was 
only the first martyr of these lamentable 


Monza.— Theodolinda.— Iron crown.— Archives.— 
Hector Visconli.— Palace. 

Greco, on the road to Monza, has 
some fine frescos by Bernardino Luini, 
discovered a few years since. Monza, 
a small well-situated town, with its 
rich basilic, oilers the oldest and most 
numerous vestiges of Ihe Lombards ; 
this old basilic, founded by queen 

Theodolinda and exhibiting in every 
part traces of her life, seems as if it 
were the temple of the Italian Clotilda, 
who, like the queen of the Franks, 
converted her husband to the catholic 

The history of this queen of Ihe 
Lombards of the sixth century contains 
some natural and touching particulars. 
So great was Ihe popularity of Theodo- 
linda that at the death of Antaris, her 
first husband, the chief men of the 
nation invited her to choose a second 
whom l hey promised to recognise as 
their king. Theodolinda fixed her 
choice on Agigulphus, duke of Turin, 
who was worthy of such an honour. 
The queen, without communicating her 
intention to him, simply invited him 
to come to her court. She went as far 
as Lomello to meet him, and thero 
having ordered a cup to be brought, 
she drank half of its contents and 
presented it to him to drink the rest. 
The duke of Turin, on returning the 
cup, kissed the princess's hand with 
great respect. " That is not, said 
1 heodolinda, blushing, the kiss that I 
have a right to expect from him whom 
I intend lo be my lord and master. 
The Lombard nation has empowered 
me to choose a king, and it is you that 
it invites, by my mouth, to reign over 
it and me." Agigulphus's gold crown, 
which the canon Frisi has described in 
his Historical Memoirs of Monza, 
was taken to Paris in 1799 and put in 
Ihe cabinet of medals in the great 
Library; it was stolen in 180i, and 
melted down by the thieves. How 
strange the fate of this Lombard crown, 
lo be conferred wilh such ingenuous 
grace, and to fall and come to its end 
by felon hands at Paris! After Ihe 
affecting marriage of Theodolinda and 
Agigulphus, it is disagreeable to see 
them so grossly deceived by the crafty 
muleteer in Boccaccio's novel, which 
has been imitated by La Fontaine. 1 
The reliquary of queen Theodolinda, a 
toilet cabinet of the middle ages, con- 
tains her crown, sapphire cup, perhaps 
the one she presented to Agigulphus, 
her fan of red parchment, and her 
comb, which, from the present tasle of 
ladies for the Goihic, would be still a 
near approach to the fashion. 

1 Giorn. III. nor. iv. : La Font., Cont. liv. II. 

, ChAP. ill.} 


The iron crown, the real wonder of 
Monza, is enclosed in Hie upper part of 
a iarge cross placed in a chapel of the 
cathedral; it is rarely seen but at a 
certain distance, and during the short 
service which always accompanies its 
exposition. The canons afterwards show 
an imitation of the true crown, which 
you may handle and contemplate at 
your ease, as well as the very costly, 
but sometimes very insignificant, pre- 
sents made by sundry sovereigns to 
this cathedral ; such, for instance, are 
certain little loaves of gold and silver 
presented through cardinal Caprara at 
Napoleon's coronation as king of Italy. 
I confess that I preferred to all this 

frich and modern jewellery the gradual 
of Saint Gregory, a fine purple ma- 
nuscrit, * given to the cathedral of 
Monza by that great pope, who was 
the friend and confidant of the amiable 
Theodolinda ; and particularly the fa- 
mous papyrus containing a statement 
of the relics that he sent her, a frail 

1 venerable monument of twelve 
centuries, the real king of papy- 
rus, as the canon Frisi enthusiastically 
ays, who dethrones without pity an- 
ither papyrus belonging to the marquis 

In my first journey I only saw the 
iron crown at a distance ; a close in- 
spection has since been allowed me, 
is well as of the iron circle it encloses, 
which, as every body knows, is made 
>f one of the nails used in the Passion. 
I had been presented to the archpriest 
und the chapter by an ecclesiastic at- 
ached to the Ambrosian library, who 
svas passing his vacation at Monza, 
he place of his birth. The hierophant 
)f the temple was a good sort of man, 
out no great genius. I could not par- 
ion him for the disorder and filthy 
:ondition of his archives, which have 
io catalogue but an inventory of the 
objects restored by France, in which the 
itles are mutilated. 

A series of medallions painted on the 
circular vault of the church of Monza, 
•epresents the princes who have been 
irowned with the iron crown, from 
\gigulphus, the beloved husband of 

1 The letters of Saint Gregory's gradual are in 
;old and silver: the latter are almost effaced, bnt 
hose of gold are in better preservation. 

2 M. de Sismondi says that at one and the same 

Theodolinda, to Charles V. After th;5 
last no brow has dared to bear it till 

Among the historical mementos 
which abound at Monza, is a painting 
representing the solemn reception gi- 
ven to Henry III, by Saint Charles 
Borromeo. May they, in that chapel 
which contains one of the instruments 
of our Saviour's Passion ( the chapel 
del San Chiodo), have repented to- 
gether of the Saint Bartholomew mas- 
sacre, if it be true that this illustrious 
saint was privy to it! 

The remarkable paintings of this 
basilic are : the ceiling, by Isidore 
Bianchi; the frescos near the high altar, 
by Montalto and Cesare Procaccini ; 
a St. Gerard on a column, by Ber- 
nardino Luini; the Visitation, by Guer- 

The so badly kept archives contain 
an antique and curious collection of 
bulls and papal briefs, and diplomas 
of the emperors, bound at Paris, and 
bearing the arms of the empire. One 
of the celebrated ivory diptychs repre- 
sents Boetius in prison, comforted by 
Elpis, a distinguished Sicilian lady, his 
first wife, holding a ten-stringed lyre, 
or according to some interpreters, by an 
allegorical figure of Poetry. 

In the cemetery appertaining to the 
church is a strange corpse, that of 
Hector or Astor Visconti, exhumed 
after about three centuries and found 
entire. Hector Visconti, one of the 
many bastards of Benarbo, 2 received 
the surname of the. Fearless soldier; 
being blockaded in the castle of Monza, 
he defended himself there against the 
troops of duke Philip Maria, until, as 
he was leading his horse to the well, 
a fragment of rock thrown by a balista 
broke his leg, and killed him. The 
body of Hector Visconti has since been 
put in a niche under one of Ihe arcades 
which surround the cemetery : were 
it not for its whiteness the dried corpse 
might be taken for an armed mummy 
standing upright ; and this brave knight, 
leaning on his old iron sword which bears 
his cipher, seems still to be facing the 

time Benarbo had thirty-six children, and eighteen 
women pregnant by him. (Hist, des Rep, it., 
ch. ui.) 




The palace of Monza is noble and re- 
gular, and one of Piermarini's best 
performances. The chapel passes for 
a masterpiece. In the rotunda of the 
orangery are the Adventures of Psy- 
che, celebrated frescos by Appiani, 
which began his reputation. The gar- 
dens and hot-houses are vast and mag- 
nificent; as is also the park, which is 
crossed by the Lambro, and is nearly 
three leagues in circumference. 

The remains of the palace of Fede- 
rico Barbarossa at Monza have become 
public properly; the residence of this 
humbled and restin" emperor is now a 
store-house for the town. 


The Charterhouse of Pavia. — Tomb of Giovanni 
Galeas Visconti. — Arts encouraged by the monas- 
teries. — Francis I. at the Charterhouse. 

It is impossible to contemplate the 
lustre, richness, and ornaments of the 
Charterhouse ( Certosa) of Pavia, with- 
out becoming an admirer of its ancient 
masters, and feeling oneself almost a 
Carthusian. Splendour like this is the 
most innocent of all, as it is due to the 
culture and improvement of the soil : 
" The only conquest," as one writer 
felicitously expresses himself, " which 
does not increase the number of the 
unhappy." 1 The sumptuousness of the 
world, by which people are so dazzled, 
seems less deserving of respect than 
that of these magnificent recluses. The 
Charterhouse was suppressed by Jo- 
seph II. ; at a subsequent period the 
Directory stripped it even of the lead 
on the roof: all these philosophic ra- 
vages, this ungrateful violence towards 
the benefactors of the country, this 
destruction of a national and religious 
monument and miracle of ait, do not 
inspire less abhorrence and compassion 
than any other ruin. 2 

For the repairs of the Charterhouse, 
which is not irretrievably injured, 
5000 livres are now assigned, but a 
French architect would do but little 
with (hat sum. It must also be al- 

1 Melon, Essai politique sur le commerce. 

2 The taking off the lead gare admission to the 
rain, which has done much damage to several parts 
of the church and injured the paintings; many 

lowed that the climate of Itaiy is less 
destructive than ours, and that the 
materials are of better quality and 

The comfortable retreats of the an- 
cient monks may still be seen, to the 
number of twenty- four; they are of a 
single story, with a fountain and small 
garden. ,-■ 

Spatio brevi 

Spem longam reseces. 

The Gothic church is by a builder 
whose name is unknown. The elegant 
front, adorned with exquisite sculptures 
by the first masters of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, seems to be by Borgognone, no 
less skilful as an architect than good as 
a painter. The small columns beneath 
the ogive have been reckoned worthy of 
Bambaja ; the basso - relievos near the 
principal entrance are supposed to be 
by Gobbo; they represent a Visitation, 
a Miracle, a funeral Procession, and 
are masterpieces for grace, nature, and 

The splendid tomb o? the founder of 
the Charterhouse, Giovanni Galeas 
Visconti, finished in 1562 by Cristo- 
foro Romano, is placed in the church. 
It is such a monument as ought to be 
erected by characters like these monks, 
to whom death always present, sup- 
plied the place of ambition, memory, 
and meditation. The tomb of Gio- 
vanni Galeas has always been empty ; 
it was not finished till one hundred and 
sixty years after his death ; during this 
long interval, the place where his re- 
mains had been temporarily deposited 
was forgotten, and, like the Egyptian 
kings spoken of by Bossuet, this duke 
of Milan has never enjoyed his se- 

Behind this mausoleum are the fi- 
gures in demi-relievo of Louis the 
Moor and his wife Beatrice, attributed 
to Gobbo ; the figure of Beatrice is one 
of the cleverest performances of the 
time ; the chill of death alone has 
extinguished the expression of her fea- 

Despite the spoliation of 1798, the 
Charterhouse of Pavia still presents some 
remarkable paintings ; for instance, there 

paintings also were carried away in 1798; the Gra- 
dual of the Carthusians is in the Brera library, bat 
as was usual with such amateurs of books, it fcaj) 
been stripped of its rich covering. 

BAP. IV. ] 



$ tare on the interior of the front the fresco 
of the Assumption, by Giuseppe Procac- 
cini ; the Virgin adoring the Infant 
Jesus, in Montagna's style, is by Am- 
brosioFossano; andSf. Veronica show- 
fing the Saviour's winding-sheet to a 
number of women, by Camillo Procac- 
t cini. The flowers in hard slone, a rich 
and brilliant mosaic, which embellish the 
front of this altar and several others, are 
the workoftheSacchi family, established 
at the Charterhouse, which, from one 
generation to another, has always fol- 
lowed the same occupation, and remained 
there in succession for three centuries. 
The monastic orders, by their uninter- 
rupted duration, have afforded and se- 
cured to the arts more certain and per- 
manent encouragement than all the 
governments. The painting in six com- 
partments, of the year 1496, by Macrin 
d'Albe, a good old Piedmontese painter, 
who made the first approaches to the 
modern style, is esteemed for the truth 
of its colouring, Two frescos from the 
Life of St. Syrius, by Antonio Busca, 
repeat the same countenances, and prove 
the indolence and eccentricity of the 
author. The Virgin, her Son, St. Peter 
and St. Paul, a picture now become 
dull and much damaged, is by Guercino. 
An Annunciation, by Camillo Procac- 
cini, by its arrangement and attitude of 
the heads, recalls his clever imitation of 
Parmegiano. The ceiling of the new 
sacristy is by Alessandro Casolani, a 
painter of Siena in the sixteenth century, 
who was esteemed by Guido. An As- 
sumption, the upper part of which, of 
beautiful expression and colouring, is by 
Gobbo, and the lower part, precise and 
true, by Bernardino Campi. The Christ 
before the high-priest is one of the best 
works of Paggi, a Genoese painter of the 
sixteenth century. An Annunciation is 
by Cesare Procaccini, and a Virgin, the 
Infant Jesus, two saints and three 
angels full of grace playing on instru- 
ments, by Bartolommeo Montagna, a 
pupil of Giovanni Bellini, a painter of 
the middle of the fifteenth century ; he 
was of Venetian origin but born at 
Vicenza, as it has been proved by a dis- 
tinguished man of that town, Count 
Leonardo Trissino, whose information 
and literary tastemake him worthy of the 
oame. The old sacristy has a St. Martin, 
y Bernardino Luini, and a superb St. 
Ambrose, by Fossano. At the altar of | 

the Relics, Christ in the midst of the 
elect is by Danielo Crespi. The frescos 
of the choir were the last and finest 
paintings of this great artist, who, before 
the age of forty, was carried off, as well 
as his whole family, by the plague of 
Milan in 1630. The brazen gates of the 
tabernacle are by Francesco Brambilla; 
the stalls, a precious piece of inlaid work 
of the year 1486, are by Bartolommeo di 
Pola. A basso-relievo by Denis Bussola, 
the Massacre of the Innocents, is regard- 
ed as one of the best sculptures in the 
church for nature and expression. A Vir- 
gin surrounded with angels adoring the 
Infant Jesus, by Perugino, is admirable. 

The little court called the court of the 
Fountain, near the grand court, is de- 
corated with works in stucco, which are 
not surpassed in beauty and elegance by 
the finest works in marble. 

Brantome informs that when Francis I. 
after his defeat was taken prisoner in the 
Charterhouse park, he desired to be con- 
ducted to church to perform his devotions, 
and when there, the first object that pre- 
sented itself to his eyes was this inscription 
from the Psalms : Bonum mihi quia 
humiliasti me, utdiscam justificationes 
tuas. It was a great and affecting lesson, 
such as religion alone could give to the 
king who had lost all except honour. t 

Some persons have received from the 
Charterhouse an impression different 
from mine; they found it rich and pretty, 
but not remarkable for grandeur; the 
situation, instead of combining the hor- 
rors generally attributed to monasteries 
of this sort, is exposed, flat, and mono- 
tonous. But the Carthusians of Pavia, 
being husbandmen, were doubtless more 
attentive to the quality of the land, than 
to its picturesque appearance. As to the 
impression produced by the building, it 
is owing, I believe, to the fact of those 
persons having visited it on their return 
from Italy, and after my several voyages 
I can easily conceive it. Nevertheless I 
thought it incumbent on me to attempt 
a relation of what I felt on surveying this 
monastic splendour, before I became ac- 
customed to it. 

Among the many projects for employ- 
ing the buildings of the Charterhouse, 
there is one which seems feasible and 

' This so often quoted expression of Francis I. U 
perhaps fictitious, as it is not in the original of the 
letter written to his mother the queen-regent. 


Book IV. 

very excellent; that is, to convert it into 
an asylum for aged and infirm priests, 
and for country clergymen no longer able 
to eontinuetheirlaborious ministry. Such 
an establishment would become like the 
Invalides of the priesthood; it would be, 
wilh the Invalides of the army, the most 
venerable place on the earth. ' 


Pavia.— University. — library.— Colleges. 

Pavia struck me by the singular con- 
trast which exists between some cf its 
ancient monuments, the remnants of the 
middle ages, when it was the seat of the 
kings of Lombardy or the capital of a 
republican stale, and the modern and 
scientific aspect of its university, * with 
its museum of natural history, its cabinets 
of experimental philosophy and anatomy, 
and its botanical garden. The museum 
of natural history has had the honour, 
rather uncommon to this kind of esta- 
blishment, of inspiring the small but 
beautiful poem of Mascheroni, in which 
Daphnis calls the attention of Lesbia to 
the productions of nature with which it 
is enriched. 3 The number of students 
is fourteen hundred : these youths have a 
distinguished appearance, and are noted 
for their ardour and capacity. As in 
university towns, the crowd of idlers 
and curious persons who are usually 
found in large capitals, do not interfere 
with the lessons, each feels that every 
one goes there to study. If Pavia lost 
some years ago many of its most cele- 
brated professors, such as Tamburini, 
Volta, and Scarpa, 4 it still owned some 
able masters, such as the professor of 
mathematical and experimental philoso- 
phy, S. Configliacchi ; of natural history, 
Brugnatelli ; of botany, Morelti; of mi- 
neralogy and zoology, Zandrini ; of 
general chemistry and pharmaceutics, 
Marabelli ; of anatomy, Panizza, the 
worthy successor of Scarpa, and corres- 
ponding member of the Academy of scien- 
ces at Paris ; of medical clinics and the- 
rapeutics, del Chiappa; of pure elementary 

Leltres Persanes, let. Ixixv. 
' Although founded, as It is said, by Charle- 
magne, this university had greatly declined. Maria 
Theresa remodelled it, and its organisation doesnot 
In reality belong to a more remole period than the 
middle and close of Ibe last centurv. 

mathematics and surveying, Bordoni, a 
great mathematician; of'ecclesiastic law, 
Prina ; of Roman law, as related to the 
common law, Beretla ; of mechanics, 
Rorgnis; of political sciences, Lanfran- 
chi. IV o one is allowed to follow the 
university courses without having pre- 
viously been at the Lyceum. The course 
of instruction is divided into three parts, 
viz. : the faculty of politico-legal studies, 
mcdico-chirurgico-pharmaceutical stu- 
dies, and philosophical studies, which 
nearly correspond with our faculties of 
law, sciences.and ietlers.notwithstanding 
the title of philosophical given to the last. 

The course of the faculty of politico- 
legal studies lasts four years ; the follow- 
ing are the professorships : statistics, 
introduction to politico-legal studies ; 
natural law, private and public; crimi- 
nal law; Roman law, as compared with 
the common law ; ecclesiastical law ; 
Austrian universal civil law, and its 
differences with the French civil law; 
commercial law; maritime law; political 
sciences and the penal code, and judiciary 

The course of the faculty of medico- 
chirurgico-pharmaceutical studies con- 
tinues five years ; the professorships are : 
mineralogy ; introduction to the study of 
medicine and surgery ; practical ana- 
tomy; botany; zoology; comparative 
anatomy and physiology; general che- 
mistry ; animal and pharmaceutical che- 
mistry ; introduction to the study of 
theoretical surgery, pharmaceutical die- 
tetics, materia medica; general pathology; 
etiology and semeiosis; midwifery; theo- 
retical surgery : use of instruments and 
theory of bandages: materia medica and 
treatise on poisons ; general pathology ; 
hygiene and general therapeutics ; prac- 
tical medical instruction at the patient's 
bed-side ; special therapeutics of the acute 
internal maladies; veterinary art; foren- 
sic medicine ; theoretical instructions on 
the diseases of the eyes; public hygiene 
(polizia medicate ). 

The course of the faculty named philo- 
sophical studies lasts two years: one part 
of its courses is not necessary to obtain 

3 Lesbia was the Arcadian nams of Grlsmondi 
Suardi of Bergamo, a woman whose genius as a 
poet was pure, noble, harmonious, but somen hat 

4 He died October 31, (832, ;>t-'ed cigbly-live yen.;. 

Chap. VI.] 



the grade of doclor. The obligatory 
courses are : religious instruction ; theo- 
retical philosophy ; pure elementary ma- 
thematics; latin philology; moral phi- 
losophy; mathematical aud experimental 
physics. The following courses are not 
obligatory : universal history ; natural 
history; rural economy; pedagogy; his- 
tory of Austria; historical sciences; ar- 
cheology and numismatics; diplomatics; 
classical Latin literature; Greek philo- 
logy; criticism; Italian literature and 
language ; history of the fine arts ; his- 
tory of philosophy ; German language ; 

By this table one may judge of the 
professorships of the. university ofPavia 
and the extent of its education; it will 
confirm the remark that we have pre- 
viously made on the pretended obscu- 
rantisme of Austria : in this list there 
is a course of statistics, which we have 
never had, and courses in pedagogy and 
diplomatics in actual progress; real nor- 
mal and charter schools. As to the in- 
struction, I have been informed by some 
of the most distinguished professors that 
it is neither compulsory nor restricted ; 
the salaries have been augmented, and 
are even higher now than they were 
under the French government, which had 
already made some additions to them; 
they are at least as high as those of the 
professors of the academy of Paris, and 
it is well known that living in Italy is 
far less expensive. 

The ancient library of Pavia, establish- 
ed by the Sforza family, and chiefly by 
duke Galeas, with the advice of Petrarch, 
was successively despoiled by Louis XII. 
in 1499, and in 1526 by Marshal Lautrec ; 
the great library of the rue Richelieu is 
indebted to it for the finest editions of 
the fifteenth century, of which it now lias 
the richest collection in the world. The 
present library of the University was 
founded by Count Firmian, and it has 
received the greater part of Haller's 
books. Being intended for educational 
woiks, it has scarcely any ancient manu- 
scripts except those proceeding from the 
suppressed monastery of Saint Peter in 
del d'oro, and with all its fifty thousand 
volumes, it contains but few scarce works. 
Its collection of the memoirs of all the 

1 Dante has some fine verses on (he burying of Giuso in Cleldauro, ed essa ria martiro, 
Bostius in saint Peter in del Woro : I E da esilio venne a questa pace. 

scientific societies and academies in the 
original text, is the largest and most 
complete in Italy. The portfolios of the 
professors are carefully preserved there, 
and must form an interesting compila- 
tion. An under-librarian's place was 
vacant about the middle of 1826, and 
was about to be competed for, as are all 
literary functions in the Lombardo-Ve- 
netian kingdom. This method, which 
might be thought the best, and which 
appears to me very good for nominations 
to offices of a secondary nature, is how- 
ever offensive to the Italians, and I have 
heard it reprobated by men of enlight- 
ened minds. 

There are three free colleges at Pavia, 
namely, the Caccia, Borromeo, and 
Ghislieri colleges ; the two first are fa- 
mily foundations and are still supported 
by the founders' munificence. Such 
foundations are by no means rare in 
Italy; perhaps aristocracy has no nobler 
attribute than this perpetual benefit of 
education conferred on successive gene- 
rations who must naturally become at- 
tached to these same families. The Cac- 
cia college receives from twenty-five to 
thirty pupils, all from Novara, the coun- 
try of the Caccia family ; the Borromeo, 
thirty-six ; and the Ghislieri, sixty, and 
twelve boarders. The finest of the esta 
blishments is the Borromeo college, 
founded by Saint Charles, as well as a 
great number of the first schools ofLom- 
bardy. With its imposing front, vast 
porticoes, the elegance of its architecture, 
the brilliant frescos of Federico Zuccari, 
representing the History of Saint Char- 
les, which cover the walls and ceiling of 
the great hall, this superb edifice seems 
rather a palace than a college. 


Towers.— Boeiius.— Malaspina house.— Museum. 

I experienced numerous historical dis- 
appointments at Pavia : I went to the 
church of Saint Peter in ciel d'oro to 
look for the tomb of Boetius, that really 
great man, minister, scholar, orator, 
philosopher, poet, musician, and martyr 
to the public welfare and the truth in 
an age of barbarism ; « it was no longer 

io corpo ond' ella [I'aninw saiifa] fu cacciata, giace 

(PARAD. X. 127. 



[Book IV 

there : the church had been suppressed 
thirty years, and I beheld it then encum- 
bered with the forage of a Polish regi- 
ment. The body of Boetius had been 
put in the cathedral, but, in the language 
of the day, there were no funds to build 
him a tomb. Certainly the Liutprands 
and Othos, those princes of the middle 
ages that we look on as barbarians, some 
eight or ten centuries ago, had erected 
and magnificently enlarged the mauso- 
leum of Uoetius; they had not yet, to 
avoid rendering honour to virtue, adopt- 
ed this eternal and invincible argument 
of our civilisation. 1 The tomb of Liut- 
prand was at first placed in the church of 
Saint Adrian, but some time after it was 
carried to the basilic of Saint Peter in 
ciel d'oro; in his will he desired that he 
might be interred at the feet of Boetius, 
that when he ceased to exist he might 
not seem to cease testifying his respect 
for that illustrious man. The coffin of 
this great king, as we are informed by a 
learned Pavian,* was supported by four 
small marble columns; his statue in royal 
robes was placed above. The decision of 
the council of Trent caused the coffin to 
be taken down, as it was then decreed 
that the burial-place of saints only should 
be above the surface of the earth. The 
ashes of Liutprand were deposited at the 
foot of a pilaster in the choir; the ori- 
ginal epitaph w hich told of his piety and 
valour, the wisdom of his laws, his con- 
quest of the Boman state, and his victories 
over the Saracens in France when he 
flew to succour Charles Martel, the tak- 
ing of Bavenna, Spoleto, and Benevento 
—all these signs of glory had disappear- 
ed, and nothing was left on his fallen 

i The tomb of Boelius was erected in the church 
of Saint Augustine by the king of the Lombards, 
I.Iulprand, about 726; the emperor Otho III. erected 
another and a magnificent one in marble with a very 
remarkable inscription composed by Gerbert, after- 
wards pope under the name of Sylvester II, [Noli- 
zie appartenenti alia storia delta sua pallia 
raccolle ed illustrate da Giuseppe Iiobolini, gen- 
titvomo pavese. Pavla, 1826 etseq. ; torn. i. 210, 
and ii. 86.) Gerbert was one of the most learned 
men of his day, but he did not invent clocks as 
some have supposed (V. Gallia Christiana, torn. %.); 
he was born In Auvergne, and may be added to the 
illustrious Auvergnats mentioned by M. de Cha- 
teaubriand in his Voyage a Clermont. 

* Notizie appartenenti alia storia della sua patria, 
raccolte ed illustrate da Giuseppe Kobolini, vol. i. 
p. !)'.. 

' Petrarch, alluding to the birth of nn illegiti- 
mate son previous to that of this daughter, avows 

tomb but the words, Here are the bones 
of king Liutprand; this simple inscrip- 
tion was one day destined to be itself 
ignobly smothered over with trusses of 
hay, and I sought it in vain. 

Pavia, called in the olden times the 
City of a hundred Towers, has but two 
now standing. One of those now thrown 
down, from its extravagant structure, - 
was called the point downwards ( pizzo 
in giu). The tower which bears the 
name of Boetius is modern ; the tradition 
even of his imprisonment in a tower can 
be traced no farther back than Jacopo 
Gualla, an historian of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. As to the site of the palace of the 
Lombard kings, probably near the church 
of Saint Michael, Iwasinformed by a learn- 
ed man whom I consulted that there were 
fourteen opinions on the subject, without 
counting his own, I believe; so I had 
not the courage to look for its locality. 

In front of the Malaspina house are 
the busts of Boetius and Petrarch, men 
greatly differing in fortune, genius, and 
character, whom chance alone could have 
brought intojuxta-posilion. An elegant 
inscription by Morcelli, placed beneath 
the bust of Boetius, informs us that it 
was near that spot where he was im- 
prisoned, and composed his book on the 
Consolations of Philosophy. The in- 
scription on Petrarch's bust states that 
he came to pass the autumns within the 
walls of that house, the residence of his 
son-in-law Brossano, architectural sur- 
veyor to Galeas Visconti, and husband 
of his natural daughter, a trifling inci- 
dent, but somewhat crude, which sadly 
disconcerts our imaginings respecting the 
fidelity of Laura's bard.^ This daughter 

himself, with a sort of Italian simplicity singular 
enough, how he bad thought of escaping from the 
passion which enslaved his mind and formed his 
torment, by yielding to propensities somewhat less 
plalouie. hut he pretends that in spile of these 
indulgences he never really loved any but Laura, 
that he was always conscious of the disgraeefulness 
of such habits, and ultimately ridded himself of 
them in his fortieth year. Carol, lib. I. Ep. 12, el 
Epist. ad Post, quoted by Foscolo, Essays on Pe 
Irarcli, XIII. 

On the death of a child of this daughter's, Petrarch 
composed some natural and touching Lalln verses, 
which he had engraved on ils.lomb : 

\ix rnundi novus hospes iter vitasque volanlis 

Attigeram tenero limina dura pede; 
Franclscus genilor, genitrli Fruncisca, fecutus 

Hos, de fonte sacro nomen idem tenui. 
Infons formosus, solauien dulce parenlum. 

Chap. VII. ] 



is the one who, in the absence of her 
father-in-law and husband, so cordially 
received Boccaccio when he visited Pavia, 
and notwithstanding his fifty-five years, 
his obesity, and pitiful appearance, he 
did not think it prudent to lodge in her 
house lest her reputation might be com- 
promised. Marquis Ludovico Malas- 
pina, who died in 1835, above eighty 
years of age, had erected at his own 
expense and from his own designs, a no- 
ble but plain edifice destined to receive 
his valuable collection of prints, and his 
paintings, among which there are not 
only some of the best Italian masters, 
but several of the Flemish school, as well 
as a quantity of antique works and the 
inevitable Egyptian museum, fortunately 
not very extensive. The front is deco- 
rated with a basso-relievo presenting 
the figures of Raimondi, Raphael, and 
Michael Angelo, by S. Monti of Ra- 
venna, who also executed the statue of 
the Genius of the Arts, placed opposite 
the entrance-door. This handsome and 
useful foundation is besides an academy 
of the fine arts; it will perpetuate at the 
iame time the memory of the taste, ta- 
lents, and patriotism of its generous 


Church of Saint Michael.- Cathedral. —Tomb of 
Saint Augustln.— Bridge. 

The Gothic church of Saint Michael, 
me of the oldest monuments of Christian 
intiquity, seems to be of the sixth cen- 
;ury : « among the basso-relievos sculp- 
ured on the exterior of this old basilic, 
nay be remarked an Annunciation, in 
ivhich the child is already grown, ac- 
cording to the Arian doctrine. The 
coarse expressive sculpture of Saint Mi- 
hael is moreover suited to such a sect, 
rvhich seems to have infused into Chris- 
ianity the conquering, destructive, and 
nartial spirit of Islamism. In another 
lasso-relievo, is an angel playing on a 
/iolin, from which the great antiquity of 

Nunc dolor, hoc uno sors mea laeta minus, 
laetera sum fell?, et vera? gaudia vitce, 

Nadus, et a?terna?, tarn cito, tam facile, 
ol bis, luna quater flexum peragraverat orbem. 

Obvia mors, fallor, obvia vita fuit. 
(e Venetum terris dedit urbs, rapuilque Papla : 

Nee queror, hinc ccelo reslituendus eram. 
This opinion of d'Agencourt, of Malaspina, in 

that noble instrument may be inferred. 
The frescos representing the Virgin's 
coronation, the Four doctors of the 
Church, and the painting over the altar 
of the Virgin, are curious productions of 
Andrino d'Edesia, a painter of Pavia, 
contemporary with Giotto. A St. Se- 
bastian, and a St. Luke, by Moncalvo, 
are good. 

The vast majestic church del Carmine 
is of the fourteenth century. Several 
of its paintings are esteemed, namely : 
a Crucifix, by Malosso; St. Anne, by 
Moncalvo ; St. Sebastian and divers 
saints, a painting in six compartments, 
inscribed with the name of Bernardino 
Cotignola, a painter of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, whose works are scarce. 

Santa Maria Coronata, commonly 
called de Canepanova, of a plain but 
noble architecture, is by Bramante ; it 
contains some fine paintings : Jael and 
Sisera; David and, Abigail, by Mon- 
calvo ; a Judith, an Esther, by Tiarini, an 
excellent painter of the Bolognese school ; 
Rachel at the well ; the Hebrews 
marching towards the land of promise, 
by Camillo Procaccini ; and two other 
subjects from the Old Testament, by his 
brother Cesare. 

At Saint Marino, a Holy Family is 
attributed to Gaudenzio Ferrari ; St. Je- 
rome and the Virgin, to his illustrious 
pupil Bernardino Luini. 

Saint Francis has two good pictures : 
a St. Matthew, by Bernardino Campi; 
a St. Catherine, by Procaccini. 

Of the throng of deceptive remains 
which abound in Italy, Pavia, perhaps, 
possesses two of the most brilliant and 
best imagined . The first is the pompous 
pretended tomb of Saint Augustine, for- 
merly standing in the church of Saint 
Peter in ciel d'oro, and now in the 
cathedral. The sculptures which orna- 
ment it, consisting of fifty basso-relievos, 
ninety-five statues, in all four hundred 
and twenty figures, without including 
animals, are a singularly remarkable 
piece of workmanship of the close of the 
fourteenth century, and the most con- 

his Guide of Pavia, and of Rosmlni, in the Histon; 
of Milan, has been recently contradicted by San- 
Quintino(fle(/' italiana archiletlura durante la do- 
minazione longobarda, Brescia, -1829). According 
toSan-Quintino, Pavia and the old church of Saint 
Michael were burnt in 92'i by the Hungarians ; so 
that the present church can only be of the end ol 
the eleventh century. 



(Book IV. 

siderable of that epoch. The second 
counterfeit remnant in the cathedral is 
the lance of Roland, a sort of oar pointed 
With irqn, suspended from the ceiling. 
This cathedral is a monument of no 
great importance ; it has been recently 
repaired, and the old Gothic is nearly 
hidden by the new constructions. There 
are some paintings, however, not desti- 
tute of merit, as those of the high altar, 
by Carlo Sacchi, a Parian painter of the 
seventeenth century and a clever colo- 
rist; at the altar of the Rosary, the 
Mysteries, by Antonio Solari, surnamed 
Zingaro, who was born at Venice and 
not in the Abruzzi, as some have sup- 
posed ; a St. Syrus and two other paint- 
ings near it, the best works of Carlo 
Antonio Rossi, a pupil and follower of 
Procaccini ; a Flagellation; the Virgin 
and the Marys, by Danielo Crespi. 

The covered bridge over the Ticino, 
supported by a hundred columns of gra- 
nite, with its elegant front on the side 
towards the town, is a monument of the 
fourteenth century, which, with the 
waterworks of the same period, still 
bears witness to the grandeur and utility 
of the public works at Pavia under the 
republican government. 


Varese.— Madonna del ModIc— Italian Catholicism.. 
—Cosmo.— Cathedral. — JEtfes Jovice. — Lyceum. — 
Library. -Casino.— Theatre.— Tower of Baradello. 

Before returning to Milan, in 1827, 
I visited Cosmo. The road, on leaving 
Seslo Calende, differs completely from 
the flat and monotonous one leading to 
Milan. This corner of Lombardy, being 
nearer the Alps, is picturesque and full 
of variety. The road passes by Varese, 
a rich and pretty town, of a joyous aspect 
and well peopled, near the lake of its 
own name; it has a theatre, a casino, 
and some splendid villas, where Italian 
magnificence is already displayed. A 
part of the road passes under some 
beautiful trellis work, belonging, I be- 
lieve, to the gardens of the neighbour- 
ing villas, and the view from thence 
commands all the country to a great 
distance. The octagonal baptistry of 
the principal church is a monument 
remarkable for its antiquity, and is 
a remnant of the Lombards. In an 
elegant Utile church, the Adoration of 

the Magi appears to be the last work of 
the old age of Camillo Procaccini, as 
we are informed by this pathetic inscrip. 
tion of the time :—Hic Camilli Procac- 
cini manus inclitw ceciderunt. The 
figure of the Virgin has but little grace- 
fulness and is the weakest part of the 
painting, which is not, however, des- 
titute of a sort of variety. 

Near Varese is the famous Madonna 
del Monte, whose fete the maidens of the 
neighbourhood were then going to cele- 
brate (it was in the month of September 
on the eve of the Nativity of the Virgin). 
The whole district had that air of joy, 
which the Catholicism, enlivened by or- 
naments, ' of the inhabitants of Italy 
gives to the popular manners of the 
country. The prospect from the Ma- 
donna del Monte is varied, immense, 
and magnificent, extending from the 
chain of the Alps where Mont-Rose raises 
its towering summit, as far as Milan. The 
church and the fourteen chapels, built 
by the roadside, have some good paint- 
ings of the best Lombard masters of the 
fourteenth century. 

I committed the fault of not going 
to Lugano, which its lake, the frescos of 
Luini, and its Gazette of the Ticino, 
render worthy of a visit from the lovers 
of nature, the arts, and liberty. 

I was delighted with Cosmo : its posi- 
tion in a species of valley on the banks 
of the lake and its many towers render 
it picturesque. The marble cathedral 
erected by the people is a vast and beau- 
tiful monument of the era of the revival. 
Rodari, an able architect and sculptor of 
the close of the fifteenth century, too 
little known, executed the elegant gal- 
lery, the chandeliers of the altar of Saint 
Lucy, the exquisite pilasters of the organ, 
the graceful ornaments of a little door, 
the Christ in his mother's arms, and 
some other excellent statues. On the 
outside wall are the remains of an in- 
scription relative to Pliny, which has 
been quoted by Gruter and the divers 
editors of the Latin Epistolary, although 
it contains nothing very interesting for 
history. The baptistry is attributed to 
Bramante. The Nativity, the Adora- 
tion of the Magi, the Virgin, St. Je- 
rome and some saints arc by Bernardino 
Luini ; a Flight into Egypt, the Espou- 
sals of the Virgin, by Gaudenzio Fer- 

' D'ornemenls egaye.— Boutir. 

up. IX.] 


The church of San Fedele, the oldest 
i the town, is of characteristic architec- 
ire. There are some fine frescos attri- 
uted lo Camillo Procaccini, and the 
lapel of the Crucifix is of good archi- 

The jEdes Jovice presents, under the 
estibules, the porticos of the court and 
le staircase, a real museum of antique 
ascriptions. The device of the Giovio 
unily is several times repeated on the 
'alls, Fato prudentior minor, a parody 
f that somewhat obscure verse of the 
ireorgics , on the foresight of ravens : 

Aut rerum fato pvudentia major 

motto of a destructive fatalism, little 
forthy of a scholar and philosopher, 
^he Mdes Jovice was the abode of 
lount Giambattista Giovio, great nephew 
f Paolo Giovio, a man of erudition, and 
ulhor of the Letter e lariane, somewhat 
stentatiously surnamed the Varro of 
k>smo. The library contains ancient 
nanuscripls, some of which are slill un- 
tublished ones of Paolo Giovio, Bene- 
letto Giovio, Ihe second scholar of this 
lamily, and of the count Giambattista. 

A magnificent lyceum was founded in 
> 824. On the front are busts of the il- 
ustrious literati of Cosmo from Ihe two 
Minys down to Carlo Gaston Rezzonico, 
si learned critic and tolerably brilliant 
>oet of the last century ; busts, which 
ire strangley enough surmounted by that 
of Saint Abbondio, which would be more 
v.uitably placed in the chapel, and its 
present position might now be occupied 
■)y the bust cf Volta, the honour of 
Cosmo. The library of the lyceum had 
ii good beginning, and is already exten- 
sive. It is decorated with a large statue 
by Bernino of St. Isidore keeping his 
\jxen. So perpetually laboured is the 
italent of this artist, that not only is the 
: air of the saint devoid of every shade of 
rusticity, but even the calves are formal 
and have also, in their way, a smack of 

j Cosmo has a superb literary casino. 
I This establishment of an Italian town of 
fifteen thousand souls, is superior to all 
those of the same kind in Paris. 

The new front of the theatre is a noble 
piece of architecture, and the interior is 
pretty handsome; but the players were 

execrable, and I cannot forget a certain 
Rosina, one of the most affected Italian 
singers that I ever heard. This worst 
of the Italian actors is not, however, cold 
or dull like that of our provincial per- 
formers : thanks to the language and the 
physiognomies of the country, it is hearty, 
boisterous, expressive, and animated. 

On an eminence near the road, is to 
be seen still standing the tower of Ba- 
radello, another monument of the intes- 
tine broils and revolutions of Italy in the 
middle ages. It is there that Napoleon 
della Torre was confined in an iron cage 
until he perished, after nineteen months 
of torment ; this perpetual chief of the 
Milanese was made prisoner by the army 
of the archbishop of Milan, Otho Vis- 
conti, whom he had expelled; a defeat 
which overthrew the power of the Tor- 
riani and brought about the sovereignty 
of the Yisconti. Voltaire ridiculed these 
cage stories ; it is clear, however, that the 
inhabitants of Cosmo shut up in three 
iron cages Napoleon della Torre and five 
of his relatives taken with him, because 
he had inflicted the same punishment on 
one of their countrymen. The tower of 
Gabbia, which is still in existence at 
Mantua, and retains its cage ; and the 
tower of Placentia, which has also a 
cage, assert this barbarity ; it even lasted 
more than two centuries. The impri- 
sonment of the six Torriani took place in 
t277; the same captivity is frequent at 
the end of the fifteenth century : the 
duke of Nemours and cardinal La Balue 
underwent it, and Comines confesses 
that he had an eight months' taste 
of it. 


Lake. — Greek names.— Factory-convent. — Plinlana. 
Melzi villa.— Fiume Latte.— Frate nuns.— Grave- 
dona. —Baptistry. — Musso palace. — Sommariva 
villa. — Basso-relievos of Thorwaldsen. — Villa 
d'Este. — Vico. — Odescalchi Villa. — Elm. — Paolo 

It is difficult to describe the variety 
and the enchanting localities of the lake 
of Cosmo ; with its woods, rocks, and 
cascades, the mildness of the air, and 
the olive and citron groves that reach 
down to its banks, it presents an image, 




as it were, of Switzerland and Italy com- 
bined ; Greece even seems to be there, 
and she has given some of her harmo- 
nious names to sundry places in the en- 
virons : for instance, Lenno, Nesso, 
Lecco, Colonia, Corcnno, which natu- 
rally remind one of Lemnos, Naxos, 
Leucadia, Colona, and Corinth. This 
number of Greek names is a proof of the 
emigration of Ihe Pelasgians into the 
north of Italy, and ihe name of Cosmo, 
too, bespeaks a Greek derivation. The 
Pelasgians were originally from Ar- 
cadia, ' and on these beauteous shores 
they found the freshness and charming 
solitudes of their native vales. 2 

In spite of the singular, and perhaps 
rather cold, epithet of the great master, 
Lari 3/axime, 3 the lake of Cosmo does 
not present, like some others, a great 
plain of monotonous water; on the con- 
trary, the scene appears to close, reopen, 
and renew itself every instant ; its little 
slraits produce the effect of a succession 
of lakes, and the headlands which they 
form present admirable views of diffe- 
rent kinds. I went over it several times 
with infinite pleasure, as well as its en- 
virons, and I could have wished to so- 
journ longer there. It would not be 
very expensive to live in this delightful 
country ; at Balbianino, one of the best 
situations on Ihe lake, I was shown a 
very pretty house then let to an English 
family for fifty Milanese crowns a month, 
a little under 250 fr. 

On an agreeable acclivity, near the 
point of Torno, a pretty village which 
rises in the form of an amphitheatre, 
may be seen the ruins of an old mona- 
stery, for the borders of'lhe lake are all 
covered with chapels, churches, and 

1 It would be easy to make a lengthy note on the 
origin of the Pelasgians ; it is said now that they 
came from the land of Canaan; I have adhered to 
the opinion of D' Anyille, Freret, and Barlhelemy. 

2 According to Strabo, Pompey sent into this 
country, after it was ravaged by the Rhetians, five 
hundred Greeks of distinguished families to re- 
people it. 

3 Oeorg. II. 159. Some injudicious commenta- 
tors had pretended to discover two lakes in the 
tori maxime, namely, the lake of Cosmo and Lago 
Maggiore, a reading rightfully rejected by Iloyne. 

4 Pliny the Elder pretends that Ihe periodical 
flow takes place every hour : In Comensi. juxta 
l.artum lacum, fons largus horis singulis temper 
intumesatacresidet,u. 103 : and Pliny the Younger 
makes it three times a day, lib. iv. ep. 30. 

5 The ma*t satisfactory explanation of this phe- 

convents, which have a very pictu- 
resque effect when viewed from the 
water. The monks of Torno belonged 
to the timiliati, an order devoted to 
manual labour, and whose convents, 
numerous in Lombardy and on the banks 
of the lake of Cosmo, were woollen 
manufactories; the workmen lived there 
with their wives and children, subject 
to certain regulations. It appears that 
the trade at Torno was so flourishing, 
as to cause a relaxation of discipline 
among the umiliati from Ihe increase 
of their wealth, and that it was found 
necessary to suppress this factory-convent 
in 1571. 

I went down to Ihe Pliniana, the 
most noted spot on the lake. The Pli- 
niana was not, as is supposed, the abode 
of Pliny, but takes its name from (he 
famous fountain observed by the Elder 
Pliny and described by the Younger, 
whose letter, which may be read on 
the wall, totally differs from the pas- 
sage in his uncle's Natural History.* 
On seeing the abundant and impetuous 
issue of this fountain, the periodical 
flowing and ebbing of which is still a 
mystery, 5 I was struck with the might 
and unchangeableness of nature, al- 
ways the same though ages pass away, 
and the admirable order which she 
preserves amid the wreck of all things 
human ; science examines, and reason 
loses itself in researches ; but ever- 
teeming nature lives, creates, and re- 
news. The present palace of Pliniana, 
a massy and formal square building, 
was erected in 1570 by Anguissola, one 
of Ihe four chief nobles ofPiacenza, who 
poniarded the tyrant Pietro Ludovico 
Farnese, and threw his body out of the 

nomenon is probably that given in a note to Le- 
maire's Classiques latins: the ebb aud flow, says 
the nolc, may be produced by the agency of a 
siphon or tube formed by nature running through 
the clay and the rock. The follow ing pleasing pas- 
sage from Pliny's letter, in which ho ingeniously 
compares the ebb and flow of the fountain to the 
guggling of a bottle, makes a near approach to the 
conjecture of the siphon: — "Spiritus ne aliquis 
occullior os foutis et fauces modo laxat, modo in- 
cludit, prout Hiatus occurrit, aut decessit expulsus? 
Quod iu ampullis ceterisque generis ejusdem vidfr 
mus accidere, quibus non hians, nee slatim patens 
exitus. Nam ilia quoque, quanquam prona et ver- 
gentia, per quasdam obluctantis animcB moras 
crebris quasi singultibus sistunl, quod effun- 
dunt." i.iv. iv. p. 80. 

lllAP. IX.] 


window. This nobleman died from ter- 
ror, after Laving discovered the project 
3f an assassin, who had been long con- 
cealed under monastic habits in a convent 
near Cosmo, awaiting an opportunity to 
surprise him. At every step, even in 
the bosom of this sweet and smiling so- 
litude, one meets with the fearful remi- 
niscences which characterise the history 
and manners of the Italians at various 
• epochs. Baradello had been the prison 
of him, w ho migljt almost be called the 
ICsesar of Milan, > Pliniana became the 
asylum of the Brutus of Piacenzia. 

Notwithstanding the authority of Paolo 
Giovio, the point of Bellaggio must have 
been the Comcedia of Pliny. 2 There 
also doubtless is the molli curvamine 
■which embraced it. Pliny's description 
of the two villas that he preferred to his 
olher houses on the lake of Cosmo is a 
perfect parallel; it has all the symmetry 
and the peculiar elegance of that kind of 
•writing: letters so skilfully composed are 
rather a book addressed to the public 
than a correspondence. A singular ana- 
logy exists between Pliny and Sacy, his 
translator, a rare occurrence, as those 
kinds of union are most frequently suffi- 
ciently ill-sorted ; both were men of great 
uprightness of character, of a gentle and 
amiable disposition, living in elegant, 
polite, and talented society, and born at 
an epoch of subtilty and decline. 

At Bellaggio the villa of Melzi, ele- 
gantly embellished by that illustrious 
Italian, has some paintings by Appiani, 
and is also remarkable for its gardens and 
fine prospect. A beautiful group of 
Dante led by Beatrice, is the work of 
Professor Comolli, a clever statuary, pa- 
tronized by Melzi ; he also executed 
Melzi's sepulchral monument which 
stands in the chapel. 

The torrent called i7 flume latte, which 
rushes in foam through the rocks, falls 
into the lake, and gives its name to the 
village situated at its feet, reminded me 
of the cascade of Pissevache, near Mar- 
tigny. A comparison of these two po- 

1 See the end of the preceding chapter. 

3 Pliny gave the names of Comcedia and Tragcedia 
to two of the villas he possessed on the lake of 
Cosmo ; it is probable that Tragcedia was at Lenno, 
on the other side of the late, nearly opposite, on 
account of the severe aspect and the rocks of which 
Pliny speaks in the description of this villa, which 
shod il like a buskin ; whereas Comcedia, which 
touched the shore, had only sandals. Lib. ix. ep. 7. 

pular metaphors, intended to produce the 
same impression, shows all fhe difference 
between the genius of Italy, and ( if one 
may say so ) the genius of Switzerland. 
In this manner may words at times serve 
to distinguish the character and spirit of 
nations. The flume latte is dry in winter, 
and commences to flow in spring, as it 
is picturesquely painted by Arici, in 
these correct and well-turned verses : 

Entro al capaci 
Rivolgimenti d'lntentato speco 
Arida tace al verno atra sorgenle, 
E al primo uscir di primavera, intenso 
Romor di venti e fremiti e procelle 
Assordan l'antro, come se di mille 
Edifizi iaggiu fosse il frasluono 
E la ruina e un mar chiuso e II tremolo; 
Poi sgorga. 3 

Capuana, theSerbelloni villa, a superb 
abode in by-gone times, is now deserted ; 
but it still retains its rivulet, cascades, 
evergreens, and its view. 

Near to the branch of Lecco, which 
has not the animated and varied aspect 
of the Cosmo branch, but is sad and so- 
litary, stands Varena, favoured with so 
genial a climate, that, besides its pines, 
oaks, laurels, cypresses, and numerous 
olives, the aloe and even the plants of 
Syria will flourish there. 

The bottom of the lake is superb; it is 
shut in by the Rhetian Alps which wit- 
nessed the first exploits of Drusus, 

Yidere Rhsetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusurn gerenlem Yindcliei— 

mountains whichsubsequently gave equal 
renown to great captains of modern 
times, from the duke of Rohan, the de- 
termined conqueror of the Valteline, to 
Macdonald, the vanquisher of the icy fogs 
and the Grisons. 

On returning by the left, Domaso and 
Gravedona meet the view. On the 
mountain between these two small towns 
the women wear a large gown of brown 
woollen with a hood like that of the 
Capuchins : these ladies are also called 

3 L'Origine delle fonti. Milan, 1833. Ariel died 
at Brescia, his native place, on the 2nd of July 1836, 
aged fifty-three years. He was a good didactic and 
descriptive poet, but in lyrical composition he par- 
tially failed, and in epic totally. The Commenlarj 
which he published as secretary of the Athenaeum 
of Brescia are distinguished for purity and elegance 
of style, and the art of expressing with perspicuity 
the most abstruse ideas of science and philosophy. 



[Book IV. 

(rate. They adopt this slrauge costume 
in consequence of a vow made by their 
mothers, which they religiously observe. 
But coquetry loses nothing by it; this 
humble dress does not entirely conceal 
either their elegant forms or pretty faces; 
and among the rich, gold, coral, and lace 
occasionally shine on the robe of the good 

Gravedona has some importance with 
respect to art. Its antique and curious 
baptistry presents on the outside some 
hieroglyphics and unintelligible basso- 
relievos ; and the miraculous fresco of the 
Madonna, as the old annalists relate, 
threw out such a brightness for two days, 
in 823, that it moved the son ofCarloman 
to almsgiving and prayer. At the church 
of Saint Gusmeus and Saint Matthew, a 
fine Martyrdom of the two saints, pas- 
ses for a performance of Guercino, and 
the ceiling of the choir, by Pamfilio 
Nuvolone, offers a Glory of Angels with 
exquisite countenances. The marble pa- 
lace formerly belonging to the dukes of 
Alvitto, is of a noble architecture, and 
has a very fine effect when viewed from 
the lake. Some arm-chairs in the great 
hall, bearing the names of the cardinals 
of the time, have given rise to an opinion 
that it was once proposed to assemble 
there the general council, afterwards held 
at Trent ; a grand Christian consultation, 
which passed eighteen years in drawing 
up the doctrines and formulas of our 
faith, and which might have offered its 
religious reminiscences to make a new 
contrast with those of literature, politics, 
and war, associated with the lake of 

Lower down are discovered the ruins 
of the stronghold of Musso, an ancient 
fortification hollowed out perpendicularly 
in the rock by the indefatigable Giovanni 
Jacopo Trivulzio. Musso was defended 
with singular audacity by the famous 
Giovanni Jacopo Medici, » whose sisters 
Clarissa and Margaret ( the latter after- 
wards the wife of Count Borromeo and 
mother of Saint Charles ), shared his 
perilous adventures and stimulated the 
women to augment the fortifications. 
Francesco Sforza, after ordering the 
murder of Ectore Visconti, warned to 
get rid of the instruments of that crime, 
Medici, and another captain named Poz- 
xino. The latter was killed ; Medici had 

■ SeeLlv.m, cli.ii. 

received orders to repair to the castle of 
Musso ; however, while making the pas- 
sage he suspected Sforza's intentions, and 
opened the letter entrusted to his charge, 
by which he was convinced of the fate 
that awaited him. He immediately re- 
placed this letter by another enjoining 
the governor to transfer to him provi- 
sionally the command of the fort: and 
from this rock he braved all the attacks 
of Sforza both by land and water, became 
the terror of his race, pillaged all the 
environs, took possession of the Valteline, 
and did not consent to make peace until 
he had obtained, besides the payment of 
35,000 sequins, the sovereignty of Lecco 
for himself and his descendants, and the 
possession ofMeleguano, another fortress 
between Milan and Lodi, in exchange for 
the one he occupied. It is painful to 
behold such men stained by crime; as it 
restricts the admiration their prodigious 
courage inspires : how great would their 
glory have been, if instead of being im- 
pelled by their own danger and personal 
interest, they had been actuated by pa- 
triotism and honour! 

Cadenabbia and Tremezzine, situated 
on the same side, in the middle of the 
lake, for position, climate, and their 
many beautiful villas, are the Baise of this 
little Mediterranean. The Sommariva 
villa, although of the bad architectural 
taste of last century, is one of those 
splendid seats that would not have been 
disdained by the luxurious and voluptuous 
Romans, so severely reprehended by 
Horace, an Epicurean and poet who had 
little right to appeal to Romulus, the 
Elder Cato, or ancient usages. There 
may be seen an exact copy of Jocond, 
by Leonardo Vinci, many pleasing pain- 
tings of modern Italian and French pain- 
ters, as well as the Palamedes, of Canova, 
a statue which was accidentally broken 
when nearly finished, but which was ad- 
mirably repaired by the artist ; the model 
of his pathetic Magdalen, and the beau- 
tiful basso-relievos of the Triumph of 
Alexander by Thonvaldsen, ordered by 
Napoleon for the Quirinal palace, and 
which Pliny, at his early period loo 
zealous a partisan of museums, would 
not, if now living, have failed to comprise 
in the list of those statues expelled and 
sent into the exile of villas. 

I went down to the villa d'Este, wl ich 
was inhabited for three years by the 
princess of Wales. Her cipher may still 

Chap. IX. ] COSMO. 


be seen in the drawing-room, and in the 
theatre that she had built there. This 
villa bad previously belonged to general 
Pino ; on the flankof the eminence which 
commands it, he had built walls and 
battlements so as to give a tolerably good 
imitation of Tarragona, of which he had 
gained possession. These military traces 
still remain, and they nobly divert one's 
thoughts from dwelling on the memory 
of the little Caprea of the English prin- 

At the town of Vico, on returning to 
Cosmo, is the Odescalchi villa, the most 
extensive of the many villas on the bor- 
ders of the lake, and an abode of almost 
princely splendour, but which struck me 
as melancholy despite its late magni- 
ficent embellishments. All the rich 
wainscoting of this palace are less grate- 
ful to my taste than the shade of the su- 
perb old elm planted at its gate on the 
bank of the lake, with its stone bench, 
whence one can enjoy so delightful a 
view of Cosmo, the lake, and the moun- 
tains. At Vico, in the house called 
Gallia, now the property of the Fossani 
family, was the museum, or the gallery 

1 See, in his letters, the candid immodesty of his 
confessions on this subject [Letlere, p. 12; 1'irabo- 
schi, t. tii. part ill. p. 905-6), and what he says of 
his penna d'oro in his letters to Henry 11. king of 
France, aid to Giambattista Gastaldo. {Lett., p. Si, 
35; Tiraboschi, ibid.) Cassandra Giovio, a lady of 
the family of Paolo Giovio, probably his great-niece, 
born at Cosmo in 1541, seems to offer a perfect con- 
trast with this writer and even with Giambattista 
Giovio, the dull but erudite author of Ihe Lettere- 
lariane, of which we have already spoken. Cassan- 
dra has left a few poetical compositions, graceful 
and full of feeling : such is this slanza from a poem 
she wrote at the age of eighteen, on the day of her 
marriage with Gerouimo Magnocavallo :— 

Poiche m' bai colta, Amor, a*' lacci tuoi, 
1' benedico il giorno, e lora, e r anno; 
Ma tu che tutto in cielo e.ln terra puoi, 
E se' d' alme gentll dolce tirann.i, 
Deh ! fa ch' lo piaccia sempre agll occbi suol, 
Occhl cagion del mio soave affanno ; 
Che se qual io con lui, sempr' ei Ca meco, 
Tu non sarai detlo incostante e cieco. 

(Donne piii illuslri del regno lombardo-veneto, 
Milan, 1828, p. 47.) 

a Lib i. ep. iii. " Only endeavour," says Pliny, 
\to have a better opinion of yourself; do yourself 
Justice, and you will receive it from others," 

of Paolo Giovio, the voluptuous asylum 
of that court prelate and man of letters, 
who, while passing his life in attendance 
on princes, or in the seclusion of his 
museum, must have resided but very 
rarely in his diocese of Nocera. Besides, 
there is little to interest in the recollec- 
tions of Paolo Giovio; this priest, nay, 
bishop, notwithstanding the elegance of 
his style, was but a venal and diffama- 
tory writer.' Paolo Giovio pretended 
to have built his palace on the site of 
one of Pliny the Younger's villas. Ac- 
cording to Benedetto Giovio, the Odes- 
calchi villa is on the same spot as the 
delightful Suburbanum of Pliny's mo- 
dest friend, Caninius Rufus, 2 wilh its 
gallery where an eternal spring pre- 
vailed, its impenetrable shade of plane- 
trees, its canal with verdant banks ena- 
melled with flowers, and that lake which 
served as a basin to receive its waters ; 3 
for the memory of Pliny is predomi- 
nant over all these shores : he has be- 
stowed his name on one of the steamboats 
of the lake, and though more than se- 
venteen centuries have elapsed, he is 
still the glory of the country. 

Pliny invited him to write, but Caninius Rufus 
appears to have preferred a prudent silence : it is 
sometimes a great advantage to have done notliing. 
as it is said, and not to have given the measure of 
one's strength. Pliny's reasons, moreover, seem 
rather singular : " All other possessions change 
masters thousands and thousands of times, but the 
productions of your mind will be always your 
own." It appears that Caninius Rufus yielded to 
the persuasions of Pliny; for, in a letter from the 
latter, the fourth of book viii, we learn that he was 
engaged in the composition of an epic poem in 
Greek verse on Trajan's expedition against the 

3 Both the French translator of Pliny and the 
Italian have mistaken the sense in rendering lacus 
by basin, as the author of the Leltere lariane has 
demonstrated ; it is the lake itself, as the present 
aspect of the places still proves. This miscontruc- 
tion is not the only one that our visit to the coun- 
try enables us to correct; in the same passage ilia 
portions, verna semper, does not seem rightly ren- 
dered by portico where reigns an eternal spring, 
but by alley arched over by trees : thus the delight- 
ful avenue of holms leading from Albano to Castel- 
gondolfo is still called the Gallery. A French trans- 
lator of Catullus has bestowed the usual epithet 
of tranquille on the lake of Garda, which is the 
most agitated of all the Italian, lakes. 



[Book V, 




Vaprio. ~ Colossal Virgiu. — Bergamo. — Fairs. — 
Duomo.— Santa Maria Maggiore.-Colleoni cha- 
pel.— Italian military genius. 

On tbc road from Milan to Bergamo 
isYaprio, where there isto be seen, at the 
palace of Caravaggio, a colossal Virgin 
painted in fresco, and which, according 
to Vasari, appears to be by Leonardo 
Vinci instead of Brarnante. The head 
reaches to the first floor, the rest of the 
body is hidden by a staircase, and has 
disappeared among the new buildings 
subsequently erected. An expression 
of modest bashfulness is predominant in 
this figure despite its enormous propor- 
tions, so very unsuitable for such a sub- 

Most recent travellers have forgotten 
or neglected Bergamo, a town remark- 
able for monuments, aspect, and posi- 
tion, which occupies the top and sides of 
a steep hill and extends along its base. 
Its old established and splendid fair 
(which existed as early as 913) was just 
over when I arrived ; but enough was 
left to allow one to judge of its impor- 
tance. The square building that it oc- 
cupies is one of the principal monuments 
of the town, and contains five hundred 
and forty shops with four great halls at 
the corners. Fairs were the means of 
exchange in the middle ages, and they 
owe their origin to the devotional prac- 
tices, pilgrimages, and indulgences 
granted by the popes in those times, and 
though they may seem to belong to the 
infancy of commerce, they are still ser- 
viceable to trade. The fair of Bergamo 
is the principal vent for the cloths ma- 
nufactured at Cosmo and the silks of 
Lombardy.' Commercial science does 
not seem to have kept pace with the 
intellectual sciences : in Italy I have 

« The Bergamese merchants sell these goods in 
london, where several of them have warehouses ; 
their fortunes are immense. Zurich also carries 

several times met on the road the car- 
riage loaded with goIdthatM. Rothschild 
sends, I believe, every month to Naples ; 
it seemed to me that such a proceeding 
was somewhat retrograde since the dis- 
covery of bills of exchange, an excellent 
invention due to the Jews when they 
were driven from France by Philip 
Augustus and Philip-the-Long, when, 
instead of being courted, respected, and 
a la mode, they were obliged to hide the 
effects and property they left there, and 
to give foreign merchants and travellers 
private bills on the persons to whom 
they had confided their wealth. 

The Duomo, an old church of the Lom- 
bard Arians, has been restored at various 
times, and last in the middle of the se- 
venteenth century. An elegant St. Be- 
nedict is by Previtali of Bergamo, one 
of the best pupils of Giovanni Bellini, and 
it has the magic colouring of that school. 
A Crucifixion and the great baldachin 
of the high altar are the work of Gio- 
vanni Paolo Cavagna, a clever painter 
of Bergamo, at the end of the sixteenth 
century ; St. Fermus and St. Rusticus 
in prison is by Cignaroli, a celebrated 
Veronese looked upon as a prodigy in 
his time, to whom the emperor Joseph II. 
said that he was come to Verona to see 
the two greatest wonders of the ancient 
and modern world, the amphitheatre and 
the first painter of Europe. The St. 
Vincent, in the chapel of that name, is 
by Carlo Ceresa, a painter of Bergamo 
in the seventeenth century, who had 
studied the models of a better era. The 
second sacristy has some remarkable 
pictures; three small ones by Lorenzo 
Lotto, a Venetian long resident at Ber- 
gamo, a pupil of the Bellini and grace- 
ful imitator of Leonardo; the Christ 
risen, by Morani ; a Deposition from 
the Cross, by young Palma, and St. The- 
resa, by Antonio Balcstra, a good painter 

on this trade advantageously; there is a colony of 
Its denizens established at Bergamo, where thej 
have a chapel and minister. 

Chap. I.] 



of Verona, of the end of the seventeenth 
century, a pupil of Carlo Maratti, and 
like his master, not exempt from affecta- 
tion. The antique baptistry, brought 
from the neighbouring church of Santa 
Maria Maggiore, and since become a 
kind of oratory, is an old and barbarous 
monument of an uncertain date. 

The finest church of Bergamo, Santa 
Maria Maggiore, with its lions of red 
marble supporting the columns of the 
front, displays the first traces of the 
former power of Venice. The fresco of 
the Assumption, by Cavagna and Ercole 
Procaccini, is majestic, full of life, and in 
Correggio's style. The St. Roch and 
the St. Sebastian, by Lolmo, an es- 
teemed Bergamese painter of the six- 
teenth century, are in the taste and 
drawing of the fourteenth. The Pas- 
sage of the Red Sea is by Luca Gior- 
dano ; a Deluge, by Liberi, has energy 
and variety. There is a fine painting in 
this church by Talpiuo, of Bergamo, the 
pupil and imitator of Raphael ; the frescos 
of the roof, on the left of the high altar, 
are a remarkable performance of Cyrus 
Ferri, a Roman painter, the companion 
of Pietro de Cortone and his cleverest 
pupil. Above the little door is a small 
fresco, much injured but still beautiful, 
by Giovanni Cariani, who with Cavagno 
and Talpino forms the triumvirate of the 
best Bergamese painters. 

The Colleoni chapel, founded by a 
famous warrior who is buried there, has 
an elegantly ornamented front. The 
hero is mounted on a great horse of gilt 
wood, placed on the top of his superb 
mausoleum, a monument of interest for 
the history of art, by Amadeo, a Pavian 
artist of the fifteenth century, who also 
executed the three statues of the altar 
and some of the sculptures on the front. 
Colleoni, who first made use of field ar- 
tillery and invented ordnance carriages, 
belongs to the great school of the Sforzas, 
Braccios, Carmagnols, and Maltestis, 
who founded the art of war in Europe, 
and who prove that military genius, once 
the glory of Italy, has never been extinct 
among the. Italians. The Colleoni cha- 
pel contains a large painting, represent- 
ing the Battle in which Joshua stopped 
the sun, by Giuseppe Crespi, called 
Spagnuolo, a fantastical painter of the 
Bolognese school in its decline ; and a 
Virgin full of grace, by Angelica Kauff- 
man, which forms a strange contrast 

with the capricious and confused boldness 
of the Joshua. The frescos of the roof 
are by Tiepolo, and the Mattathias by 

The church of Saint Erasmus is orna- 
mented with a painting dated 1538, by 
Colleone.a good painter of Bergamo,who, 
being neglected and despised in his own 
country, left it to attach himself to the 
court of Spain : just before his departure, 
the unfortunate artist, conscious of his 
talent, painted on the front of a house 
a horse which has been much praised by 
some writers, and added these words— 
Nemo propheta'm patria. 

The church of Saint Andrew is re- 
markable for its paintings. The Virgin, 
her Son, and some saints, is an exqui- 
site work by Moretto. The three fine in- 
cidents from the life of the saint, on 
the roof, by Padovanino, are highly ef- 
fective, and perhaps this painter, so noted 
for his skill in foreshortening, never 
displayed a more astonishing example 
of it. 

Saint Alexander in colonna, a church 
of the fifteenth century, has a rich and 
novel cupola, and many beautiful paint- 
ings, principally in the three sacristies. 
A Last Supper, of good design and co- 
louring, though somewhat tinctured with 
the dryness of the fourteenth century, is 
by Caligarino, who from a shoemaker 
became an artist in consequence of the 
compliment paid him by his clever com- 
patriot, Dossi, ofFerrara, on the shoes 
which he carried him appearing painted. 
A St. John Baptist, which has been at- 
tributed to the elder Palma, is by the 
younger; and in the oratory near the 
first sacristy is a good painting by Gio- 
vanni Jacopo Gavazzi, dated 1512. 

Saint Bartholomew has a delightful 
Madonna, one of the best works of 
Lotto ; the next painting on the left is 
attributed to the elder Palma ; but it 
may possibly belong to the younger. 
The sacristy contains five of Bramanti- 
no's works ; three of Lotto's ; a youagSt. 
John, a masterpiece of Guercino or Ce- 
sare Gennari, is wrongly attributed to 

Saint Alexander della Croce has many 
fine paintings ; a Deposition from the 
Cross, by Cignaroli; an Assumption, 
by Bassano ; the St. Anthony the Abbot, 
by Talpino ; the Coronation of the Vir- 
gin, by Moroni, and the two side pain- 
tings, attributed to Andrea Schiavone, 




a happy imitator of Titian : in the sa- 
cristies, St. Nicholas of Bari, by the 
elder Palma ; a Crucifix, by Previtali ; 
another by Moroni ; four little saints, by 
Brarnantino, and other works of the best 
Bergamese masters. 

The little oratory of Saint Jesus has, 
under a glass cover, an extraordinary 
painting of Christ carrying his cross, 
the only work at Bergamo by the cele- 
brated and prolific painter Giambattista 
Castello, called il Bergamesco, who died 
in 1570, court painter at Madrid. 

Santa Maria delle Grazie has the 
St- Diego of Francesco Zucco, a good 
Bergamese painter, and pupil of the 
Campi, the rival of his clever compa- 
triots Talpino and Cavagna; the paint- 
ing of the high-altar is by the latter. 

At Santa Maria del Sepolcro is the 
St. Sigismund, one of Previtali's master- 


School at Santa Grata.— Library. — Municipal patrio- 
tism of the Italians. — Carrara school.— Painting 
perpetual in Italy. — Singers of Bergamo. — Old 
palace. — Tasso's Bergamese origin. — Palazzo della 
Podestadura.— Harlequin. 

The small church of the Benedictine 
nuns of Santa Grata, with its gilding 
and tasteful ornaments, has all the bril- 
liancy of a drawing-room. It contains 
a much-admired painting, which has 
been at Paris, the Virgin in an aureola 
and several saints beneath, the master- 
piece of Talpino, thought worthy of 
Raphael by Yasari. This Bergamese 
convent of Benedictines, having been 
suppressed by an imperial decree given at 
Compiegne (one might call it a capitulary 
of the time of Charlemagne ) on the 251h 
April J 810, was not suffered to revive, 
as most of the other women convents in 
Lombardy, except on the condition of 
becoming a girls' school, so stubborn and 
unchangeable is the Austrian govern- 
ment in its system of schools. 

The old convent of the Holy Ghost is 
converted into a house of industry. 
The church offers some fine celebrated 
paintings : St. Anthony of Padua 
performing a miracle to convert a 
heretic, a painting of amazing effect, is 
not by Dominico, but Giovanni Viani his 
father, a pupil of Guido ; the Madonna 

by Lotto, in which the little St. John 
playing with a lamb shows a joy so 
lively and natural, is a charming figure, 
that, as Lanzi says, neither Raphael nor 
Correggio would have surpassed- The 
Daniel in the lions' den and the St. 
Francis, by Cavagna, placed on each 
side this picture, sustain their dangerous 
proximity tolerably well. 

The library of Bergamo has forty-five * 
thousand volumes, the gift of private in- 
dividuals. The Carrara school of paint- 
ing and architecture was likewise found- 
ed by the generous man whose name it 
bears, Count Jacopo Carrara. The 
Italians evince a love of art and of 
their native towns truly estimable, since 
it is habitual, and if its exercise be un- 
productive of glory, it has at least the 
advantage of being useful. This feeling 
impels them to a sort of partial benevo- 
lence somewhat singular. I was some- 
times surprised at the favour accorded to 
certain plays, as well as to certain actors 
and actresses : but I learned that it 
was because the author or performers 
were of the town; noslro Veronese, 
noslro veneziano, nostro ferrarese, bo- 
lognese, etc. , is an expression of every- 
day use, to designate some compatriot 
artist or writer. The Carrara school 
contains many paintings attributed to 
various masters ; a portrait of Raphael, 
supposed to be by himself, seems worthy 
of him for the sweet and noble expres- 
sion of the physiognomy. Among other 
portraits are seven by Van-Dyck, two 
by Titian, one by Pordenone, one by 
Giorgione, one by Albert Durer, and one 
by Holbein. The Galatea is by Orbetto; 
a small painting of Christ between the 
two thieves, of 1456, by Vincenzo Foppa, 
is affecting and clever for that epoch ; its 
inscription, Vincenllus Brixiensis fecit, 
decidedly proves that this illustrious 
painter belongs to Brescia, and not to 
Milan, as Lomazzo and his followers 
have pretended. Four Bacchanals, 
three of which are copied from Titian, 
arc by Padovanino; a St. Catherine is 
by Lotto; the Virgin, the Infant Jesus 
and four saints by the elder Palma ; a 
Holy Family, by Parmegiano; a Nep- 
tune, by Rubens; two Piety s and a 
Magdalen are by Annibale and Agostino 
Carracci. A cabinet of prints, a collec- 
tion of medals, and a pretty good number 
of plasters, likewise make part of the 
Carrara school. It is astonishing that, 

i Chap II. ] 



with so many helps and such means of 
study, the Italian school has not attained 
a greater eminence in the last three cen- 
turies. Possibly this multitude of such 
i perfect models is an obstacle to origin- 
I alily and truth ; artists, instead of looking 
within to their own resources, turn to 
' things without, and w ander in a vague 
■ and sterile imitation; and instead of ex- 
pressing nature, they ape Titian, Ra- 
phael, orGiulio Romano ; copying and re- 
peating instead of creating. The art then 
i becomes a kind of trade, an easy, regular, 
and continuous occupation which recalls 
1 the remark made w ith singular self-gra- 
1 tulation by Scipio Mallei, that if they 
paint badly in Italy, at all events they 
are always painting. 1 The musical ly- 
ceum directed for forty years by Mayer, 
the clever Bavarian composer, is another 
institution of art honourable to Bergamo. 
By a kind of miracle, this little town 
alone, has produced a greater number 
of emineut singers than any city in Italy ; 
hence has escaped during thirty years 
past that flight of warblers, those har- 
monious tenors who have enchanted Eu- 
rope, from Monbelli, Davide father and 
' son, to the incomparable Rubini. 

Under the portico of the Palazzo vec- 
chio della rayione, or palace of justice, 
is a great statue of Tasso in Carrara 
marble. The father of the bard of the 
Gierusalemme was of Bergamo; misfor- 
tune and proscription had obliged him 
to quit the land of his birth, and to be a 
wanderer in Italy and France, for ad- 
versity is traced back and seems here- 
ditary in this poetic family : Ludovico 
Tasso, the maternal uncle, who was to 
Bernardo in the stead of a father, had 
been murdered in his house by robbers. 
This statue of Torquato seems to protest 
against the injustice of fate, which de- 
prived the inhabitants of Bergamo of the 
honour of such a compatriot; it is an 
expression of illustrious regret and noble 
sorrow, a partial appropriation of the 
great man whom they lost, after passing 
among them the first days of his infancy. 
Bergamo, the primitive country of Tasso, 

» Verona illuslrala, part, in, fol. 143. 

* See his beautiful sonnet on Bergamo : Terra, 
che 'I Serio bagna, etc. Rime, part, n, 448, and the 
liHt. inerlile, Ixxrii, Ixxxvi, cxxxi, and others, pub- 
lished at Pisa in (827. 

3 "Pensa che questa vita e simile ad una Bera so- 
leane e popolosa, nella quale si raccoglie grandis- 
slma turba di mercaati, di ladri, di giacatori ,• 

seems worthy to have given him birth, 
by the interest it ever continued to take 
in him. When he was detained in the 
hospital of Saint Anne, the town sent a 
petition to the duke of Ferrara in his fa- 
vour, which was presented by one of its 
first citizens ; there was also sent as a 
present at the same time a lapidary in- 
scription interesting to the house of Este, 
which its sovereigns had long coveted. 
After his deliverance, Tasso went to Ber- 
gamo, was visited by the magistrates, 
enthusiastically welcomed by his friends, 
his admirers, and the lovely dames ; and, 
although it was fair time, his presence 
was quite an event. Tasso has more 
than once spoken of Bergamo as being 
really his country, in his sonnets, dialo- 
gues, and letters, 2 and the comparison 
he has made of the miseries of human 
life to the perplexities of a great fair may 
be regarded as a reminiscence of this 
town. 3 

The civic palace {della Podestadura), 
is one of the finest palaces planned by 
Scamozzi, but the upper part, which is 
not by him, and the statues over it, are 
in very bad taste. The great hall offers 
several remarkable paintings : St. An- 
drew d'Avellino celebrating mass, by 
Talpino; a Virgin, the Infant Jesus, 
with several saints overhead, and two 
Venetian magistrates kneeling below, 
by Felice Brusasorci, a noble and graceful 
painter ; the great Ccenaculiim, by Bron- 
zino. The same piece contains also nu- 
merous portraits of cardinals and other 
illustrious Bergamesc. The council- 
chamber is not less curious : there are 
a portrait of Bembo, by Titian ; the 
Adulterous woman, by Talpino ; a ceiling 
by Francesco Bassano, and the original 
designs of the great architect, the au- 
thor of the plan, so badly followed, of 
this very palace della Podestadura. 

It is the commonly received opinion 
that Harlequin sprung from the Tallies 
near Bergamo, but German criticism and 
erudition have just found him an Etrus- 
can genealogy.* 

chi piimo si parte, meglio allogia : chi plii indugiai 
sistanca, ed invecchiandodivien bisognosodi molte 
cose; e uioleslato da' nemici, e circondalo dall' in- 
sidie; al Dne muore iofelicemente." Letter to bis 
kinsman the cavalier Enea Tasso, of Bergamo, 
cxxxlx of the Lett. ined. 

4 see Schlegel's Course of dramatic lileraturt, 
lesson YI1 !. 




[Book V 


Gorlago.— Tower of Telgate;— of Palazzolo.— View. 
—Mount Coccaglio.^-Fnio santo.— Caslleof Cale- 
plo.— Vale of Calepio.— Ancient towers.— Lake of 
Isea.— Lovera.— Cenolapb by Canova.— Orrldo del 
Tinazzo. — Pisogna.— Iron foundry.— Cascade. — 
Tavernola.— Monle d'lsota— Foursisters hermits. 
—Isea. — Predora— Odd ruin.— Sarnico.— Monteo 
chio.- Vengeance by dishonoured maidens. 

The lake of Isea and its environs, 
(hough nearly always neglected, are 
worth a visit. This corner of Upper 
Italy is distinguished for his natural 
hcauties, its works of art, and the pro- 
ductions of industry. 

At the village of Leriate, the principal 
church has a fine picture by Morone. 
The greater part of the churches of these 
villages have good paintings by Lom- 
bard or Venetian masters. 

The church of Gorlago, embellished 
with stuccos and gilding, possesses some 
valuable old paintings. There is a hall 
in this same village, painted in fresco, a 
grand and splendid work by an un- 
known author, which is worthy of a 

Telgate begins that chain of flourish- 
ing villages which occupy the vale of 
Calepio. The tower is of great anti- 

A vast steeple ornamented with ele- 
gant basso-relievos by S. Marchcsi, has 
been erected on the top of the rock of 
Palazzolo. From this species of watch- 
tower the view extends afar all round 
the country, embracing the Duomo of 
Milan and the tower of Cremona. 

Mount, Coccaglio, above the villages of 
the same name, offers another marvel- 
lous prospect. Up two thirds of the as- 
cent is an ancient monastery now be- 
come an immense cellar, where the 
sweet and rather pleasant wine of the 
country, known by the name of vino 
santo, is prepared and stored ; this 
wine, which every body makes at home, 
is dearer and held in higher esteem than 
all the most boasted foreign wines. Be- 
side the grand Loggia is a chamber oc- 
cupied by prince Eugene in the campaign 
of 1706, where, after seeing the greater 
part of that army which was going to 
deliver Turin file off, he dictated to his 
secretary a letter for the emperor, begin- 
ning with these words :— " I write to you 
from the finest point of view there is in 
Italy." On the door of this historical 

chamber these three words, unnecessarily 
enough, are inscribed : Intra, vide, ad- 

The castle of Calepio, which is not the 
ancient manor house of that family, but 
the palace built in 1430 by Count Trus- 
sardo Calepio, rises majestically on the 
steep bank of the Oglio, which foams 
along at its feet. The vale of Calepio 
enjoys the mildest temperature, and" 
some of its enormous mulberry trees 
are anterior to the introduction of silk- 
spinning. The numbers of antique towers 
covering the neighbouring hills for- 
cibly recall the cruel dissensions of the 
Guelphs and Gibelines; some of these 
towers maintain their primitive eleva- 
tion, but the most part have been lowered 
into houses, a sign of the defeat of their 

Among the numerous boroughs and 
villages which border and embellish the 
shores of the lake of Isea, at once so 
smiling and sweet, so well cultivateu and 
so wild. Lovera and Pisagna are the 
principal. Lovera, an ancient borough, 
injured in the wars between the Guelphs 
and Gibelines, was more especially the 
victim of Pandolfo Malatesla, lord of 
Bergamo, who to chastise its rebellion, 
repaired thither wilh his army in the 
first days of October 1415 : he took it, 
ordered the inhabitants to quit, and al- 
lowed them no more time than a candle 
would last that he had ordered to he 
lighted ; he afterwards sold the houses 
and land. Lovera has two great and 
rich churches adorned with paintings, 
and a fine cenotaph by Canova, one of the 
repetitions of that of Volpato, • devoted 
by Count Tadini to his son, a young man 
of great promise, who was crushed by the 
ruins of an arch. At Castro, near Lo- 
vera, is a narrow abyss, where the torrent 
justly called the Orrido del Tinazzo pre- 
cipitates itself with a roaring noise. Pi- 
sagna, a small trading town, has a large 
square with a piazza opposite the lake, a 
modern church of the Corinthian order, 
and a fine iron foundry in a most pictu- 
resque spot at the foot of a majestic cas- 

The Fenaroli palace, at Tavernola, 
enjoys from its terrace one of the finest 
prospects of the lake, particularly at 
sunrise. But the wonder of the lake of 

' Cicognara has pointed out three repetitions of 
this cenotaph ; the one here alluded to mast be the 

Chap. IV.] 



Isea, which distinguishes it from the 
five other lakes of Lombardy, although 
the smallest, is the high mountain, monte 
d'Isola, which shoots up from its bosom ; 
a mountain crowned by the sanctuary of 
the Madonna and adorned at its base by 
yineyards, woods, fields, and meadows 
with fort Martinengo, its battlements and 
tower, once a kind of telegraph of the 
Guelphs and Gibelines. At the foot of 
this superb peak crouch, scarcely rising 
above the water, two little islands which 
enhance its majesty. The chronicles of 
the convent of Conventuals relate that 
four maiden sisters, seized with a holy 
enthusiasm, resolved to seclude them- 
selves and live alone on four of the 
highest points on the borders of the lake 
whence they might be able to see each 
other : the monte d'Isola was one of the 
retreats of these maiden hermits who 
were actuated only by the pure senti- 
ments of love to God and mutual affec- 

Isea, the principal port on the lake, 
takes its name, it is said, from a temple 
of Isis, a proof of its antiquity. By the 
side of a rugged rock advaucing into the 
lake, Predora shows its abundant vege- 
tation of orange and lemon trees. A 
tower, one half of which has been de- 
molished from top to bottom, owes its 
extraordinary ruin to the hostility of two 
brothers, one aGuelph.the other a Gibe- 
line, to whom it had fallen in heritage ; 
the first wished it to stand, the second 
to be pulled down. Sarnico, a populous 
trading borough, with a spacious square, 
stands close by where the rapid and 
noisy Oglio issues from the lake. 

The summit of Montecchio, formerly 
the site of a monastery, is now occupied 
by a beautiful villa hidden by a wood of 
evergreens. The view, at once smiling, 
varied, and extensive, is one of the most 
splendid in the country. The ruined 
castle was, in the thirteenth century, the 
theatre of an event, noticed and sung by 
Alfieri, 1 which furnishes another proof 
of the energy of that age and also of the 
women of the country. Montecchio was 
then held by two brigand chiefs, Tizzone 
and Giliolo, from whose violence the 
whole country suffered, and near Isea 
resided two young orphans, Tiburga and 
Imazza, daughters of Girardo Oidofredi 
whom they had recently lost. Tizzone 

« See the following chapter. 

and Giliolo, conscious that their proposals 
to marry their neighbours would not be 
accepted, made a forcible entrance dur- 
ing the night, with their men, into the 
villa of these noble ladies, and violated 
their persons. But Tiburga and Imazza, 
instead of bashfully deploring their in- 
juries and killingthemselves like Lucre- 
tia and other heroines of the same kind, 
flew to Brescia, raised the inhabitants to 
avenge the outrage, and, followed by an 
armed band, with thirteen women who 
had assumed cuirasses and military habi- 
liments like themselves, laid siege to the 
rock of Montecchio. The defence was 
obstinate; but at last Tiburga, having 
placed a ladder, met Giliolo in the breach, 
the very man who had dishonoured her, 
smote off his head with her sword, and 
showed it to her companions in arms, 
crying out : — "God has given me the 
victory ; so may the wicked perish ! " 
Tizzone, after the taking of the fort, was 
discovered and taken in a subterranean 
hiding-place by Tiburga, whom he 
wounded with his lance, but she plunged 
her poniard in his heart. The bodies 
of Giliolo and Tizzone were thrown into 
the Oglio, and Imazza and Tiburga mo- 
destly retired to their villa, became the 
wives of two brave inhabitants of Brescia, 
and began a long posterity who reli- 
giously preserved the arms which their 
two ancestors had used so courageously. 


Brescia.— Antique temple.— Statue of Victory.— Bro- 
letlo palace. — Brigitla Avogadro. — Women of 
Brescia.— Bayard"s house. 

Brescia is a wealthy trading town of 
nearly forty thousand inhabitants ; it has 
some fine paintings and noble edifices; 
but its various merits partially escaped 
me on my first journey, owing to the 
discovery of an antique temple, which I 
have since visited every year and watched 
its excavations w ith great interest. Doc- 
tor Labus had endeavoured to restore the 
inscription on the pediment, of which 
some few letters only remained ; he was 
of opinion that Vespasian erected a mo- 
nument in the town of Brescia, probably 
on account of the succour that it af- 
forded him when he seized on the em- 
pire after defeating the forces of Vitel- 
lius. This was but a conjecture, but the 
doctor has since had the rare antiqua- 



[Book V 

rian triumph of seeing his hypothesis 
confirmed by the finding of a portion of 
the original inscription. When I first 
contemplated these beautiful marble co- 
lumns which had been buried so long, 
I could not suppress my veneration lor 
a soil which is equally productive of the 
wonders of art and the blessings of na- 
ture, where one need only dig to draw 
from its bosom chefs-d'oeuvre or illus- 
trious mementos of antiquity ; a soil not 
less prolific of fruits, than teeming with 

In the grand hall of the Gymnasium 
there were exposed sixteen figures dis- 
covered only some days before, among 
which, was a superb statue of Victory, 
perhaps the largest and finest of all those 
in bronze : in the following year this 
statue had become an image of Fame, 
and in accordance with this change, a 
kind of large oval tablet of disagreeable 
effect had been placed in her arms, on 
which she appeared to be writing. This 
Fame of 1827 had not probably attained 
her last metamorphosis. In the absence 
of interests, principles, and discussions 
of a graver kind, the Italians turn the 
natural inconstancy of our judgments 
and opinions upon their statues and mo- 
numents, of which they are ever chang- 
ing the names, attributes, and destina- 
tions. As a consequence of that artistic 
and municipal patriotism, spoken of in a 

1 The carroccio was a four-wheeled car drawn 
by four pair of oxen. It was painted red, and the 
oxen drawing it weie coTered down to their feet 
with red cloth : a mast, also painted red, rose from 
the middle of the car to a great height, and was 
surmounted by a gilt globe. The flag of the town 
floated on high between two white sails; lower 
down, towards the middle of the mast, a Christ 
placed on a crucilix with extended arms seemed to 
bless the army. The councils of war were held on 
this carroccio, and the military chest, the sur- 
geon's stores, and a part of the booty were kept 
tbero. It was not allowed to go out till authorised 
by a public decree, and was always accompanied 
by some hundreds of veterans armed with halberds 
and lances. A platform was set apart on the front 
for some of the most valiant soldiers whose duty it 
was to defend it; behind, another platform was oc- 
cupied by the musicians with their trumpets. 
Divine service was celebrated on the carroccio be- 
fore it left the town, and there was often a chap- 
lain attached to it, who accompanied it to the held 
of battle. The loss of the carroccio was reckoned 
the greatest ignominy which could befall a town; 
all the choice men of the army were therefore se- 
lected for the guard of the sacred car, and the 
decisive strokes were generally made in Its vicinity; 
It was the rem esse ad triarios of the Romans or 

preceding page, and which is to be found 
throughout Italy, the town has made 
great sacrifices and a considerable outlay 
in order to establish a museum of anti- 
quities on the very ruins of the disco- 
vered temple. This museum, consisting 
of monuments withdrawn from the 
earth, independently of the statue of 
Victory and other bronzes, contains se- 
veral basso-relievos, trunks, and frag- 
ments of statues in marble, tasteful or- 
naments, many articles in glass and 
earthenware, a fine mosaic pavement, 
and about four hundred inscriptions, the 
greater part of interest for the history of 
Brescia and even of Italy. 

I have since passed several days at 
Brescia, and inspected every thing mi- 
nutely under the guidance of one of its 
most distinguished inhabitants, whose 
attentions were truly indefatigable. The 
revolution of 1797 and the converting 
the old palace of Broletto to another use, 
as hotel of the prefecture, at present the 
seat of the delegation, a law court and 
prison, have nearly effaced all that was 
interesting in an historical point of view. 
I should have wished to find there the 
high mast of that carroccio ' won from 
the Cremonese in 1191, in the bloody 
field of Rudiano, a symbol of the mili- 
tary and religious liberty of the repub- 
lics in the middle ages, which the de- 
magogues of the last century destroyed, 

the chargo of the vieille garde. The carroccio was 
devised by Erlhert, archbishop of Milan, during 
the war of the Milanese with the emperor Conrad- 
the-Sallc : it was like the ark of the covenant to the 
tribes of Israel. This singular standard completed 
the military system of the Lombards at that epoch; 
it was necessary to augment the importance of the 
infantry belonging to towns by rendering it formi- 
dable, in order to oppose it to the cavalry of the no- 
bles : the carroccio gained Ibis object ; the infantry 
w hen obliged to subject its movements to those of a 
heavy car drawn by oxen, acquired a more weight, 
solidity, and self-confidence; retreats were effected 
more slowly and consequently in belter order, and 
flight, otherwise than disgraceful, became impos- 
sible. "It is not irrelevant to observe,''' says M. do 
Sismondi," that the oxen of Italy have a more 
lightsome gait and are much quicker than in 
France; so that their pace is better adapted to the 
march of infantry." [Hist, des Rep. Hal. du Moyen 
age, chap, vi.) The use of artillery was one of the 
chief causes for discontinuing the carroccio, which 
only figured afterwards in certain cereruouies. lu 
Tassoni's Secchia rapita there is an exact and poetlu 
description of the carroccio :— 

Ecco il carroccio uscir fuor delta porta 

Tutto coperto dor, etc. 

Cant, t. p- 98, 

Chap. IV.] 



with the portrait of Brigitta Avogadro, 
who, leading the women of Brescia armed 
with cuirasses and lances, valiantly re- 
pulsed the redoubtable Piccinino, in the 
assault he made on their town in 1412. 
The ladiesof Brescia have left off fighting, 
but they seem still to be somewhat fiery, 
if we may judge of them from the sati- 
rical verses of Alfieri : — 

Veggio Bresclane donne ioiquo speglio 

Farsi de' ben forbili pugnaletti, 

Cui prova o amante inhdo, o sposo veglio. 

A Brescian of the family of the brave 
; Brigitta, count Ludovico Avogadro, has 
I teen singularly calumniated on the 
French stage by Du Belloy, who has 
almost made him the traitor of his rhy- 
ming melodrama of Gaston et Bayard, 
whereas the count's enterprise was ho- 
nourable, having only for its object the 
: deliverance of his native country from 
foreign invasion and the re-establishment 
of legitimate authority in Yenice. It is 
true that the plain and unassuming 
I Bayard is almost as miserably parodied 
i in that piece, he being represented as a 
mere braggadocio. 1 The execution of 
Avogadro and his two sons, and the 
; frightful pillage of Brescia for seven days 
were crimes arising from the victory of 
Gaston, who is so sensitive and sympa- 
thetic in Du Belloy's verses. Histo- 
rical tragedy, which seems capable of 
endowing the art with more comprehen- 
siveness, nature, and truth, has hitherto 
evinced but little fidelity in France. The 
Cid, like Gaston, was cruel; but how 
boundless the distance between such 
works, and is it not a kind of dramatic 
blasphemy and sacrilege to compare them 
for a single moment? 

The memory of Bayard and the friend- 
ly zeal of a guide so well acquainted 
with the history of Brescia, made me 
anxious to find the house which received 
the illustrious knight when, being wound- 
ed, after having the first passed the 
rampart on foot and repulsed that master 
Andrea Grilti who cried to his men in 
his Italian tongue; "Let us hold on, my 
friends; the French will soon be tired, 
they have won only the first point; and if 

1 So strange was the manner of understanding 
patriotism at the end of the last century, that 
Bayard's chain, which had devolved by right of in- 
heritance to his collateral descendants, was pre- 
sented, in 1789, by Its possessor to Larlve in a mad 

that Bayard was disabled, the rest should 
never come nigh ; a "—he said to the 
lord of Molart: — " Companion, push on 
your men, the town is won; as for me 
I can go no further, for I am a dead man," 
and then two of his archers took off their 
shirts and tore them to stanch the bleed- 
ing of his wound. According to the not 
improbable conjectures thrown out in 
the notes to Gambara's Geste de' Bres- 
ciani, Bayard, being wounded in the New 
Market, must have been carried into the 
house of the Ccvola or Cigola family, 
situated in that square. At that period 
there were only three families of note 
who had houses in the New Market, one 
of which, the Maggi, had no daughters 
at that time ; and the other, the Confa- 
lonieri, was opposed to the French and 
had lost one of its members in the battle. 
One of theCigolafamily, on the contrary, 
was an esquire to the king of Frauce, and 
Calimere Cigola had a wife and two 
daughters at that very epoch. This Ca- 
limere Cigola appears besides to have 
been an arrant egotist and coward, as on 
the assault "he fled to a monastery," 
leaving his wife at the house, "under 
the protection of Our Lord, with two fair 
daughters that she had, who w ere hidden 
in a loft under some hay." Bayard, 
after assuring his hostess that she had 
" in her house a gentleman who would 
not plunder it, " asked her where her 
husband was : " I bedoubt me much," 
said she, " that he be in a monastery 
where he has great acquaintance; " and 
when he came, he made him " fare 
jovially," saying to h'm, that he must 
not be melancholy, and that he had lod- 
ged none but his friends." It was there 
that Bayard kept his bed a month or five 
weeks, longing " to be at the battle, and 
greatly fearing it would be given before 
he was there." The scene of Bayard 
taking farewell has been painted and 
narrated a thousand times, and is known 
by everybody. But the habitual surprise 
and astonishment inspired by so natural 
and simple a fact as his refusal of the 
ducats for having protected a lady and 
her daughters, proves that such conduct 
was then an exception, and that for a 
long time this mode of acquiring money 

fit of enthusiasm induced by witnessing that ac- 
tor's personation of Bayard in Du Belloy's piece, 
and this manner of disposing of it be fancied was 
rendering homage to the memory of his ancestor. 
8 lamtiQim rttt loyal serviteur, ch. i. 




had been usual with military men : Sully 
himself relates that at the sacking of 
Villefranche he gained a purse of a thou- 
sand crowns in gold by saving the life of 
an old man who was pursued by five or 
six soldiers. The noble disinterestedness 
and generous compassion of the French 
officer are part of those national qualities 
for which we are indebted to the reign 
of Louis XIV. ; but the glory of Bayard 
is not less, as he preconceived and fore- 
stalled them. 


Palace of the Loggia.— PoliJIcoI incendiarism.- An- 
cient symptoais of heresy.— Library.— Cardinal 

The finest edifice of Brescia is the mu- 
nicipal palace of the Loggia. It is much 
to be regretted that this palace was con- 
sumed by fire in 1575, when the great hall 
of the palace, which Palladio thought ad- 
mirable, wasdestroyed, as well as the three 
vast paintings executed by Titian at the age 
of ninety-two ; one of Ihem was the forge 
of the Cyclops, engaged in the manufac- 
ture of fire-arms, a subject most appro- 
priately placed in the guildhall of Brescia, 
a town which has ever been famous fol- 
ks fowling-pieces. Notwithstanding the 
antipathies to ordered subjects, it is seen 
by Titian's letters, that this great painter 
exactly conformed to the magistrates' 
instructions, and had the extraordinary 
resignation to make no changes. Titian's 
fecundity is prodigious : independently 
of his numerous masterpieces still extant, 
the paintings of Brescia are not the only 
ones he has lost by fire. An admirable 
picture of the Battle of Cadora between 
the Venetians and the Imperialists, 
placed in the grand council-room, was 
burnt in the conflagration of the ducal 
palace. The burning of the palace of the 
Loggia does not appear the effect of 
accident, but premeditated design; the 
Venetian government was accused of it; 
such an act, it was alleged, was the only 
means it had of depriving them of the 

' This humane act or Trajan's is also the subject 
or a basso-relievo in marble, which Dante has placed 
in his Purgatory (x, 701, because it is pretended, as 
Ginguene says {Ilist. tilt, d'liat. n. I50|, that Saint 
Gregory was so touched by it that be asked and 
obtained the good emperor's deliverance from hell. 
The tradition or this iucideut seems popular in 
Italy. 1 have seen a representation of it In a church 

rights and liberties granted by the em- 
perors Conrad, Henry VI., and Henry VII., 
and guarantied by the doges Francesco 
Foscari and Leonardo Loredano, the 
titles of which were in the public archives. 
What a strange scruple of power is this 
political sophism ; how perfectly worthy 
of the Italian governments of the six- 
teenth century ! In the council chamber 
are eight frescos by Giulio Campi, pre-, 
viously placed in the room where the 
doctors or judges of the colleges held 
their sittings, and which, for that reason, 
all represent instances of good and im- 
partial justice. These are two of them : 
Trajan on the point of setting out on 
a military expedition, dealing justice 
to a mother for the murder of her son 
who has been slain by soldiers ; ' and 
Seleums, king of the Locrians, author 
of the law condemning adulterers to 
the loss of both their eyes : his son Aris- 
teus, being found guilty of this crime, 
was on the point of being acquitted by 
the magistrates, and all the people peti- 
tioned for his pardon ; but Seleucus, at 
the same time a father and a king, 
plucked out one of his son's eyes and one 
of his own, that the law might have the 
two eyes it exacled. Over the door is a 
Nativity byMoretto; below on each side 
St. Faustin and St. Giovite, by Foppa, 
as well as the fine painting of Christ and 
Veronica over the fireplace. In the 
room before this, a large painting repre- 
sents the condemnation, in 1810, of the 
priest Giuseppe Beccarelli by thepodesta, 
the captain, the cardinal bishop of the 
town, and the Dominican inquisitor, the 
last act of the inquisition at Brescia. 
The heresy of Beccarelli, if he has not 
been slandered by the Jesuits, who were 
jealous of the prosperity of a college he 
had founded, seems to have been a kind 
of Platonism, and of mysticism mixed up 
with spirituality and sensualism ; he 
preached, said his accusers, that provided 
the soul were united to God by prayer, 
the body might do what it pleased .- he 
was condemned to the gallies, but his 
punishment was commuted by the senate 

at Verona, Saint Thomas Cantuariense ; but it is not 
recorded by any historian deserving of credit ; both 
Baronius andBellarmin treatitas rabulous. Others 
attribute Saint Gregory's compassion for Trojau to 
his admiration of that emperor's forum, a new and 
curious proof of the injustice of reproaching this 
great man with being a mortal foe to the arts and 
monuments of antiquity. ( see Book jut. chap, ivll.) 

IHAP. V.] 



who suspected he was the victim of jea- 
ousy, and he died in prison at Venice. 
The weak and tender Beccarelli, if he 
was not culpable, and the theologian 
Giovanni Ducco, archbishop of Coron 
and legate in Germany, -who was strip- 
ped of his honours by Pope Sixtus IV. 
for writing too freely on the abuses of 
the Roman court, and who died at 
Brescia, his native place, where his tomb 
is seen in the church of Saint Nazarius 
and Saint Celsus, were at all events 
far from the power and excesses of 
that Arnaud of Brescia ( as if the name 
of Arnaud, both in France and Italy, 
must needs remind us of doctrinal dis- 
putes and persecution ), that Arnaud, the 
pupil and friend of the lover of Heloisa 
and antagonist of Saint Bernard, who 
i was ten years master of Rome, and finally 
i perished at the stake before the Corso; a 
ikind of apostle, tribune, and martyr, one 
i of the first and most terrible innovators, 
whether political or religious. 

The library <?f Brescia has twenty-eight 
thousand volumes. The celebrated ma- 
nuscript of the Four Evangelists, of the 
sixth or seventh century, on purple 
vellum, is in a very good state of pre- 
servation : it has been explained by the 
learned Bianchini. The oldest edition is 
the second of Saint Augustine ( Rome, 
1468 ), which is scarce and much sought 
after. The first edition of Petrarch 
( Venice, 1470 ) has some pretty minia- 
tures attributed to Mantegna's school. 
There is also a fine Coran ; this book is 
common in the Italian libraries ; they 
were brought by (he Greeks when driven 
from Constantinople , perhaps through 
one of those inadvertences to which 
flight and fear are liable. The original 
drawings of the Monumenta antiqua 
urbis et agri Brixiani, by the able and 
learned Sebastiano Aragonese, are cu- 
rious and scarce. The most precious 
monument of the library is a great cross 
given by Didier, the last king of the 
Lombards, to his daughter Ansberg, ab- 
bess of the convent of Saint Julia of 
Brescia, the sister of Adelghis and of 
that touching Ermengarda who is so 
pathetically portrayed in Manzoni's tra- 

1 The diptych of Boetius, which cardinal Qnirini 
had illustrated by divers literati, is not in the li- 
brary ; it belongs to the cavalier Nicolas Fe of 
Brescia. The public library possesses another re- 

gedy. The cross of the holy abbess is 
enriched with cameos representing the 
choir of the Muses, Pegasus, the three 
Graces, and other mythological subjects, 
some of which are scarcely decent. This 
costly cross of Greek workmanship seems 
of itself to compose, as it were, the ca- 
binet of medals and engraved stones of 
the Brescia library. A charming mi- 
niature of the Virgin and her son on 
lapis lazuli is said to be by Titian: it is 
supposed to have been the medalion of 
Charles V. Notwithstanding the beauty 
of this gem, it seems of less price than 
the simple chain of Bayard, for it has 
never felt the beating of a noble and ge- 
nerous heart. 

The library of Brescia was the gift of 
one of its bishops, Cardinal Quirini, J to 
whom Voltaire addressed those elegant 
stanzas — 

Quoi ! vous voulez done que je chante 
Ce temple orne par vos bienfaits ? etc. 

It was also to this cardinal that Vol- 
taire addressed his dissertation on an- 
cient and modern tragedy which is pre- 
fixed to Semiramis. In this essay, after 
having so many times spoken of Shak- 
speare with admiration, he qualifies Ham- 
let as the fruit of the imagination of a 
drunken savage. The false judgments 
of Voltaire are nearly always connected 
with some jealous rivalry which is soon 
betrayed by the indiscretion of his self- 
love. He refused to believe in the de- 
votedness of the citizens of Calais, be- 
cause of some bad verses by Du Belloy 
and the noise made by his play ; in this 
instance it is evident that on the point of 
introducing the shade of Ninus on the 
French stage, he could not conceal from 
himself how far his accessible and fami 
liar shade was inferior on its estrade, by 
daylight, in the midst of the Babylonian 
court, to the ghost of the English poet, 
appearing at midnight, by moonshine, 
on the platform of the castle of Elsinore 
near the rock-bound shore of the bellow 
ing sea. 

A great number of autograph letters, 
forming seven large bundles, written to 

garded as modern, the ivory figures of which are 
perfectly intact and are full of grace and volup- 


[Book V. 

Cardinal Quirini, were also bequeathed 
by him to the library of Brescia. As 
the cardinal bad relations with d'Agues- 
scau, Cardinals Noailles and Fleury, 
Montfaucon.DoraCalmet, and the scho- 
lars and literary characters of the latter 
half of the age of LouisXIV., this corres- 
pondence must be curious to examine; a 
part has no doubt been extracted in the 
historical commentary that Quirini has 
written on bis own life,' but this portion 
is inconsiderable, and he must have 
experienced that feeling of embarrass- 
ment and reserve natural to every man 
obliged to speak of himself throughout 
three large volumes, an embarrassment 
against which men have since become 
well hardened. 


Old Duomo ;-new oue.— Saint Afra.— Popular lite- 
rature.— Marcello.- Real and grand music. -Work 
of Saint Lube.— Anachronisms of painting.— Mar- 
tinengo mausoleum. 

The old Duomo of Brescia, one of the 
most ancient monuments of Italy, was 
mistakenly supposed a pagan temple, on 
account of the great number of idolatrous 
emblems found in it, and which were 
barbarously doomed to destruction by 
the town council on the 19th of April 
and the 25th of May 1456. It appears 
that the Lombards erected the edifice 
about the middle of the seventh century. 
Two relics are religiously preserved 
there : a large piece of the cross, which 
was given in 1149 by Pope Eugene III. 
to Manfredi bishop of Brescia, and af- 
terwards purchased of the Venitians who 
had received it from his heirs; and the 
small standard, a real oriflamme, as it 
is called at Brescia (croce d'orofiamma) 
carried in the crusade in 1221 by bishop 
Albert, who planted it on the walls of 
Damietta which he had seized upon at 
the head of fifteen hundred Brescians : 
after so glorious an exploit, Albert was 
named patriarch of Antioch, a singular 
instance of an ecclesiastical dignity being 
conferred in reward for military cou- 
rage. The old Duomo has some good 
works : in the chapel of the croce d'o- 
rofiamma, the two great paintings by 

' Commentarim de rebus perlinentibui ad Aug. 
Mar. S.R.E. cardinalctn Quirinum. Brixis, 1749, 
cum appendice, 1750, three laige vols , 8vo. The 
work was continued by Fadrc Federlco San Vital:, 

Ga.jdini and Cossale (uie latter was a 
good painter and an unfortunate man 
who perished in his old age by the hand 
of his son) ; two statues of Faith and 
Charity, by Vittoria, an artist of Trent, 
who gained his celebrity at Venice ; the 
fine mausoleum of Domenico Domenici, 
bishop of Brescia, by an unknown author; 
a St. Martin, by Pietro Rosa, a clever, 
pupil of Titian, who died young; the 
Passover of the Hebrews, the Sacrifice 
of Abraham, a superb Elijah, and a 
David, by Moretto, likewise one of 
Titian's pupils, and a charming painter, 
whose numerous pictures at Brescia, 
says Lanzi, have induced more than one 
amateur to visit the town. 

The present new Duomo, a work of 
the sixteenth century, was, like that of 
Pavia, rebuilding when I saw it. The 
Italians arc a people of masons, and 
have an impatient ardour for building 
which impels them to be ever throwing 
down and re-erecting their edifices ; a 
pitiable mania in such a country, so 
abounding with reminiscences and cu- 
rious monuments oftnepast. 

The churches of Brescia are rich, and 
interesting in an artistic point of view. 
At Saint Peter in Oliveto, St. Lorenzo 
Giustiniani between Saint John and the 
Divine Wisdom, is graceful and full of 
morbidezza; the Virgin crowned by 
God the Father, with Saints Peter and 
Paul, and the figures of Peace and Jus- 
tice, at the high-altar, is a noble and 
majestic composition ; the two superb 
frescos of St. Peter and St. Paul, and 
of Simon the Magician, are by Moretto ; 
St. Theresa kneeling before the Redeem- 
er bound to the Pillar, is by Cappu- 
cino ; the Ecstasy of the same, vivid and 
natural, is by Angelo Trevisano. The 
choir is ornamented with four majestic 
paintings from the history of Moses, by 
Ricchino. Moreno's countryman and 
pupil. The Victory gained in 1629 by 
the Carmelite monk Jesus Maria over 
the duke palatine of the Rhine, passes 
for one of the best paintings of the Ca- 
valier Celesti, a pleasing easy painter, 
few of whose works have preserved their 
primatire beauty owing to the compo- 
sition of his colours and the affectation 
of efket in claro-obscuro. A Bearing 

a Jesuit, and forms in all five volumes. Some of 
cardinal Quirini's manuscripts have come Into the 
possession of our Sociele des bibliophiles , it seems 
that they contain nothing worth extracting. 




of the Cross, is a valuable picture by 
Paolo Zoppo, a clever imitator of the Bel- 
lini, who embellished a great quantity 
of books with his miniatures, and died 
of grief at Desenzano, through having 
broken a crystal basin on which he had 
painted the sacking of Brescia by Gaston, 
a long and beautiful work tnat he meant 
to present to the Doge Gritti. 

The church of Santa Maria di Cal- 
chera offers a noble, touching, and pic- 
turesque painting by Bomanino, the 
Bishop Appollonius administering the 
communion to the people. The Christ 
betiveen St. Jerome and St. Dorothea 
seems a fresco by Morctto. A Visita- 
tion with a fine landscape and forms 
and colouring in Titian's style, is by 
Calisto Piazza. The Christ at the Pha- 
risee's table, and Magdalen at his feet, 
is another masterpiece of Moretto. 

At Saint Eupheruia, the St. Maur is 
one of (he best productions of Ghiti, a 
good painter of Brescia in the seventeenth 
century. The Virgin with the Infant 
Jesus and the little Saint John, adored 
by the Saints Benedict, Paterus, Euphe- 
mia and Justine, by Moretto, is noble 
and graceful. St. Benedict visiting 
St. Scolastica passes for one of the good 
works of Santo Cattaneo ; a head of an 
old man is remarkable. 

Saint Afra has some admirable paint- 
ings. Despite the resolution I had 
adopted in my first journey not to oc- 
cupy myself too much with 
was impossible not to yield at the sight 
of Titian's Adulterous woman. Paint- 
ing carried to that height of perfection- 
becomes eloquence ; it is an intellectual 
art which is understood and enjoyed 
by all those to whom its exercise is not 
completely foreign. This beautiful fi- 
gure is the truest and most touching 
expression of woman's frailty and re- 
pentance. The Martyrdom of St. Afra 
is one of the first and best preserved 
chefs-d'oeuvre of Paoio Veronese; but 
the saint's habiliments are too showy 
for a scaffold, such theatrical costume 
being out of place there. It is supposed 
that one of the trunkless heads placed 
in a corner of the picture is the portrait 
of Paolo Veronese: Cristoforo Allori, the 
painter of Judith, in the Florence gal- 
lery, likewise gave his own portrait in 
the severed head of Holophernes. "We 
may recognise even in these artist's 
freaks something of the gloomy genius 

of the Italians in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries. The Virgin and her 
Son, by Cesare Procaccini, is the most 
Correggio-like of bis numerous altar- 
pieces : Saint Latinus, Saint Chartes, 
and the Angels have, however, a gayer 
and more wanton air than properly be- 
longs to them. St. Apollonius baptis- 
ing, and St. Faustin and St. Giovite 
giving the eucharist in the night to 
the first Christians, by Francesco Bas- 
sano, is magical in its expression, co- 
louring, and effect. The figures of the 
two last saints, and the Martyrdom of 
St. Felix, are by the younger Palma. A 
Transfiguration is by Tintoretto. 

At Saint Barnabas, the Christ in the 
manger is a charming work, and the 
only one at Brescia, of Savoldo, an able 
painter of that town, and one of the best 
of the sixteenth century; he was a noble 
amateur who presented his paintings to 
the churches, after finishing them off 
leisurely and carefully, and never fati- 
guing himself by too extensive composi- 
tions. The two small paintings of St. 
Boch and St. Sebastian, by Civerchio, 
one of whose paintings placed in the 
public palace so much excited the admi- 
ration of the victorious French that they 
sent it to Louis XII. ; and a Last Supper, 
inthe sacristy, by Foppa, are very good. 

Saint Alexander has some remarkable 
paintings; an Annunciation is one of 
the fine monuments of ancient painting. 
The Christ dead betiveen St. Alexander 
and St. Paul, with a view of Calvary 
covered with excellent little figures, pas- 
ses for a masterpiece of Civerchio. The 
Virgin worshipped by St. Honorius, 
and other saints, is one of the most es- 
teemed works of GeronimoBossi, Mo- 
retto's imitator. 

Among the paintings of the church of 
Saint Dominiek, may be distinguished, 
on the roof, the Saint and St. Francis 
praying to Christ, by Fiamminghino ; 
the Virgin, Magdalen, and St. Peter 
the martyr at the foot of the Crucifix, 
one of the best productions of Gandini, 
in the style of Paolo Veronese and the 
younger Palma; two paintings of the 
latter, Pius V- returning thanks to 
God and the Virgin for the victory 
over the Turks on St. Justine's day, 
in the year 1 571 ; the Souls in Purgatory 
praying for deliverance. 

Saint Nazarius and Saint Celsus de- 
serves a visit for the singular and beau- 




[Book V. 

tiful painting by Titian, divided into five 
compartments. St. Francis, St. Ni- 
cholas, St. Michael, a painting by Mo- 
retto, bears its trying neighbourhood with 
honour. This church is still further 
indebted to this excellent artist for the 
Christ between Moses and Elias, and 
some small paintings in the sacristy, 
which also possesses a superb St. Bar- 
bara, attributed toLactantiusGambara, 
a famous painter of Brescia, and clever 
imitator of Titian. 

The church of Saint Francis, which 
has some good paintings such as the 
St. Peter, by Gandiui ; the St. Francis 
and other saints, by Romanino; a Mo- 
ther praying to St. Anthony, by Fran- 
cesco Maffei, and especially a Sposalizio, 
by an unknown author, « recalls a sin- 
gularly characteristic literary incident. 
It was there that, on the 24th of June 
1425, Bartolommeo Baiguera read his 
Itinerarium Italia to the people after 
prayers, as Herodotus read his history 
before assembled Greece, another primi- 
tive, artless, and poetical itinerary. Be- 
fore the invention of printing reading in 
public was frequent ; it is probable, there- 
fore, that literature was more popular 
then, than when it became necessary to 
learn reading, and even writing, prepa- 
ratory to its cultivation : the verses of 
Dante were sung, better or worse, by ar- 
tisans, who have paid little or no atten- 
tion to them since. In our days were a 
book of travels in Italy to be read to the 
congregation after the sermon, it would 
appear a terrible scandal. 

Santa Maria dei miracoli is rich 
and elegant and has a superb and Titian- 
like St. Nicholas by Moretto, with a One 
Presentation, of the year 1594 by Cossalc . 

Saint John presents some admirable 
pictures by Moretto and Romanino, which 
seem to dispute the superiority in taste, 
gracefulness, expression, and truth; such 
in particular are the altar-pieces of the 
Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament. 
Their other chefs-d'oeuvre are : by Mo- 
retto, the Massacre of the Innocents, 
an excellent Trinity, with the Virgin, 
the saints Gregory, Augustine, Monica, 
and some little angels ; a large painting 
of St. John the Evangelist, with the 
saints John the Baptist, Augustine, and 
Agnes adoring the Virgin in the clouds: 

1 Tbe painting is signed Francisci de Pralo Ca- 
ravagensis opus 1547 ; probably it is by Fran- 

an Old man holding a musical instru- 
ment; the Forerunner baptising on the 
banks of Jordan : Zacharias blessing 
St. John the Baptist and Elizabeth, 
who is mourning her son's departure for 
the wilderness; the Hebrews gathering 
manna; the Prophet Elijah wakened 
by an Angel; — by Romanino : a Last 
Supper; the Besurrection ofLazarul; 
the Adoration of the Holy Sacrament, 
on the roof; a superb Sposalizio. A 
small painting of the Burial of Christ is 
the only work existing at Brescia of 
Giovanni Bellini, one of the first and 
greatest masters of (he Venetian school. 
In the baptistry another delightful little 
picture, perfect in the colouring, repre- 
sents a Crucifix. St. Blaise, and St. 
Barbara; it appears to be by Ferramola, 
and may have been finished by Moretto. 

The church of Santa Maria delle 
Grazie is magnificent but in bad taste ; it 
contains some good pictures by Brescian 
artists, pupils and followers of Titian; a 
St. Barbara, by Rosa; St. EYancesco 
Begis by Brentana, an artist who lost 
nothing of his originality and warmth by 
the study of Tintoretto ; St. Martin, by 
Maffei, St. Jerome and an aged matron 
worshipping the Virgin, one of the 
best of Ferramola's works, a clever pain- 
ter, the Brescian Pindar of the arts, who 
was protected and even favoured by 
Gaston amid the sack of his natal town; 
three paintings, each perfect in its way, 
by Moretto, St. Anthony of Padua, a 
Virgin with St. Martin, St. Boch, and 
St. Sebastian, one of bis youthful per- 
formances, and a Nativity. 

In a little chapel beside the choir of 
the church del Carmine, a tomb has been 
erected at the expense of the town, to the 
poet and musician Marcello, a Venetian 
patrician, who died while captain or first 
magistrate of Brescia. The psalms of 
Marcello, whichare still admirable though 
more than a century has passed away, 
and which procured him in his time the 
surname of the Prince of Music, in con- 
junction with such examples as Handel, 
Scarlatti, and Pergolese, prove that true 
and grand music, that powerful revelation 
of the pathetic and beautiful by means 
of sounds, is an art as well as poetry, 
eloquence, painting, and statuary, and 
not, as some have pretended, a talent as 

ceseo da Pralo, a Florentine artist of tbe sixteenth 
century, mentioned by Lanzi and extolled by Vatarl. 

Chap. VII.] 

transient and changeable as the fashion. 
The same church del Carmine, which has 
an Annunciation by Ferramola, and a 
fine ceiling by Sandrini, possesses one of 
those old pictures attributed by popular 
credulity to St. Luke, which have always 
brought to my recollection Cicognara's 
observation, namely, thathad it been true 
that this apostle was a painter, as he lived 
under Augustus, his work must have 
been of rather better taste. 

Saint George has a graceful Nativity 

j by Brescianino, a pupil of Gambara, who 

I seems to have died young, his paintings 

being few in number. In the sacristy, a 

St. George on horseback killing the 

dragon, the first painting of the old 

' church, is a brilliant old picture very 

extraordinary for its era ; it seems to be 

'< by Montorfano, a Milanese painter of the 

fifteenth century. 

Saint Joseph has some excellent paint- 
. ings : a Mother of grief, St. Paul, St. 
Jerome, St. John, St. Catherine, and 
Magdalen, by Romanino; the Martyr- 
dom of St. Crispin and St. Crispinian, 
the masterpiece of Avogadro, a Brescian 
painter of the last century ; the Pente- 
cost, by Moretto; St. Joseph, St. Roch, 
and St. Sebastian, a majestic work of 
Mombelli, before his talent became ener- 
vated by excessive refinement. In this 
church I remarked the tomb of a Lautrec, 
who was slain on the field of battle at the 
skirmish of Roncadella in 1705; he was 
the last of that chivalrous race, of which 
Italy seems to be the glorious tomb. 

Many paintings in the churches of 
Brescia already present those strange 
anachronisms of the Venetian school. 
At Saint Clement's, which numbers five 
of Moreno's pictures, his noble and grace- 
ful figures of the saints Lucy, Agnes, 
Agatha, Cecilia, and Barbara; Melchi- 
zedeckand Abraham; Saints Paul, Je- 
rome, and Catherine ; St. Ursula and her 
companions ; his superb piece at the 
high-altar, one of the finest paintings in 
Brescia, exhibits Pope Saint Clement 
wearing the tiara, which was not used 
till a hundred years after. At Saint 
Faustin and Giovite, a church adorned 
with a graceful Nativity by Gambara, a 
St. Apollonius, and a Resurrection, by 
his master Romanino ; Tiepolohas repre- 
sented the R.oman governor who orders 
the martyrdom of the saints, in a Turkish 
costume, and, though in Trajan's time, 
smoking his pipe. The subject of another 



picture by Cossale is the apparition of the 
patron saints of Brescia when the town 
was assaulted by Piccinino. The tradi- 
tion runs that they appeared upon the 
walls and threw the enemies' bullets 
back at them. Without disrespect to 
Faustin and Giovite, we may believe 
that the exploits of Brigitta Avogadro and 
her worthy companions were as great a 
prodigy, and contributed as much to the 
safety of the place. 

The mausoleum of Martinengo, is a 
national and military monument of Bres- 
cia; it is the burying place of Marco 
Antonio Martinengo della Palata, a va- 
lorous master at arms, who beat the 
Spaniards near Cremona, in 1526, and, 
although wounded by two musket shots, 
took prisoner with his own hand the 
terrible Ludovico Gonzaga, surnamed the 
Rodomonte, for having, at Madrid, stran- 
gled in his embraces, a Moor of gigantic 
stature who had challenged him to 
wrestle. Martinengo was carried home, 
and died of his wounds three days after 
the victory. Magnificent funeral honours 
and this mausoleum were decreed him ; 
but, strange to say, except his arms, 
which are an eagle, there is nothing on" 
the monument to recall his memory; the 
marble medallions and bronze basso- 
relievos which embellish it represent the 
Passion of Jesus-Christ, and other 
sacred subjects, without bearing the least 
relation to the brilliant and hardy exploit 
of the hero. 


Pio luogo della congrega.— Charitable establish- 
ments and philanthropical institutions.— Galleries. 
Group in ivory. — Canapo-Santo.— Inscriptions and 
fountains of Brescia. 

The Pio luogo della congrega apos- 
tolica is a well conceived charitable es- 
tablishment which has existed nearly 
three centuries. Its object is to assist 
persons of respectable birth who have 
come to want : the relief is apportioned 
every week by the managers, who visit 
the unfortunate families in person. The 
spirit of association is of long dale in 
Italy ; it was developed under the in- 
fluence of religion, and the bishops of 
Brescia were the first and principal be- 
nefactors of Pio luogo della congrega. 
This spirit of association proceeding from 
Christianity exerts itself with zeal, deli- 
cacy, kindness, and humility. The phi- 



[Book Y. 

lanthropic institutions of free and com- 
mercial states, being adapted to their 
peculiar state of civilisation, are of a 
character totally different : their consti- 
tution has something of.the precise, se- 
vere, calculating, but still brilliant and 
ostentatious, regime of a banking-house. 
If we admire the order of their accounts, 
and the extent of their correspondence, it 
is not the less strange to see some of the 
beneficent societies of London, even the 
Bible Society, giving every year fetes, 
dinners, concerts, and even balls. The 
Pio luogo della congrega deserves imi- 
tation elsewhere ; such a society would 
be most excellent after the vicissitudes 
which have taken place in the fortunes 
of such numbers of persons so variously 
situated ; never perhaps were there 
more examples of unforeseen misfortune 
which shrinks from the public gaze, and 
that poverty which pines in secret is not 
ihe least deserving of compassion. 

The galleries of Brescia are pretty nu- 
merous. The first is that of Count Lec- 
tin : the Virgin, the Infant Jesus, and 
some saints, by Calisto Piazza, is reckon- 
ed one of the best paintings in Brescia ; 
an Assumption, by Gambara, is also 
very fine, and the collection of portraits 
curious. The Martinengo-Collconi gal- 
lery has a portrait of the queen of Cy- 
prus, Cornaro, by Titian, admirable for 
truth, but the physiognomy, though ex- 
pressive, is singularly vulgar. The gal- 
lery of Count Paolo Tosi declares the 
taste and splendour of the owner : a 
small painting of Christ giving his bless- 
ing is attributed to Baphael; numerous 
paintings by the best living or contem- 
porary artists, as Landi, Migliara, Pa- 
lagi, Diotti, Hayez, Granet, a bust of 
Eleonora d'Esle, by Canova, a Ganymedes 
by Thorwaldsen, make this gallery a kind 
of Brescian Luxemburg. 

The residence of Lactantius Gambara, 
who may be called the national painter 
of this town, was behind the bishop's 
palace ; the artist had embellished his 
house with paintings both within and 
without; those on the outside having 

' The question was whether Van-Obstal should 
he allowed to demand, alter the expiration of Ihe 
year and a day for the executor's arrangements, 
the price of a monument he had executed, as a 
workman claiming the payment of his labour or 
things furnished. The young orator demonstrated 
that his client professed a liberal art, which ought 
to raise him above the class of simple artisans. 

been spoiled by his enemies, he replaced 
them by new ones which represented 
Time trampling down Error; Truth was 
descending from heaven with Apollo ar- 
companied by the Muses and Minena; 
in the centre was Atlas bearing the 
globe on his shoulders, with the motto 
indefessus labore. This colossal Atlas 
is scarcely perceptible now ; the other 
figures have suffered much injury from 
the air; but the small figures in compart- 
ments in the doorway are in perfect 
preservation. One of the rooms in the 
Scaglia house is decorated wilh the Wed- 
ding of Pirithous and Hippodamia. 
The ceiling and walls of a chamber be- 
side the residence of the Counts Valotti, 
present Charity, Faith, Hope, Chastity, 
and Temperance, very well executed. 
The house of the Cavalier Sabatti has a 
spacious room painted all over in fresco 
by himself in 15G8, and representing the 
Deluge. The marvellous frescos of the 
convent of Saint Euphemia, exhibiting 
divers incidents of the Old and New 
Testaments, are nearly destroyed by time 
and the conversion of the edifice into 
barracks. Lastly, this indefatigable ar- 
tist painted a whole street ; he there re- 
presented, in forty-eight compartments, 
scriptural, fabulous, and historical sub- 
jects, works full of case, variety, and 
imagination, but their preservation has 
been sadly neglected. 

Signor J. B. Bondi is the possessor of 
a singular curiosity ; it is the Sacrifice 
of Abraham, a group in ivory, which Ci- 
cognara informs us is the largest existing 
in any country. The composition is bad, 
the expression very weak, the attitude 
of the heads deficient in nobleness, the 
hair, beard, and folds of the drapery in 
bad style ; but there is some talent in the 
fleshy parts. The artist was a Belgian, 
a celebrated sculptor in ivory, named 
Gerard Van Obstal, for whom the fifth 
son of the president Lamoignon pleaded 
with success, then a common barrister, 
and afterwards for thirty years "king 
and tyrant of Languedoc under the name 
of intendant," as Saint Simon says.i 

The academy of painting and sculpture to show 
their gratitude to M. de Baville printed his speech, 
and offered him, through Lcbrun, to bave'his bust 
made by Girardoa and his portrait taken by Cham- 
pagne. The orator refused these honours, but 
wished the academy to offer them to his father, the 
fust president, v ho accepted them after a long re- 




ilVan-Obstal was one of Ihe founders of 
he Paris academy of painting, an insti- 
ution of little note, which does not ap- 
Dear to have been very favourable to the 
art in France, as it was precisely from 
.he moment of its dissolution that our 
>chool, having more liberty, seemed to 
become more extensive and take a higher 

The Campo-Santo of Brescia, begun 
in 1815, is a grand and beautiful monu- 
ment of its kind, which does honour to 
its architect, S. Vantini. The tombs are 
I erected against the wall in the form of 
the ancient columbaria. The tomb of 
s Marco-Antonio Deani, a pious and cha- 
ritable Franciscan known by the name 
of Pacifico, one of the most celebrated 
preachers of the day, who refused a bi- 
shopric offered him by Pius VII., and 
only asked him to reestablish his order 
at Brescia that he might end his days 
there, bears an inscription by Doctor 
Labus, his countryman and friend. By 
an Italian artist's fantasy, of sufficiently 
bad taste, the busts painted on the ceiling 
of the chapel are portraits of persons of 
the society ofBrescia:all these male and 
female saints attired a la mode form a 
kind of circle, and seem much more out 
of place in heaven than they would in 
a drawing-room. A separate spot is al- 
lotted to suicides : Plato enounces the 
same opinion in his laws. The protes- 
tants have also a burying-place apart, 
but the grievous wrong of interring exe- 
cuted criminals among them existed for 
some time; a disgraceful mixing of those 
who do evil with those who think in- 
correctly which has been very properly 
reprobated by S. Guiseppe Nicolini, a 
good poet of Brescia, the translator and 
biographer of Byron, in his Meditation 
on the feast of All Souls, s 

It is a singular circumstance that 
Brescia is the town which has more in- 
scriptions and fountains than any other 
in Italy, Rome excepted. The number 

1 B mal pensati e mal fattor confusi. 

II due novem'ire, Meditazione, 
Brescia, 1824. 

Cesare Aricci, another distinguished poet of Bres- 
cia, has also composed a poem on the Campo Santo, 
and it is one of his best productions. 

* See also chap. i. of this book. The exportation 
of silks for England from 4815 to 1834 amounted 
to 28,930,000 livres; from 1800 to 1814 it was only 
ii. 794,000 lures, The Mount delle Sete a well 

of public fountains is seventy-two, and 
there are more than four hundred belong- 
ing to private individuals; by means of 
these a supply of pure refreshing moun- 
tain water, almost equal to that of 
Rome, is distributed throughout the town. 
The discovery of the superb temple of 
Brescia has recently added to this kind 
of approximation, if such be permitted, 
with the Eternal City. 

How singular are the conquests of in- 
dustry! the silk which is produced in 
abundance round about Brescia is pur- 
chased by the English, and these Britons 
separated from the world now bear 
away the richest produce of the fields ad- 
jacent to the country of Virgil. > 


Lake of Garda.— Sermione.— Steamboat.— Isle of 
Lecchi.— Malsesine. 

One of those tempests frequent on the 
lake of Garda, 

Fluctibu} el fremilu assurgens, Benace, Marino, 

did not permit me the first time to visit 
the coast of Sermione and the grottoes 
of Catullus. As I stood on the shore, con- 
templating them in the distance, in that 
sort of reverie peculiar to disappoint- 
ment, I was struck with the idea that the 
first poets of ancient and modern Italy 
and of France, sprung from the north, 
as Catullus, Virgil, Petrarch, Dante, Boc- 
caccio, Ariosto, and the seven or eight 
great poets that honour our literature, 
as if the poetical genius had still more 
need of meditation and reason, than of 
the brilliant light of the sun and the sen- 
sations it produces. 3 

The setting of the sun after the storm 
displayed, on the shores of the lake of 
Garda, a singularly superb effect of light. 
At his rising on the morrow, the east 
lavished other wonders : the sombre py- 
ramids of the Alps were distinctly out- 
lined on a sky still faintly coloured, but 

organised trading company and discounting bank, 
established at Milan in 1836, is calculated to extend 
and equalise this exportation to the advantage of 
the producers. 

3 Horace and Ovid are exceptions among the 
Latin poets. Tasso's father was from Bergamo; 
his son seems, by accident, to have been born at 
Sorrento, as we have seen. The first contemporary 
poets of Italy, Alfleri, Monti, Cesarotti, Ippolito 
Plndemonte, Manzoni, Silvio Pellico, and Grossi, 
belong also to the north, of Italy. 




[Book V 

of admirable purity, and a few clouds 
gilded by the first rays of the sun seemed 
like the fringe of these magnificent hang- 
ings. The Monte Baldo, a picturesque 
and fertile mountain, surnamed the 
Garden oflhe Alps, whose lofty summit 
by a gentle and majestic sweep is united 
with the Tyrolian Alps, overlooks this 
almost boundless scene. It was impos- 
sible not to be enraptured atsuch a sight: 
these are the voluptuous moments of a 
traveller's life, which is always rather 
cheerless and uncomfortable when one 
journies alone. 

I have since visited the peninsula, or 
rather the rock, ofSermione and the vast 
ruins which cover it. The olive accords 
well with these ruins, and their charm- 
ing position still recalls that venusta 
Sirmio which its poet was so happy to 
see again on his return from Bilhynia 
and Thynia.» But after reading Ca- 
tullus attentively it is difficult to recog- 
nise his dwelling in the ruins bearing 
his name : that palace was perhaps the 
one belonging to Manlius; the house of 
him who composed his epithalamium 
would be adjacent, that house which he 
received with a field and even a mistress, 2 
and which was rendered more disagree- 
able by its mortgages than all the winds. 3 
Catullus, notwithstanding his talents, 
was already a kind of courtier poet, al- 
though the manners of Rome were not 
then so relaxed, nor had Maecenas sanc- 
tioned literary adulation. He often, 
muchtoooften, speaks of his poverty, and 
rails against the race of protectors whom 
he curses : 4 all this, certainly, is but 
little in character with the powerful 
Roman, who possessed the great and 
beautiful structures of Sermione, with 
their bath, a separate edifice, their lofty 
pilasters, and the immensity of their 
subterraneous vaults. The rank of Ca- 
tullus's father and the distinguished fa- 
mily to which he belonged have been 
adduced; but he would uot be the only 
instance of a well-born man sinking into 
a debauched and servile poet. The con- 
ventional manners of the Romans could 
not indeed sanction the loose tone of Ca- 
tullus, nor the licentiousness and infamy 
of his poems. He has written both epi- 

1 Catull. Carta,, xxxi., 5, {2. 

* Id., Ixvill., 41, 67, 8. 

* Id., xxvi., 5, 
4 Id., xxvlli. 

grams and epithalamiums, two opposite 
kinds, but which it is not surprising to 
find in the same author, as malice can 
very well amalgamate with vileness. 
Such is, however, the power of glory; 
no one knows the name of the opulent 
patrician who owned this superb palace, 
and after ages have thought they ho- 
noured its ruins by decorating them with 
the name of a poet. 

Sermione reminds us of some events 
oi modern times. By a singular destiny, 
this peninsula, the abode ol the bard 
who sung of Lesbia and her sparrow, 
was given by Charlemagne to the monks 
of Saint Martin of Tours to bear the ex- 
penses of their wardrobe ; for it seems 
that these monks liked to be better clothed 
than their saint. The fort of Sermione, 
with its battlements and antique towers, 
erected by the Scaligers, the sovereigns 
of Verona, has a fine appearance from 
the lake. When the Austrians evacuated 
the retrenchments of Sermione in 1797, 
the French general who took possession 
of them gave a fete in honour of Catullus; 
but in the midst of the poetical toast and 
drinking songs, the inhabitants came to 
complain of the depredations they suf- 
fered from a detachment of our troops. 
Probably these brave fellows had un- 
consciously imitated rather too much, 
the lax morals oflhe poet they celebrated. 
Afler two thousand years the memory 
of Catullus proved useful to his country, 
as a narrative of that period pompously 
apprises us. The disorderly detachment 
was immediately dispersed among the 
inhabitants of other villages, good folks 
who counted no poets among their an- 
cestors, who, it appears, had never writ- 
ten any thing but prose. 

A steamboat now runs the whole length 
of the lake of Garda ; assuredly it is 
not less rapid than the old ship devoted 
to Castor and Pollux by Catullus; but 
previously to its boat existence it had 
not, like that, delivered oracles :— 

I'baselus ille 

navium eelerrimus. 

Cylorio iu jugo 

Loquente saepe sibilura edidit coma.* 

5 Journal historique des operations mililairesdu 
sttge de Peschicra, el de I'attuque de$ retranche- 1 
ments de Sermione, par F. Ut-uin, at) ix, p. <I0. 

6 Catull. Carui. IV, 

Chap. VIII.] 



After two thousand years, such is the 
truth of Virgil's verse, that a double 
machine has been found necessary for 
this boat, to subdue the fluctibus el fre- 
mitu tnarino of [he Latin poet. The 
boat of lake Garda has none of those 
learned and national names common to 
steamboats of other lakes, such as the 
Verbano of Lago Maggiore, the Lario, 
and Ihe Plinio of the lake of Cosmo; it 
takes the respected name of the archduke 
Regnier. One does not meet here the ele- 
gant company of the above-mentioned 
lakes, but tradesmen, peasants, sawyers, 
and loads of packages. The day I was on 
this boat it coasted along the Brescian 
shore, which is very superior to the Ve- 
ronese. It starts from Desenzano and 
goes to Riva and Torbola, small towns 
at the extremity of the lake. They 
scarcely stop any where now, as I had 
done previously, but on the fertile bor- 
ders of the riviera of Salo, covered with 
olives, vines, and citrons, which have an 
absolutely enchanting aspect from the 
lake. Towards the middle the lake 
narrows, becomes wild, and presents a 
succession of grottoes, steep rocks, a fine 
cascade ( the Ponale ) and lofty moun- 
tains ; it is a Scolch loch under an Italian 

A letter of Bonfadio, addressed to 
Plinio Tomacello, contains a description 
of lake Garda, which Ginguene" extols 
as charming and faithful, though he 
does not appear to have ever visited the 
country. 1 Bonfadio's description is rather 
insipid and exaggerated, and he well 
deserved the castigation inflicted by the 
lash ( frustra ) of the burlesque Baretli ; 
the dreams of Platonism, in vogue in the 
sixteenth century, are absurdly enough 
mixed up with this description of a lake 
in the north of Italy. 

Cardan, a man of parts whose name 
has wrongfully become synonymous with 
atheism, tells us in the narrative of his 
life, 2 that he narrowly escaped ship- 
wreck at the entrance of lake Garda. 
The situation of an atheist in a tempest 
must be horrible, were it possible for one 

1 Hist. litt. d'ltal. t. VIII. p. 323, 51*. Ginguene 
places Gazano, Bonfadio's native place, near the lake 
of Salo. There is no such lake , Salo is a small 
town ; the Riviera di Said, where Gazano stands, 
is that part of the shore of lake Garda which lies 
adjacent : in the same manner we say in French la 
Riviere de Gdnes. 

2 See chap. xxx. 

to exist under such circumstances, which 
I do not think, for the danger would 
compel belief. The history of Cardan, 
a kind of Confessions, which often do 
him no great honour, disproves his re- 
puted atheism, as there is in it a chapter 
on his religious feelings, which even con- 
tains a short prayer. 3 

The isle of Lecchi, which is only an 
Italian mile in circumference, is one of 
the embellishments of the smiling part of 
lake Garda ; Dante thus speaks of this 
solitude : 

Luogo e nel mezzo la dove '1 Trentino 
Pastore e quel di Brescia e '1 Veronese 
Segnar poria, se fesse quel cammino.* 

A monk of the family of Count L. Lec- 
chi, who now inhabits this island, found- 
ed there about the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, a theological school of 
great reputation. So fervent was the 
passion then for the study of divinity, 
that, to accommodate the multitude of 
his disciples, he was obliged to have the 
seats raised so as to form an amphitheatre, 
in the centre of which he delivered his 
lectures. Some authors pretend that 
Pope Adrian VI., whom they suppose 
the same person as Ludovico Rampini, 
one of the pupils of P. Francesco Lecchi, 
was born at Renzano, near Said ; a con- 
jecture peculiar to the Italian literati, 
which seems to have but slight founda- 
tion : this pedagogue of Charles V., this 
pope void of taste for the arts,— the un- 
worthy successor of Leo X., who, on ar- 
riving at Rome, turned away in disgust 
from the sight of the Laocoon, as from a 
profane divinity — this gloomy and rigo- 
rous pontiff seems more likely to have 
been born at Utrecht amid the fogs of 
Holland, than under an Italian sky. 

In the wilder part, near the extremity 
of the lake, is Malsesine, a large town on 
the Veronese coast. The embattled go- 
thic castle, of several stories, with an old 
tower, rises picturesquely from the rocks 
on the water's edge. It was there that 

3 The twenty-second. The arrangement of these 
Memoirs of Cardan is whimsical enough : instead 
of following chronological order, they are divided 
into collective chapters separately treating of his 
friends and enemies, his pleasures and pains, his 
travels, lawsuits, regimen, style of dress, etc. 

* Inf. xx. 69. 


an agent of Venice tore and ihrew away 
the drawing that Goethe was making of 
these ruins; and where, without the se- 
curity of a gardener who had served at 
Frankfort, the poet's country, he would 
have had much difficulty in escaping the 
persecution of the podesta and his grasp- 
ing secretary. The borough of Malse- 
sine, the country and residence of two 
good poets, Giambatlista Spolverini and 
Bullura, has inspired them with some 
verses. Spolverini, in his poem of the 
Riseide, which he composed at Malse- 
•ine, invites his Amaryllis to repair thi- 
ther .— 

Amarilli gentil, vieni qui, dove 
Tra il marmifero Torri, e la pescosa 
Torbole, 're degli altri allero monte. 
La soggetta Malsesine, 1' amala 
Primogenita sua Baido vagheggia, 
Fiso in lei la selvosa antica faccia 
immobilinente e le canule ciglia. 

And Buttura, who sojourned long wilh 
u», wished to die in his native town : 

Salve : mi scuote il seno 
Di Malsesine mia 1' aspetto, e l'oprc 
Liete rieordo di mia nuova elale. 

Mi terrei fortunato 
Lasciando mil memoria al borgo umile 
Oye apersi, e desio chiudere i giorni. 

Opposite Malsesine, on the Brescian 
coast, is the small village of Limone, 
where the Tyrolian Andrew Hofer em- 
barked a prisoner. When Europe had 
yielded, this mountaineer alone defended 
his country against the arms of Napo- 
leon. He was delivered to his impla- 
cable enemy, who had ostentatiously 
accorded favour to certain aristocrats, 
but could not pardon the rustic heroism 
of Hofer. An inhabitant of Limone 
who had witnessed his removal, gave 
me a few particulars respecting it. Ho- 
fer, calm and resigned, was accompa- 
nied by a young man, the son of a phy- 
sician of Gratz, who would not leave 
him, so great admiration had he for his 
courage and virtues. This Vendean of 
the Alps was fettered like a robber ; and 
as the little bark which held him crossed 
the lake, its waters were unusually agi- 
tated, as if indignant at participating in 
such a murder s he was landed at the 
fortress of Peschiera, and taken thence to 
Mantua, where he was shot. Hofer was 


one of those rare and illustrious victims 
who, like the favourites of fortune, appear 
but at long intervals; the former acquire 
by sacrifices, imprisonment, calumnies, 
and death, a glory not less eminent, and 
much purer, than the latter can ever at- 
tain by success, power, and dominion. 


Italian Tyrol. — Madonna of the Inviolata — Lake 
of Loppio. — Roveredo. — Dante's verses : Qual' 
e quella ruina. Valley of the Adige. 

Near Riva, a small fortified town at 
the point of the lake, is a church of the 
Inviolata, which, with its pictures and 
cupola resplendent with marble and gild- 
ing, seems like a lingering ray of Italy 
in a poor and mountainous country. 
The miraculous image of the Virgin was 
shown me by a Franciscan of the con- 
vent, a jovial fellow who was almost in- 
toxicated, and exhibited the first traces 
of German manners by the side of Italian 
magnificence. The Franciscan , never- 
theless, very devoutly lighted two small 
candles on each side the tabernacle, be- 
fore he uncovered the image of the ma- 
donna and recited his prayer. 

The road across the mountains from 
Riva to Roveredo, is exceedingly pictu- 
resque. The limpid rock-bound lake of 
Loppio, with its islands, has a thousand 
particulars that one cannot too highly re- 
commend to artists. 

Roveredo is a pretty town, wilh a Ger- 
man aspect ; it is entirely devoted to ma- 
nufactures and commerce, and has neither 
the loitering inquisitive travellers, the mo- 
numents, nor the external appearance of 
Italian towns. 

Between Roveredo and Ala, another 
small town of the Tyrol, is lo Slavino di 
Marco, a fallen mountain, or kind of 
avalanche of stones, which it is now said 
that Dante meant to designate, much 
more than the Chiusa, by .-— 

Qual' e quella ruina che nel flanco, 
Di qua da Trento, l'Adice percosse, 
per tremuoto o per soslegno mance, 
CUe da cima del monte. onde si mosse, 
Al piano, e si la roccia discoseesa, 
Ch' alcuna via darebbe a clii su fosse ? 

One can scarcely conceive now what lo 
Slavino may have been; but after visit- 
ing the Chiusa, which is farther down 
on the same road, I should incline to re- 

ClIAP. X. ] 



turn lo the opinion of the first commen- 
tators and Maffei, by again recognising 
the Chiusa, as the famous ruin : it gives 
a good idea of a vestibule of hell, of the 
entrance to that circle where the violent 
were punished, by the immense succes- 
sion of rocks it presents, which the road 
made bv the French has mutilated with- 
out destroying their formidable aspect. 

From Roveredo to Verona, the road 
descends the valley of the Adige, a garden 
traversed by a torrent and enclosed by 


Feschlern. — Verona. — Scaligers, — Can Grande.— 
Uomeo and Juliet. 

The direct road to Verona passes 
through the fortress of Peschiera, erected 
at the spot where the Mincio issues from 
the lake :— 

siede Peschiera, bello e forte arnese 

Da fronteggiar Brescia nl e BergamascliI, 

Onde la riva intorno piu discese. 

Verona, with its old tower-flanked 
walls, its embattled bridges, its long 
wide streets, and its reminiscences of the 
middle ages, has an imposing air of gran- 
deur. Such a city was fit to be the ca- 
pital and abode of this Can Grande della 
Scala, 1 the Augustus of the middle ages, 
who welcomed to his court Dante and 
other proscribed poets and authors. 
Boccaccio cites Can Grande as one of the 
most magnificent lords that Italy ever 
knew. a One of the refugees whom he 
received has given a particular account 
of his noble and ingenious hospitality. 
"Different apartments were assigned to 
them in the palace according to their 
respective conditions ; he appointed ser- 
vants to each, and a well served table. 
Their several apartments were indicated 
by symbols and devices : Victory for the 

* The etymology of the name of this illustrious 
family is very uncertain. The historian Villaui, 
like a true Florentine merchant., believes in good 
earnest that it proceeds from the circumstance of 
the Scaligers' ancestors having been ladder-makers. 

a Giorn. i no?, vn. 

3 Sagaclus MuciusGazata, the historian of Reggio, 
quoted in part by M. de Sismondi, Hist, des Rep. 
Hal. ch. xxvlil. 

4 Parad. can. xvii. AS, el seq. At last, however, 
Dante's spirit could not endure the mannerof living 
In the palace of Can Grande, nnr the insolence of 

warriors, Hope for the exiles, the Muses 
for the poets, Mercury for the artists. 
Paradise for the preachers. During 
meals, musicians, jesters, and conjurers 
performed in these apartments, the rooms 
were ornamented with paintings (by 
Giotto) relating to the vicissitudes of for- 
tune (probably after the inspirations of 
Dante, his friend) : and the lord of La 
Scala occasionally invited some of his 
guests to his own table, particularly 
Guido di Castello di Reggio, who, for 
his sincerity, was called the simple Lom- 
bard, and Dante Alighieri, then a most 
illustrious man, who charmed him with 
bis genius." 3 This hospitality accorded 
to Dante has been immortalised by the 
celebrated verses of the poet, the finest, 
and most pathetic that ever exile in- 
spired : — 

Quel si parti Ipolito d'Atene 

Per la spietata e perfida noverca, 
Tal di Fiorenza partir ti conviene. 

Queslo si vuole, e queslo gii si cerca; 
E tosto verr& fatio a clii cid pensa 
La dove Cristo tutlo di si mercu. 

Tu lascerai ogni cosa diletla 

Piu caramente ; e questo e quello slrula 
Che l'arco dell' esilio pila saetta 

Tu proverai si come sa di sale 

II pane altrul, e com' e duro calle 

Lo scendere e '1 sallr per I'altrui scale. 

E quel che piu ti gravera le spalle 

Sara la compagnia maivagia e scernpu 
Con la qual tu cadrai in questa valle. 

Lo primo tuo rifugio e '1 primo ostello 
Sara la cortesia del gran Lombardo, 
Che 'n su la scala porta il santo uccello.'' 

The tombs of the magnificent lords of 
Verona, a species of long Gothic pyramids 

his courtiers. It is very possible that the latter had 
destroyed the effect of their master's benevolent in- 
tentions. Poggio gives us, in his Facetias, the poet's 
answer to these courtiers, wno had placed nothing 
but bones before him one day when he dined at 
Can Grande's table :— ■' Versi omnes in solum Dan- 
tem, mirabantur cum ante ipsum soluuimodo ossa 
conspicerentur- turn ille: Minimum inquit, miruin 
si canes ossa sua comederunt ; ego nutem non sum 
canis." Facetiw, p. 67. Tiraboscbi relates the 
anecdote of that buffoon whose grirnsces and jokes 
were not relished by Dante, though they had ob- 



[Book V. 

surmounted by the equestrian statue of 
each prince, are some of the most curious 
monuments of the town, but these old 
tombs, in the open air, are in a situation 
too noisy and confined. The most splen- 
did of them, and one of the finest of the 
fourteenth century, is not that of Con 
Grande, but of Can Signorio, his third 
successor, heir of the brother of Can 
Grande II., whom he had publicly assas- 
sinated on horseback in the middle of the 
street, near his palace, ' who, when 
at the point of death, ordered his younger 
brother Alboin to be strangled in his pri- 
son ; wishing to assure the succession to 
his bastards Antonio and Bartolommeo, 
the former of whom, as soon as he mount- 
ed the throne, caused the other to be 
poniarded. Never were so many in- 
stances of fratricide brought within so 
small a space as in this chapel ; and fable 
has recounted fewer horrors of the hos- 
tile brothers of Thebes, than history re- 
cords of those of Verona. Petrarch no 
doubt alluded to all these catastrophes 
when he too lightly wrote that Verona, 
like Acteon, was torn by its own dogs. = 
To divert my thoughts from this fearful 
subject, I sought information respecting 
the loves of Romeo and Juliet :— 

Flos Veronensium depereunt juvcnum,' 

a verse of Catullus, applied to much less 
honourable loves, and that one would 
imagine Shakspeare had imitated :— 

Verona's summer bath not such a flower ; 

which passage M. Emile Deschamps has 
naturally rendered by 

C'esl la plus belle fleur du priutemps de Virone. 

tallied great success at the court. Being asked by 
Cane, or more likely by his brother and predecessor 
Alboin, why be alone despised the man whom every 
body else admired, he answered : " It is because a 
similarity of manners is the foundation of friend- 
ship." Although the remark has escaped the many 
voluminous commentators on tbe Divina Commedia, 
I know not whether the phrase lo sctndere e 7 
salirper I'allrui scale be not a jeu de viols in allu- 
sion to the annoyances that Dante experienced with 
the lords of La Scala. 

1 The arcade under which Can Signorio com- 
mitted this murder, took and retained the name of 
Votlo barbaro; It joins the Piazza de' {Signori, 
where the Scaligers lived. 

■■> Bpist. senil. 3 Cam. C. 2. 

4 The Archduchess Maria Louisa of Pafma. 

5 It is extraordinary that Dante, to whose genius 
the pathos of the story of Romeo and Juliet was so 
suitable, has said nothing about them, though he 

I saw in a garden, said to have once 
been a cemetery, the pretended sarco- 
phagus of Romeo's bride. This tomb 
was the object, at the same time, of ex- 
cessive honours and strange indignities. 
Madame de Stael, and a very learned 
antiquary whom I knew at Verona, re- 
garded it as really that of Juliet. A great 
princess 4 has had a necklace and bracelets, 
made of the reddish stone of which it is' 
composed ; some illustrious foreigners 
and handsome ladies of Verona wear a 
small coffin of this same stone, and the 
peasants in whose garden this poetical 
sarcophagus stood in 1826 used it to Mash 
their lettuce in. It is now religiously 
preserved in the orphan asylum. 

According to a popular but erroneous 
tradition, the Capelletta takes its name 
from the family of the Capulets, and some 
enthusiastic travellers have lately taken 
drawings of both the interior and exterior. 
The memory of the loves of Romeo and 
Juliet has been renewed in Italy by Eng- 
lish travellers ; Shakspeare's play has 
made it popular. Thus do Dante and 
Shakspeare seem to meet at Verona, the 
one by his works, the other by his mis- 
fortunes; and the imagination delights 
in bringing together these two great ge- 
niuses, so tremendous, so creative, and 
perhaps the most astonishing of modern 
literature. 5 


Amphitheatre.— People inhabiting the monuments. 
—Arch of Gavlus. 

The amphitheatre of Verona, now the 
finest and best restored of those edifices, 

speaks so eagerly of the Montagues and Capulets ; 
Vleni a veder Monlecchi e Cappelletti. 

(Purg. vl. fo0.| 
A poetess, or more probably a poet of the time 
concealed under the name of Clithia, celebrated It. 
This Utile poem in four cantos, printed in (553, had 
become scarce ; it has been reproduced by s. Ales- 
sandro Torri in his notes to the novel of Lulgi da 
Porlo. ( Pisa, 1831. ) The novellicrs and Italian his- 
torians who have related the adventure of Romeo 
and Juliet, which happened in i303 or 1304 under 
Bartolommeo della Scala, the son of Albert, are later 
by more than two centuries. See the novel of Ban- 
dello, t. iv. nov. ix. A French translation of the 
novel of Romeo and Juliet, by Luigi da Porto, fol- 
lowed by some scenes translated from Shakspeare's 
Juliet, is due lo a learned writer, M. Delfcluae, who 
has compared the play with tbe novel. Paris, 1829, 

Chap. XL] 



has undergone many vicissitudes in its 
destiny : it has been thrown down by 
earthquakes, destroyed by barbarians, 
made a receptacle for the filth of the 
town, and even assigned as a residence 
for prostitutes, nor were any regulations 
made for its restoration and keeping in 
repair till the sixteenth century. In the 
next, it was cleared of the constructions 
that encumbered it, and the ditches of 
the citadel were filled up with their ma- 
terials. The long continued neglect of 
the amphitheatre seems to explain the 
cause of its not being mentioned by 
Dante, who had lived at Verona, and was 
always so eager to bring forward the 
wonders of Italy. It seems difficult to 
believe, as some have pretended, that, 
the form, ascending seats, and vomitoria 
of the amphitheatre, having suggested 
the idea of the circles and distribution of 
his hell, this great poet never spoke of 
the monument lest his strange plagiarism 
should be discovered. 

The first time that I saw this vast 
circus, there was a small puppet-show 
built with planks in the centre, which 
formed ah odd contrast with the beautiful 
marble seats and the Egyptian solidity 
of the vaults and arcades that surrounded 
it. Thus, in the history of nations, a 
magnificent scene is often occupied by 
ludicrous personages. I afterwards at- 
tended a rather childish spectacle in this 
same arena : pigeons had been trained 
to perch themselves on a pistol and sit 
motionless while it was fired ; they also 
discharged a small cannon, and then let 
off crackers while soaring in the sky. 
The intrepidity of these pigeons, carrying 
thunderbolts like the eagle (which is said 
to be cowardly), was little to my taste; 

1 According to Saraina Torello, an esteemed Ve- 
ronese antiquarian, the amphitheatre of Verona 
Will hold twenty-three thousand one hundred and 
eighty-four ; Maffei reduces it to twenty-two thou- 

2 Despite all the researches of the learned, the 
period of the foucdallon of the amphitheatre re- 
mains uncertain. 

3 In Sachetti ( nov. cxiv ) this scene passes at Flo- 
rence ; it is also said that Dante somewhat eccentri- 
cally reproached a muleteer, who was likewise 
singing his Dirina Commedia, with adding to his 
verses a hoarse am to slimuiate his mules: Ma 
quell' arri non celb posiio ! (The same, nov. cxv.) 
The poems of Dante and Boccaccio were commonly 
accompanied with music and dancing, from which 
practice are derived the nsmes of Sonnets, Chansons 
[Canzoni), Ballads \Ualiata\. This accompani- 

boldness is not becoming in graceful 
beings, and I preferred the tender and 
unfortunate pigeons of La Fontaine to 
these warlike ringdoves. When full of 
people, the amphitheatre must offer a 
superb coup d'ceil, if I may judge of it 
by the number attracted by the pigeon 
performances. This coup d'ceil was 
given in the last century to the emperor 
Joseph II., and in 1822 to the sovereigns 
assembled at Verona; Pius VI. also en- 
joyed it when he passed through this city 
on his way to Vienna. But I think that 
this Father of the Faithful, blessing twenty- 
thousand Christians' from the top of 
this arena of some Roman emperor, 2 
must have been a grander and more 
affecting sight than all the pomps of 
worldly princes. 

The outside of the amphitheatre is 
inhabited by the poorer classes of the 
town. It appears to me however that 
travellers are sometimes too indignant 
against the occupying ancientmonuments 
in this manner; for it detracts less from 
the picturesque of these ruins than would 
the residence of classes more elevated or 
the practice of genteeler trades : the 
forge, with its flame sparkling at night 
in the bottom of the amphitheatre of 
Verona, has a finer effect than the lights 
which illuminate brilliant apartments, or 
the gas of some new shop or coffee-house. 
It was probably an ancestor of this arti- 
san, a tenant of these ruins, to whom 
Dante in exile at Verona said, as he 
threw his tools into the street : — "If 
you do not wish me to spoil your 
things, do not spoil mine : you sing my 
verses, but not as I made them ; they 
are my tools, and you spoil them for 
me." 3 

ment was even applied to lyrical pieces and those of 
amorous and mystical metaphysics, as may be seen 
by the One canzone of the Convilo which Casella. 
the friend and music-master of Dante, sings to him 
at his request in Purgatory, to his great delight :— 

Amor cbe nella mente mi raglona, 
Comincio egli allor si dolcemenle 
Chela dolcezza ancor dentro mi suona. 

(C.H,H2-H5. ) 

Petrarch bad a musical voice, and accompanied his 
verses on the lute which be bequeathed to his friend, 
maestro Tomas Bombasius of Ferrara ; his Africa 
even was sung at Verona. An incident very like 
that of Dante and the blacksmith is related by the 
biographers of Ariosto. lie entered the shop of a 
potter who was singing, in a mutilated form, the 



[ Book V 

The arch of Gavius, the tomb of that 
illustrious family, was till some thirty 
^ears ago, another precious relic of an- 
tiquity. Its fluted columns and elegant 
capitals which now bestrew the earth, 
and will soon disappear beneath the filth 
of the Cittadella, are one of those wrecks 
brought about by civilisation, which are 
not less numerous and much more com- 
plete that those of barbarism. This 
monument, after escaping so many ra- 
vages, was destroyed in 1805, when the 
citadel near it was put in a state of de- 
fence. S. Pinali, a patriotic Veronese 
architect and distinguished antiquarian, 
the possessor of some valuable original 
drawings by Palladio, so vehemently 
bewailed the loss of this national ruin 
that the French Viceroy of Italy decreed 
its re-erection . Some proposed to remove 
it to a spot where they said it would be 
belter placed, as if these old Roman 
tombs, forcenturies embedded in the soil, 
could be shaken and uprooted so easily. 
Five months only were asked for this fine 
job, and the probability now is that it 
can never be executed 


Uiiropurls.— Porta del Palio. 

The illustrious Veronese architect San 
Micheli seems almost the builder of his 
town : every thing was done by him, — 
gates, bridges, palaces, fortifications, 
chapels, and tombs. As the Marquis de 
MatTei has said, the genius of Vitruvius 
seemed to have passed into this great 
artist. 1 There has been, however, a 
general mistake in attributing to him 
the invention of angular bastions ; Leo- 
nardo Vinci had previously ascertained 
the necessity of this arrangement which 

verses of the xxxnd Stanza or the first canto or Or- 
lando •— 

Ferma, Baiardo mio, deb ferma il piede, 
Che P esser senza te troppo mi uuoce, 
ond brohe several vases. The potter asked the 
reason of his wrath : " A cui Lodovico, Eppure non 
mi sono rieattato a dovere : io Dnalmente non ho 
(he intrantl poch vosi del valore appena d' un 
soldo ; voi mi avete guastali i raiei versi, che senza 
paragons costano molto piii." 

' According to Galiani and Solienl, who were 
Interested judges, V truvius was o Formia; ; he 
has Just been include *in the collection of medals 

has been since adopted by all engineers, 
and the ramparts of Verona were not 
constructed till 1527, eight years after 
his death.* The superb ramparts built 
by San Micheli, which the peace has 
destroyed, were masterpieces of military 
architecture : the demolition was one of 
the articles of the treaty of Luneville; 
but we may judge by the remnants of 
the bastion of Espagna and the bastion 
dclle Boccare, which is still entire, of 
the strength and solidity of those con- 
structions. Of late years Verona has 
been again considerably fortified by 
Austria, without making any ado 
about it. 

The Porta del Palio, 3 another of San 
Micheli's miracles, as Vasari expresses 
it, recalls one of those numerous national 
festivals celebrated in the cities or Italy 
during the middle ages. The Verona 
races, instituted in 1207 in honour of 
the victory gained by the podesta Azzo 
d'Este over the enemies of the city, have 
long ceased, but they will live for ever, 
since Dante has been their Pindar, and 
has compared his master Brunetto La- 
tini to one of the conquerors : — 

E parve di coloro 

Che corrono a Verona 'I drappo verde 
Per la campagua, e parve di cosloro 
Quegli che vince e non colui che perde. 

The Porta del Vescovo-a-S.-Toscana 
is associated with neither such glorious 
nor such poetic reminiscences, but the 
name and figure of the governor Teo- 
doro Trivulzio are sculptured on it; it 
was he that first introduced the culture 
of rice into the country of Verona in 
1522 ; and though less renowned than the 
indefatigable Giovanni Jacopo Trivulzio, 
he was a much greater benefactor to 

of celebrated Neapolitans, which is published at 
Naples under the direction or S. Taglioni. 

% See the Essay on the physico-matlicmalicaC ipa 
nnscripts of Leonardo Vinci, by J. B. Venturl. 
Leonardo Vinci's acquaintance with practical mili- 
tary architecture was very extraordinary, it we 
may judge by a memoir which be addressed to 
Ludovlco Sforza about 1490. In attaching towns he 
engages to make a gallery under the ditches full of 
waier : might not one truly say that the Thames 
tunnel was already under discussion? 

3 Palio, a piece or cloth given as a prlie to those 
who won the race. 

4 Inf. c. xv., 120-12'.. 

Cuap. XIII.] 




Saint Zeno. — Cathedral. — PaciDco.— Pope Lucio.— 
Mchesola's mausoleum.— Biancbini.— Saint Anas- 
*asia.— Thesis maintained by Dante.— Pellegrini 

The churches of Verona are numerous, 
i magnificent, and replete with reminis- 
icenccs. There, as in many other Italian 
(towns, the principal church is not the 
[cathedral, but the' church of some po- 
pular saint, powerful in word rather 
i Lhari eloquent, a benefactor to the coun- 
try, whose temple, is generally the most 
national monument of the place. It is 
! hus that Saint Zeno, Saint Anthony, and 
paint Pelronius, are really the first chur- 
ches of Verona, Padua, and Bologna, 
*'ery superior to the cathedral with its 
itled archbishop and lazy canons. The 
oldest portions of Saint Zeno are of the 
linth century. By a kind of miracle 
his church has hitherto escaped the 
everlasting labours of the artists of 
Cosmo, as Algarotti designated the ma- 
sons who came from that town, and its 
lppearance is still singularly venerable. 
The bronze doors presenting grotesque 
emblems, are of curious workmanship. 
The church, spacious, majestic, and 
gloomy, contains the statue of the saint, 
vho seems in a roar of laughter; it is 
nade of red Verona marble, and the co- 
our gives the visage a rubicund appear- 
ance, and adds still more to his jovial 
tir. This Christian Zeno seems to con- 
rast with the austerity of the stoic chief. 
lis tomb also exhibits some fantastic 
igures of the earlier times, and near it, 
.mong the arabesques of the archivolt of 
me of the choir staircases, is one repre- 
cnting two cocks carrying a fox sus- 
lended to a stick, 

!onteux commeun renard qu'une poule aurait pris, 

n unknown allusion, a profound allegory 
f the middle ages that La Fontaine 
ould doubtless have explained. 1 Tie 
reat wheel of Fortune, by Brislolto, a 
Veronese sculptor of the eleventh cen- 
ury, a precious piece of workmanship, 
uggested by the rapid rise and fall 

i Grosley found some similar ligures on the 
losalc compartments of the pavement of Saint 
iark, the work of the abbot Joachim, a fan ous 
isionary of the eleventh century. According to the 
istorians and people of Venice, said he, these 
gures are n prophetic emblem of the victories of 

of the princes of that epoch, is now con- 
verted into a window in the front, and 
is not very well seen in its lofty position. 
Three finished paintings, the Virgin, the 
Infant Jesus and some angels ; the 
Apostles Peter, Paul, and John; St. 
John Baptist, St. George, St Benedict 
and a bishop, are by JMatUegna, who 
has likewise painted in the cloister a 
very tine fresco of the Infant Jesus 
standing and blessing the universe, a 
touching and noble picture that nothing 
but the genius of Christianity could have 

Beside the church is a curious ancient 
tomb, the subject of a thousand fables : 
the inscription makes it that of Pepin, 
king of Italy, the son of Charlemagne ; 
but this inscription is modern, which 
may caution travellers against so egre- 
gious an error. The fine steeple of 
Saint Zeno, of the year 1045, is more- 
over distinguished by the quality of 
the stone and the remnants of Roman 
antiquities therein enchased. 

The cathedral appears to have been 
finished about the close of the tenth cen- 
tury. It seems as if Boland and Oliver 
were standing sentry at its doors; Ihey 
are sculptured standing erect on the 
Gothic pilasters of the front, amid a 
thousand symbolical figures of griffins, 
lions, birds, fruits, hunters, prophets, 
and warriors; they wear turned-up mus- 
tachios and naked swords as at Ronces- 
valles, and there also is Durandal,* for 
its name is still legible ; but the singular 
suits of armour of the two knights are of 
different kinds. Over the door are the 
figures of the three queens who contri- 
buted to the foundation of the church, 
Berlrade, the mother ot Charlemagne, 
his wife, and his daughter Ermengarde, 
the wife of Didier, princesses who have 
since become the three divine vir- 
tues, and over whom are written the 
three words faith, hope, and charity. 
This last virtue, charity, as well as an 
antique basso-relievo representing the 
Adoration of the Magi, is half-covered 
and nearly effaced by the archbishop's 

There is one tomb which confers a 

Charles VIII. and Louis XII., tings of France, over 
Ludovico Sforza, who had seized the duchy of Milan 
and maintained his tenure less by force than sub- 
tlety.— Observations oil Italy, vol. n. p. 77. 

3 Dtirindarda, and not Durindqna, as in Ariosto, 
c. xi. 50; xxiii. 78. 




{ Book V. 

lustre on Verona; it is that of its arch- 
deacon Pacifico, who died in 846, re- 
nowned for the theological victories of 
his youth, his commentary on the Bible, 
the first ever composed, and especially 
for his skill in astronomy and mechanics. 
The long, barbarous, and somewhat 
unintelligible epitaph, which bepraises 
even the beauty of his countenance, 
attributes to him the invention of the 
night-clock, by which is meant one strik- 
ing the hours. 

The tomb of Pope Lucius III., who 
was driven from Rome and died at Ve- 
rona in 1185, is curious. A quaint an- 
tique quatrain, followed by a charac- 
teristic inscription, recounts the pontiff's 
adventures.' How strange that the 
spiritual power of the popes, so strong 
and daring abroad during the middle 
ages, encountered no where more resis- 
tance than at Rome itself ! » Lucius had 
scarcely time to seat himself, so sudden 
and violent was the insurrection against 
his authority. It is said that he was the 
first elected by the cardinals alone, who 
then arrogated to themselves the right 
of chosing the pope to the exclusion of 
the people and clergy. 

The frescos of the high altar, repre- 
senting subjects from the history of the 
Virgin, were executed by Moro, a Ve- 
ronese painter, from drawings by Giullo 
Romano : the Assumption is admi- 

Titian's Assumption, brought back 
from Paris, is interesting, if it be true 
that he has painted San Micheli under 
the features of the apostle in the centre, 
with his face turned towards heaven, 
and one hand on the sepulchre. 

The painting of the chapel of Saint 
Anthony is by Balestra, and a Transfi- 
guration by Cignaroli, his pupil. In 
the sacristy of the canons, an Assump- 
tion and a St. Charles with a crucifix , 
are esteemed works of Ridolfi, a painter 
and writer of the seventeenth century, 
who contrived to avoid, in his paint- 
ings and biographies of the Venetian 

' Luca dedlt luceirj tibt, Lucl, pontiQcatum 
Ostia, papaluoi Roma, Verona mori. 
Immo Verona dedit lucis libi gaudia, Roma 
Exilium, euros Ostia, Luca mori, 

Ossa Lucil III Tout. Max. cui Uoma ob invidiam 
pulso Verona tutissimurn ac grnlissimuoi pertu- 
glum fuit, ubl convenla Cbrislianorum aclo, duni 
pra'clara multa molitur, e vita excess! t. 

artists, the false taste prevalent in Italy 
at that epoch. 

In the chapel called the Madonna 
del Popolo is an antique tomb of Julius 
Apollonius and his wife, with an inscrip- 
tion purporting that he had destined it 
during his life to his beloved spouse 
Attica Valeria, that he might one d;ij 
be placed by her side; this loving couple, 
were succeeded in their tomb by Saint 
Theodore, bishop of Verona. Near this 
spot is an enormous fish bone, a strange 
instrument for an executioner, which, 
according to the popular belief, served 
to decapitate the holy martyrs Fermus 
and Rusticus. 

The mausoleum erected to Nichesola, 
bishop of Bellona, by Francois Gervais, 
a Frenchman, canon of Verona, drawn 
and sculptured, according to tradition, 
by Sansovino, appears worthy of that 
grand artist. 

A monument was consecrated, in pur- 
suance of a public decree, to Francesco 
Bianchi, whom the learned prelate, 
Gaetano Marini, regarded as the first 
man of letters in the eighteenth century ; 
the inscription relates, and truly, that 
the meekness and modesty of this asto- 
nishing man, at once natural philo- 
sopher, mathematician, botanist, anti- 
quary, astronomer, and even poet, — 
who has so highly honoured Verona and 
Italy, equalled his vast acquirements. 

Over the door leading from the ca- 
thedral to the archbishop's residence is a 
pulpit from which the deacon formerly 
read the Gospel to the congregation ; an 
Annunciation is sculptured there. In 
accordance with the ancient practices, 
the Virgin is represented simply stand- 
ing, and not prostrate and in prayer, as 
she has always been painted in later 

Saint Anastasia, a church built during 
the sovereignty of the Scaligcrs, with its 
sculptured doors, majestic columns, lofty 
nave, cupola, and choir, is a monument 
of the magnificence of those princes as 
well as of tne epoch. The chapel of Janus 

*.H is remarked by Macbiavel on the subject or 
the public penance imposed by Pope Alexander on 
Uenry II. after the murder of Thomas a Deckel, a 
sentence to which in our days the meanest citizen 
would be ashamed to submit, that this same pope 
could not make the Romans obey him, nor would 
they even allow him to live in Rome. Istor. fto- 
rent. lib. I 

Chap. XIII.] 



Fregose, a Genoese and general in the Ve- 
netian service, who died in 1565, erected 
by his son Ercole, is a monument half 
altar half mausoleum, and one of the 
most remarkable in Italy; from the in- 
scription it appears to be by Danese Cat- 
taneo, an artist and poet of Carrara, 
whose thirteen cantos on the Amor di 
Marfisa delighted the youth of Tasso, 
and who was the master of Geronimo 
Campagna, a great sculptor and archi- 
tect of Verona. 

There are some good paintings at Saint 
Anastasia : a very fine St. Vincent, by 
Count Rotari, an artist of graceful talent, 
who was painter to Catherine II. and 
died during the last century in Russia ; 
near it is a fresco by an old and unknown 
author, part of which is in a good state 
of preservation ; the Christ dead and 
bewailed by the Marys, is attributed by 
Vasari to Liberale, but is by his great 
disciple Francesco Carotto, a clever Ve- 
ronese artist of the end of the fifteenth 
century ; a Deposition from the cross 
and other old paintings of the Pellegrini 
chapel, and particularly the fresco of St. 
George, by Vittorio Pisanello, a cele- 
brated Veronese master of the first epoch 
of the Venetian school ; two paintings of 
the Holy Ghost descending on the 
Apostles, by Giolfino, the friend, pupil, 
and guest of Mantegna. The chapel of 
the^ Rosary is of good architecture, and is 
said to have been executed from a design 
left by San Micheli. A fine old painting 
at the altar represents the Virgin, the 
Infant Jesus, and the saints and mar- 
tyrs Peter and Dominick, at her feet 
Martin II. della Scala and his wife Tad- 
dea da Carrara ; this cruel and faithless 
prince, the successor of Can Grande I., 
may be called the Tiberius of the Vero- 
nese Augustus. In the sacristy, the 
noble and elegant altar-piece represent- 
ing several saints, is by Felice Brusa- 
sorci, as also the small portraits of Domi- 
nican saints on the wall; a graceful 
Assumption is by Orbetto. 

A stone cenotaph and bust had just 
been erected in this church, in 1828, to 
the poet and improvisatore Lorenzi of 
Verona, by Ippolito Pindemonte and the 
archduchess Beatrice d'Este, an homage 
offered to talent by grandeur and friend- 
ship. These private monuments, so 

Naurragus hinc fugio; Christum seqnor : is mihi 

common in Italy, are among the noblest 
decorations of their temples; it is a 
touching manner of honouring the friends 
they regret or the great men they ad- 
mire. Pindemonte composed, on the 
subject of erecting this monument, some 
verses on the death of Lorenzi, in which 
his pious and resigned muse seems rather 
more sceptical and independent. These 
verses were the last Pindemonte wrote, 
and they seem, like the song of the ex- 
piring swan, to be the dying inspiration 
of this tender and melancholy poet. 

The baptistry of the church of Saint 
John in Fonte, with its eight faces, on 
which divers sacred subjects are coarsely 
sculptured, is a curious Christian anti- 
quity, in which the patriotism of Maffei 
found traces of nobleness. 

Saint Helena contains some old monu- 
ments, and especially the fragments of an 
old mosaic, the origin of which has be- 
come involved in uncertainty by multi- 
plied researches. It has also the tomb 
of a cardinal Teodin, Pope Lucius's com- 
panion in exile, and that of a pious, 
learned, and unfortunate Veronese, 
Leonardo Montagna, who died in 1485 ; 
his epitaph is simple and affecting. ■ 
The best painting, the celebrated St. 
Helena, by Felice Brusasorci, is of ex- 
traordinary beauty. It was in this 
church that Dante, in January 1320, 
when poor and in exile, maintained in 
Latin, before a numerous audience, a 
thesis on land and water, a strange sub- 
ject for this great poet to discuss, and a 
singular means of turning his talent to 
advantage. This public sitting in a 
church, which belonged to the manners 
of the day, and was regarded as a mark 
of honour for aim who was to be heard, 
confirms a remark in a preceding chapter 
on the popularity of science and litera- 
ture before the invention of printing, 
when they were neither studied nor 
taught in the closet, but propounded be- 
fore the crowd and for every body. 

Saint Euphemia has the fine Verita 
mausoleum, a capital work by San Mi- 
cheli. The old church, which had been 
repaired and renovated, dated from the 
Scaligers. It was then given to the her- 
mits of Saint Augustine of the monastery 
of Montorio, who established themselves 
there ; they acquired also several gar- 
sit dui, sitque comes, sitque perenne bonum 




[ Hook V. 

dens and houses adjoining as well as (he 
right to enclose a street leading down to 
the Adige : it appears that the latter pro- 
ceeding was oirensive to some parties, 
and the wall of the monks was thrown 
down in the night; but they rebuilt it, 
and their tenure was maintained. There 
are several tombs of literary men in this 
church : that of Renaud de Villefranehe, 
the grammarian, one of Petrarch's nume- 
rous correspondents; that of Antonio da 
Legnago, a counsellor of the Scaligers, 
"learned and of repute in his day," says 
Maffei ; those of Pietro dal Verme, and 
his son Lucchino ; a famous warrior to 
whom Petrarch addressed his treatise 
On the duty and qualifications of those 
who command, a sort of manual for mi- 
litary chiefs, in which he several times 
mentions good fortune as their chief-me- 
rit. The form of this red marble tomb 
pretty much resembles that of Petrarch, 
which I have since seen at Arqua. The 
tomb of Fracastor is not at Saint Euphe- 
mia, as some have asserted, but that of 
his friend Rhamnusio is there. The best 
paintings of the church arc : St. Paul 
before Ananias, one of the best works 
of Giambattista dal Moro,a fresco which, 
on the demolition of the wall it first oc- 
cupied, was carefully removed at great 
expense and placed over the door ; the 
Virgin with St. Roch and St. Sebas- 
tian, by Domenico Brusasorci ; and es- 
pecially two Virgins, by Carotto. 

The church of Saint Bernardin, which 
is decorated on the outside with frescos 
by Cavazzola, sumamed the second 
Paolo Veronese, by Farinati, called the 
third, and by GiolQno, contains : the 
superb St. Francis, by Francesco Mo- 
ronc, and another painter unknown, who 
did the beautiful aureola ; frescos by 
Giolfino, which are still full of life, des- 
pite the injuries of time, and which offer 
a view of ancient Verona ; a Virgin, 
perfect, by Francesco Monsignori, of 
Verona, one of the best pupils of Man- 
tcgna. The chapel of the Cross seems a 
gallery of the best works of Veronese 

• This stone peculiar lo the environs of Verona, 
says M. Quatremere de Quincy, is the most valuable 
kind known, after white marble, for w hileness and 
lineness, and at the same time better adapted by its 
firmness, to be worked by the chisel : it is called 
bronzioe, because when wrought it sounds like 
bronze. Histoire de la vie el Ui s ouvrages des plus 
cilebres arcliitectes, t. l. p. 160. Paris, 1S30. 

* It was at first somewhat blunderingly slated in 

masters of the good era. But all this 
magnificence nearly escapes attention 
beside the Pellegrini chapel, a master- 
piece of San Micheli, of itself a little 
temple. If, with respect to style and 
eloquence, some few pages are sufficient 
to give the measure of superior mind-, 
as may be seen by the A ventures d' A no- 
torious, the Reverie of Rousseau, Paul" 
et Virginie, Rene, le Lepreux, it ought 
to be the same in the fine arts : the Pel- 
legrini chapel displays all its author's 
genius. Though erected three centuries 
ago, such is the skill of its disposition, 
the beauty of the light, and the singular 
quality of the stone,' that it still seems 
quite new, and one feels inclined to ask 
what immortal contemporary has just 
finished such a captivating wonder. 


San Fermo.— Mausoleums of the Turriani, Bren- 
zoni, and Alighieri.— Saint Sebastian.— Thomas a 
Becket.— Santa Maria in Organo.— Sacristy -Saint 
George.- Kicovero. 

The church of San Fermo presents the 
celebrated mausoleum of the Turriani; 
but this fine monument was stripped by 
the war of its bronze basso-relievos and 
the two genii placed on each side. One 
might have supposed that these tombs 
would be respected in all these ravages. 
Nothing is known of the fate of the two 
genii; the eight basso-relievos of An- 
drea Riccio are most clumsily enchased 
in the wooden door of the hall of the 
Cariatides at the Royal-Museum. a These 
Turriani, who are here so magnificently 
entombed, were neither princes nor fa- 
mous warriors, but good physicians and 
skilful anatomists, who had merely been 
successful professors at Padua, Ferrara, 
and Pavia : one of them, Antonio, son of 
Geronimo, the anatomist, assisted Leo- 
nardo Vinci in more truly expressing the 
different parts of the human body. Out- 
side the church is the tomb of Aventino 
Fracastor, ancestor of the great Gero- 
nimo, the physician of Can Grande I., and 

the Catalogue des commissaires francais de ITDS, 
that the subject of these basso-relievos was the his- 
tory of Mausolus, king of Caria, and they were 
again similarly explained in 1813. This notion 
was subsequently refuted by Cicognara, who thinks 
that the subject of these basso-relievos is the life, 
slckuess, and death of Geronimo de la Torre. (Stor. 
del. Scult., t. iv. p. 292 et seq.) M. de Clarac has 
since added, in his Musie de sculpture, t, i. p. 400 

Chap. XIV.] 



inside are those of Francesco Pona, an- 
other celebrated physician, of several 
others of the same profession, and of 
Francesco Calceolari, a botanist, author 
of the Iter in Baldum. San Fenno 
seems to be the Saint Denis, or West- 
minster of the faculty. A singularly 
elegant tomb, one might almost call it 
graceful, perpetuates the memory of the 
Veronese historian Torello Saraina; this 
monument was erected by his townsmen 
as an acknowledgment of his learned 
researches. Few towns have had a better 
share of historians than Verona; Saraina 
is still esteemed ; Maffei owes his glory 
to his Verona illustrata; and Count 

I.Persico, by his excellent Description of 
Verona and its province, has shown 

, himself a worthy successor of these na- 

f tional annalists. The mausoleum of the 
Brenzoni, a good work of the fifteenth 

I century, which elicited the approbation 
of Vasari, is adorned with paintings on a 
gold ground by Pisanello. But the little 
altar of the Aligeri, as they pronounce 
it at Verona, with all its, is 
far otherwise imposing by its name alone. 
The poetical arms of this family seem 
worthy to have been chosen by Dante; 
they are a wing or on an azure field. 
The last descendant of Dante, Francesco 
Alighieri, who was a very learned man, 
a good judge of architecture, and the 
best interpreter of Vitruvius, though his 
manuscript translation is perhaps now 
lost, erected near this altar the tombs 
of his two brothers, Pietro and Ludovico, 
the former well-versed in Greek and 
Latin literature, the latter an able juris- 
consult : it is pleasing to observe that, 
even to the last, a family so celebrated 
for mental powers has not been unfaith- 
ful to the intellectual arts, and that when 
genius fell away, its members never 
ceased to cultivate science. ' 

Over the principal door is a Cruci- 
fixion, a natural old picture by an un- 
known author ; which, from the two 
nails put in the feet, must be anterior to 
Cimabue, who first restricted himself to 
one. Thus, according to Maffei, Verona 
both preceded and excelled Florence in 

et seq., some reasonable explanations to Cicogna- 
r; s critique. M. Quatremere thinks that the basso- 
relievos represent the vicissitudes of human life, 
Intermingled with both Christian and Pagan Ueas 
and allegories. {Joum. des tavants, dec. 1817.) 

■ The wife of Pietro Alighieri was a Frisoni, a 
uoble family of Verona j she had one daughter Gi- 

the pictorial art. These disputes for 
glory are continually recurring in Italy, 
and they arc inevitable among so many 
old and beautiful monuments. There 
are still some good and old paintings at 
SanFermo: the Prophets and other noble 
figures, of the year 1396, by Stefano of 
Zevio, or Verona ; the Adoration of the 
Magi in the chapel degli Agonizzanti, 
by Pisanello ; a Nativity, by Orbetto ; the 
Conception of the Virgin, by Carolto; 
a Piety, effective, by the Cavalier Barca, 
an artist of the seventeenth century, well 
deserving notice ; the Virgin, Infant 
Jesus, and St. Christopher, perfect, by 
Monsignori; the same with St. Peter and 
St. Francis, by Dal Moro ; the Christ 
with his mother and Magdalen, by Do- 
inenico Brusasorci. A good Crucifix in 
bronze is by Giambattista of Verona, a 
sculptor much praised by Vasari. 

Saint Sebastian is one of the most 
splendid churches of Verona ; its front, 
from the design of San Micheli, remained 
long unfinished to the great affliction o f 
Veronese patriotism, and has been but 
recently completed. The high altar is 
by the celebrated Padre Andrea Pozzi, 
of Trent, Jesuit and architect, who, 
with his brother the Carmelite, like- 
wise an architect, was one of the most 
zealous corrupters of taste in Italy towards 
the end of the seventeenth century : this 
altar has however been greatly extolled. 
Among the many paintings, the Saint 
suffering martyrdom, gracefully sup- 
ported by an angel, passes for one of 
Brentana's best works. On the ceiling, 
the same, by Parolini, is pleasing and 
well composed. A Moses on the ceiling 
of the sacristy is by Farinati ; also a 
Judith, a superb and fantastical work, 
in which he has even ventured to put 
cannons in the siege of Bethulia. 

Santa Maria della Scala shows the 
literary glory of Verona at very different 
epochs, and under manners greatly 
changed : it was built in 1338, by a vow 
of Can I., and it contains the very simple 
tomb of Maffei, its historian, antiquary, 
and poet, who died in 1755. At the 
altar delle Grazie is an old fresco of the 

nevra, « ho was married in 1549 to Marc Antonio 
Serego; from that epoch the name or Alighieri is 
conjoined wilh that o Serego; and till within some 
few years, it was borne by a very amiable lady, 
the countess Serego Alighieri, whom I had the 
honour to know, and whose premature death ex- 
cited universal regret at Yerona. 




[Book V. 

Virgin, and below Alberto and Martino 
dellaSeala, nephews of Can I. An As- 
sumption at the high altar is by Felice 
Brusasorci ; the Virgin with the seven 
founders, is one of the best performances 
of Rotari ; an expressive St. Mary Mag- 
dalen, is by Coppa, a pupil of Guido 
and Albano The Virgin and some 
saints, over the little door on the right, 
are light, graceful, and picturesque 
paintings by the Cavalier Barca. 

By a singular coincidence, at the church 
of Saint Thomas Cantuariense, there is 
the tomb of John Baptist Becket, a mem- 
ber of the saint's family. Bossuethaslefta 
magnificent eulogy of the archbishop of 
Canterbury; speaking of the Church, he 
said that Becket defended even the out- 
works of that holy city. The plan of 
Saint Thomas was by San Micheli. who 
lived in its immediate neighbourhood. 
His house still exists, and is remarkable 
for its beautiful entrance; a plain inscrip- 
tion on the pavement ofthe church points 
out where he was interred ; it recapitu- 
lates his immense, and its unvar- 
nished tale has a kind of eloquence arising 
from the truth of its statements. ' There 
are some fine paintings in this church. 
St. Magdalen, St. Martha, and a choir 
of angels, is by Orbetlo. St. Job, St. 
Boch, and St. Sebastian ; the Infant 
Jesus on his mother's knees playing 
with the little St. John, a painting in 
Raphael's manner, and even attributed 
to Garofolo, is by Carotto; the St. Je- 
rome, full of thought ; the Virgin, St. 
Anthony the abbot, St. Onuphre, by 
Farinati Such is the beauty of the latter 
saint, naked and sealed, that he has been 
regarded as an imitation of the antique 

The oldest Christian antiquity of Ve- 
rona, and even of all the Venetian pro- 
vinces, is perhaps the church of Saint 
Nazarius and Saint Celsus, for it may 
possibly be of the sixth century. The 
grottoes adjacent served for retreats to 
the first Christians, and may be called 
the catacombs of Verona The monas- 

San Micheli appears to have been not loss esti- 
mable for bis social qualities, than worthy of ad- 
miration for bis talents. So fervent was the piety 
of Ibis architect amid all his occupations, that be 
never undertook any work without having a solemn 
mass said to invoke aid from on high. Vasari, who 
knew him, records an incident that proves hi9 
singular conscientiousness, Reing harassed by the 
remembrance of a connection which he formed in 

tery is partly demolished and is occupied 
by a soap-boiler ; this manufacturer is a 
friend of the arts, and has had the paint- 
ings of the seventh century which are 
still visible drawn and engraved; these 
old paintings, coarsely executed in a kind 
of cellar, represent the apostles, somi' 
martyrs, and the soul of the just depart- 
ing this life, assisted by the archangel 
Michael, and may be called the first 
fruits of the brilliant Venetian school, 
which did not revive till four centuries 
later. The paintings of the present 
church are numerous; we may remark: 
the frescos of Falconetto, -who became a 
great architect from chagrin,' through 
the first of these frescos not having 
procured him the praise he expected ; 
divers incidents from the life of St. 
Blase, St. Sebastian, and St. Julian, 
by Monsign ri; the Nativity, the Cir- 
cumcision, the Adoration ofthe Magi, 
the Presentation in the temple, by the 
younger Palma; on the shutters ofthe 
organ, are some Angels, gracefully ex- 
pressed, by Domenico Brusasorci, whose 
harmonious songs one ?eems to hear ; a 
Conversion of St. Paul, lively and ex- 
pressive, by Bernardino India, an imitator 
of Giulio Romano : according to a tra- 
dition peculiar to painters and now 
generally adopted, the saint is on horse- 
back, although Scripture is silent on that 
point; a fresco of Adam and Eve, one 
of the best works of Farinati ; a Carrying 
of the cross, in fresco, by Giambattista 
dal Moro; a Descent ofthe Holy Ghost, 
superb, by Carmeri, the clever assistant 
of Paolo Veronese. 

Santa Maria in Organo is a wonder 
of art: the beautifal Corinthian front, 
from the design of San Micheli, would 
be, if it were finished, a model of sacred 
architecture. The altars and walls of 
its twelve chapels are covered with 
paintings by the first masters : St. Fran- 
cesco, the Boman, much injured, by 
Guercino ; the Passover of the Hebrews, 
a Last Supper, Pharaoh drowned, and 
other picturesque frescos, by Giolfino; 

his youth, at MonteOascone, with the wife or a 
statuary, and knowing that this woman, who was 
in straitened cir umstances, had a daughter of 
whom he thought it possible ho might be father, 
he sent ber fifty gold crowns as a marriage portion. 
It was in vain that the mother attempted to allay 
his scruples by assuring bin of his error, he 
Obliged ber to keep the sura. 
a Sec poit, book vn.cliap. vli. 

3BAP, XIV. ] 



some beautiful landscapes by Domenico 
Brusasorci . A wooden chandelier, in the 
chapel of the Holy Sacrament, the carv- 
ings on the wainscot of the choir, and es- 
pecially the sacristy, by Fra Giovanni, an 
Olivetan monk of Verona, are perfect. 
I observed among these last the Coli- 
seum, the tomb of Augustus, and other 
, Roman antiquities which did not seem 
quite suitable subjects for a sacristy ; 
tbey are another instance of the freedom 
of the arts in Italy before the council of 
i Trent. This sacristy was mentioned 
i ; by Vasari as the finest in Italy : the 
superb St. Francis, one of the chefs- 
d'oeuvre of Orbetto, has since added to 
its magnificence ; it contains other charm- 
j ing landscapes and views by Brusasorci ; 
isome excellent frescos and portraits of 
Olivetan monks, by the Moroni, cele- 
I brated painters of Verona in the fifteenth 
I century ; among which may be noticed 
I the portrait of the clever Fra Giovanni, 
I executed in a superior manner by Fran- 
I cesco Morone, who probably lived at the 
period of nis admirable labours. 
The antique church of Saint Stephen 
I offers one of those old stone seats des- 
tined for the earlier bishops, which may 
I have suggested the idea that it once was 
a cathedral ; this stone bears but little 
resemblance to the white satin on the 
episcopal throne of our bishops. Among 
the excellent paintings of Saint Stephen, 
may be remarked : the Virgin, the In- 
fant Jesus, St. Peter, and St. Andrew, 
by Carotto, the two first between St. 
Maur, St. Simplicius, and St. Placidia, 
by Giolfino ; a St. Stephen, the Eternal 
Father, a Christ bearing his cross, the 
Adoration of the Magi, by Domenico 
Brusasorci ; the Execution of the forty 
martyrs, one of the most brilliant mas- 
terpieces of Orbetto, which is singularly 
i detrimental to two good paintings near it, 
! the Massacre of the Innocents, by Pas- 
cal Ottino, and the Five Saints Bishops 
of Verona, by Bassetti. 

The church of Saint George Major is 
one of the finest of the revival : some 
attribute it to San Micheli, others to 
Sansovino, and it is worthy of both : but 
what belongs to San Micheli is the 
skilful daring with which the sides are 
supported in order to lay the cupola on 

1 San Micheli bad another nephew of greater ce- 
lebrity, and on his ownsltfc, Giovanni Ceronimo. 
See post, chap. xxr. 

the cross-aisle of the nave. The superb 
high-altar is by his nephew Bernardo 
Brugnoli.' Saint George abounds in 
admirable paintings : there is the picture 
of the saint, by Paolo Veronese, which 
has been brought back from Paris ; it is 
perhaps the best preserved of his works 
and the finest painting in Verona, 
remarkable for the excessively rich 
dress of its personages, the best clothed, 
I believe, in the whole realm of paint- 
ing. An Annunciation, St. Roch and 
St. Sebastian, the Christ praying in 
the garden, his Resurrection, a Trans- 
figuration, St. Ursula, prove the va- 
riety of Carotto's talent. A St. John 
baptising the Saviour, by Tintoretto, is 
full of vigour. The Martyrdom of St. 
George, in four parts, by Geronimo 
Romanino, is spirited, varied, and ter- 
rible. The Apostles delivering a de- 
moniac, by Domenico Brusasorci ; the 
Virgin in a glory, and Saints Benedict, 
Romuald, Anthony the Abbot, Maur, 
and Bernard, and especially three ar- 
changels, by Felice; iheVirgin,St. Lucy, 
andSt.Cecilia, by Moretto, areexcellent. 
A charming little picture by Geronimo 
Dai Libri, called by Lanzi the jewel of 
this church, (giojello di questa chiesa) 
represents the Virgin sitting between 
St.Augustin and Lorenzo Giustiniani ; 
three little angels below are singing and 
playing on instruments; they forcibly 
recall the verses of Dante, the last of 
which is so precise and beautiful, as the 
conclusions of his various cantos gene«= 
rally are : — 

Tale immagine appunto mi rendea 
Ci6 ch' io udiva, qual prender si saole 
Quando a cantar con organi si stea: 
Ch' or si or no s' intendon le parole. 1 

Geronimo Dai Libri, as well as his 
father, took his surname from his sin- 
gular ability as a miniature painter in 
music and prayer-books; he was the 
master of Don Giulio Clovio, the clever- 
est artist in this department, who was 
also a pupil of Giulio Romano. The 
masterpiece of Dai Libri, as we learn 
by a very legible inscription, is of the 
29th of March 1526, and not 1529, as 
Lanzi states. On one side wall of the 
choir is an immense painting of the 

2 Vvrgat. Cant. ix. p. «2, US. 



[Book V. 

Hebrews gathering manna, a kind of 
pictorial poem : the invention of the 
whole and the execution of the upper 
pnrt are due to Felice Brusasorci; Or- 
betto and Ottino, his clever disciples, 
did the lower part. Opposite is the 
Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, 
not less vast in its dimensions, nor less 
poetic, by Farinati, an extraordinary 
artist whose talent was developed in his 
old age ; he has painted himself under the 
form of an old man, for, according to the 
inscription on the painting, he was then 
seventy-nine, and he was aware that his 
age must increase the admiration. 

One of the most remarkable paintings 
in Verona, the Mater Dolorosa, the 
maslerpiece of Orbetto, formerly at the 
church of Mercy, is now at the. Ricovero, 
a refuge for mendicants, and hospital 
receiving about four hundred indivi- 
duals ol both sexes, which seems to be 
well-conducted. The Mater Dolorosa 
has only three characters : Christ dead, 
Nicodemus supporting the body, the 
Virgin weeping; but the two last figures 
are extremely pathetic, and the draw- 
ing, colouring, and arrangement of the 
whole, are perfect. 


Town library. — Chapter library. — lnstllules of 
Gaius.— Manuscript of Maffei's Merope.— Theatre. 
—Museum of inscriptions. 

The library of Verona contains about 
ten thousand volumes ; it was founded in 
1802, and has therefore neither ma- 
nuscripts nor rarities. The real library 
is that of the Chapter, which was aug- 
mented and almost founded by the ce- 
lebrated archdeacon Pacifico towards the 
middle of the ninth century. It was in 
this library that Petrarch was first en- 
raptured with the sight of Cicero's Fa- 
miliar Letters, the manuscript of which 
with a copy in his hand are at the Lau- 
rcntian ; it was there also S. Mai disin- 
terred his Ancient Interpreters of Vir- 
gil, printed at Milan, and that M. 
Niebuhr discovered the commentaries 
on the Institutes of Gaius, since pub- 
lished at, Berlin by Messrs. Goeschen, 
Bekker, and Holweg.' Perhaps there 

■ These fragments were not altogether unknown. 
Maffel mentions them, and likewise the laborious 
canon Dlonisi, who left his rich library, contain in 

are other treasures still buried in this 
rich library, that only await the labours 
of future scholars. Twenty-six epistles 
of Saint Jerome were written over the 
Institutes; the characters are still more 
effaced than those of Cicero's Orations at 
the Ambrosian. Between the text of 
the Institutes and the Tracts of Saint 
Jerome is another writing which ex-*. 
tends over a quarter of the manuscript; 
it also presents some Epistles and Me- 
ditations of St. Jerome; the same parch- 
ment has consequently been scratched 
and polished twice. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the ink preserves its brilliance, and 
proves that the ancients knew very well 
how to make it. This palimpsestus was 
onlarge paper; Hie Roman amateurs 
were not less sensible than ours to the 
width and beauty of the margin, as may 
be seen by several passages in the letters 
of Pliny and Cicero. Like Montesquieu, 
Gaius combined literary pursuits with 
legal studies; his commentaries are 
precious monuments of ancient jurispru- 
dence, written with perspicuity, elegance, 
and purity, and they make us acquainted 
with the doctrines and opinions of the 
Roman jurisconsults anterior to the codes 
of Justinian and Theodosius: they are 
vastly superior to the institutes of the 
former emperor, a mere undigested, in- 
consistent, and contradictory compila- 
tion pirated from them by his despicable 
minister Trebonian and his assistants. 

The chapter library did not escape the 
library pillage of 1797 ; several manu- 
scripts and scarce editions have not been 
seen since. These violent acquisitions 
and compulsory restitutions are equally 
injurious to learning. The library has 
at present sixteen hundred Greek and 
Latin manuscripts, several of which ap- 
pear of the fourth, fifth, and sixth centu- 
ries; above fifty from the tenth to the 
twelfth century, are remarkable for the 
beauty of the parchment and charac- 

Verona also possesses some good pri- 
vate libraries; but the number, like that 
of its picture galleries, has diminished 
within some few years. The library of 
the late Gianfilippi, which was sold in 
1829, amounted to about thirty thousand 
volumes. I believe the catalogue of this 

a valuable collection of editions of Dante, to the 
Chapter library. The publication of the butltuttt 
Is no less honourable to i'De Prussian literati. 

:bap. xvi. 



ast disorderly heap of books, purchased 
without discrimination by its former 
assessor, has not yet appeared. The 
:hief part of them have passed into the 
)Ossession of persons of Verona. At 
signor C****'s, a distinguished amateur 
»f books, I saw the manuscript of Scipio 
tfaffei's Merope, which came from the 
irchives of Verona. It appears that 
ome uncertainty had arisen respecting 
he authenticity of this manuscript, and 
he delegate had thought it his duty to 
:ertify it by apposing the stamp of the 
lelegation and his signature on almost 
very page; it is assuredly the best au- 
henticated tragedy in the world. Maf- 
ei's manuscript is exceedingly full of 
:rasures, much more so probably than 
Voltaire's masterpiece. 

In the court and under the peristyle of 
he theatre (this peristyle is by Palladio), 
s the collection of Etruscan inscriptions 
ind Greek and Roman basso-relievos, 
brmed by Maffei, and given by him to 
tiis native town ; a museum which the 
honor's friends resolved to call Maffeian, 
though he had named it the Verona mu- 
seum. The erudition of this good man 
was so lively, devoted, and persevering, 
that it may almost be called patriotism. 
Over the door of the theatre may at last 
be seen the bust voted to him by the Aca- 
demy as well as the inscription to his 
honour, which he constantly refused 
while living, and even had it effaced 
when his fellow-citizens had put it up in 
his absence, a rare instance of the since- 
rity of this kind of modesty. How many 
monarchs and conquerors have fallen 
before statuary honours, and after a 
feigned resistance, have prudishly con- 
sented to accept immortality ! The mar- 
quis Maffei did not deserve the mean 
trick played him by Voltaire, who, after 
dedicating to him his Merope, wrote, 
under a fictitious name, a pamphlet 
full of quibbles and abuse against the 
Italian Merope : as if some few imita- 
tions could diminish the merit of such a 
masterpiece .Voita ire would ha ve been far 
otherwise enraged could he have known 
Alfieri's admirable piece, less showy and 
pompous than his own, but truer and 
more Grecian. Maffei showed himself 

1 ludovleo Canossa, noted for his uprightness 
and diplomatic talents, had been the pope's legate 
In France and England. It was in the Jailer coun- 
try that he had the singular interview with Eras- 
mus, without knowing him, which Roscoe relates 

more generous towards another Italia u 
poet, Count Torelli, a distinguished 
writer of the sixteenth century, and also 
the author of a tragedy of Merope, in- 
serted by Maffei in his Selection of Italian 
tragedies, in spite of the personal in- 
terest he might have in its suppression. 
The rich Verona museum, after being 
long exposed to the injuries of the air, 
has been better arranged recently through 
the municipal zeal of Count Geronimo 


Canossa palace; — Gran Cuardia; — Guasta Verza ; — 
Pompel;— Bevilucqua ;— Ridolfi;— Giustl.— Forna- 

rina ol Verona Palace delta Ragione.—Pinaco- 

teca. — Custom-house. — riazza delle Elbe.— Paint- 
ing of streets in Italy. — Campo Santo.— Casino 
Gazola.— Congress. 

The finest of the many palaces of Ve- 
rona, the masterpiece of San Micheli, the 
famous Canossa palace, once the abode 
of kings and emperors, whence the view 
of the Adige is so beautiful, has on its 
frieze, a singular ornament scarcely per- 
ceptible amid its magnificent architecture; 
it consists of a multitude of mitres, placed 
there by the order of Ludovico Canossa, 
bishop of Bayeux, who erected the palace. 
It is singular enough to see Italy indebted 
for one of its finest palaces to a bishop of 
Normandy. 1 

The vast palace called delJa Gran 
Guardiam the fine Piazza della Bea, is 
not by San Micheli, though such is the 
common opinion, but it reminds one of 
his style : experienced judges detect ar- 
chitectural inaccuracies in it that such a 
man as he would never have committed. 
It appears to be from the design of Do- 
menico Curtoni, one of his nephews. 

The Guasta Verza palace, indubitably 
by San Micheli, is of the most elegant 
and graceful taste, whereas his other 
palace, Pompei della Vittoria, though 
smaller, is remarkable for its plain and 
sturdy front. That of the Bevilacqua pa- 
lace, also by San Micheli, but unfinished, 
appeared to Maffei somewhat licentious 
[alquanto licenziosa), so much richness 
and profusion were there in the commix- 
tion of its columns. The precious mu- 
seum which for more than two centuries 

in his life of leo X., chap. xn. Ultimately be set- 
tled in France under Francis II., whose confidence 
lie gained, and was named by bim bishop of 
Bayeux [vescovo di Baiusa, as he rather oddly gar;.' 
his signature). 



[Book V. 

conferred celebrity on the Bevilacqua 
palace is no longer in existence ; its beau- 
tiful Venus, Pan, and Bacchus, its busts 
of emperors, and its superb Livia, have 
passed into Bavaria : the Augustus and 
Caracalla (very scarce) brought back 
from Paris, only passed through Verona 
on the road to Munich to rejoin the other 

The Ridolfi palace deserves a visit for 
its pompous Cavalcade of Pope Cle- 
ment VII. and Charles V. at Bologna, 
at the coronation of the latter ; it is an 
immense and beautiful ceiling, the mas- 
terpiece of Domenico Brusasorci, the Ti- 
tian of the Veronese school, one of the 
best works of this kind, and very curious 
for its portraits and costumes. 

Thegreat.Giusti palace, finished about 
the close of the sixteenth century, was 
described, as well as its garden, by that 
indefatigable writer and physician, Fran- 
cesco Pona, of Verona, in a scarce little 
book oddly entitled II Sileno, Verona, 
1626, in-8vo. This palace has become a 
military lodgment, occupied by the Aus- 
trian commander and his troop. Its 
beautiful gallery, which was enriched 
by the principal remnants of the Molino 
Museum of Venice, was sold by the go- 
vernment about 1825. The garden is 
still frequented; its prospect, grotto, 
echo, and labyrinth, are in repute at Ve- 
rona ; but it is melancholy ; its continually 
recurring steps, formerly used for drying 
cloth, recall the time when the woollen 
manufacture was followed by nobles, and 
not thought derogatory. Andrea Scotto, 
author of an Itinerario d : Italia, of the 
year 1600, relates that the trade in wool 
and silk was so extensive at Verona, that 
nearly twenty thousand persons thereby 
gained a livelihood. 

The galleries of Verona are not now 
very remarkable; several have even been 
sold recently. At the ancient Maffci 
palace (which has a winding staircase 
truly unique for height and boldness), 
there was a beautiful Fornarina for sale 
in 1828, belonging to Signora B*", su- 
perior even, it was said, to those of the 
Tribune and the Barberini palace. Such 
at least was the opinion of the grand 
duke of Tuscany Cosmo III., who seem- 

■ See also, on the admiration that this Fornarina 
Inspired in Appiaui and Clcognara, the passage of 
a letter by Count Pei'slco, quoted in the notes of 
Hie Italian translation of M. QuatremeredeQuincy's 

ingly must be a partial judge, and of S. 
Pinali, in his letter addressed to the pub- 
lisher of the Journey to Cosmo, first pub- 
lished at Florence in 1828. Cicognara, 
though he greatly admired the Fornarina 
of Verona, did not think it by Raphael ; 
in his opinion it had not that great pain- 
ter's peculiar softness of outline, and he 
thought it might rather be attributed Jo 
Giulio Romano or some one of his 
school. ■ 

The ancient palace delta Ragione has 
on one side a basso-relievo representing 
the figure of a Dominican, which has 
caused it to be attributed with some 
foundation to Fra Giocondo, a good Ve- 
ronese architect of the fifteenth century, 
one of the architects of Saint Peter's, who 
brought into France the principles of 
good architecture, and built the Pont 
Notre-Dame at Paris, sung by Sannaz- 
zaro. On the arch near this palace is 
the statue of Fracastor, and on the arch 
of the Yolto barbaro » that of Maffei. 
The Annunciation, in bronze, on the 
front, is by Geronimo Campagna, a clever 
sculptor of Verona in the sixteenth cen- 

The spacious old council chamber, as- 
sociated with patriotic recollectionswhich 
ought to be held sacred, has been trans- 
formed by means of thin plaster parti- 
tions into four rooms intended for the 
new Pinacoteca. The greater part of 
the paintings are bad, with the exception 
of a Deposition from the cross by Paolo 
Veronese, whose chefs-d'eeuvre are not 
numerous in the town that he honoured 
by taking its name; it is almost the same 
with Urbino, the country of Bramanle 
and Raphael, which possesses neither 
house nor painting by these great mas- 
ters. Another remarkable painting, by 
an unknown author, in this unlucky 
Pinacoteca, represents the uniting of 
Verona to the republic of Venice, an act 
perfectly voluntary, a rare thing in the 
history of unions. 

The custom-house of Verona seems, 
by the noble simplicity of its architecture, 
a kind of forum, and one is almost olTend- 
ed at finding nothing but packages, por- 
ters, and officers. This edifice of such 
good taste, which had for architect Count 

Ilisloire de la vie el des ouvrages de Raphael, by 
F. Longhena, Milan, 18i9, p. 329. 
2 See ante, chap. x. note 5. 

Chap. XVI.] 



Alessandro Pompei, is nevertheless of the 
middle of last century, an epoch when 
the prevailing taste was detestable. One 
would think that the ascendent of the 
monuments of San Micheli and Palladio 
has influenced the architecture which 
succeeded them, and that when within 
view of such examples, it was impossible 
to go astray. 

On the Piazza delle Erbe is a column, 
erected in 1524, and formerly, according 
to a decree of the grand council, a debtor 
had only to touch this column, to find 
shelter from the pursuit of his creditors; 
a singular expedient, proving that it was 
already felt necessary to prevent the 
rigours of imprisonment for debt, so 
terrible in free states, which our improved 
legislation is attempting to correct. ■ 
The Venetian lion, an excellent work 
which surmounted this column, was 
broken in 1797. The statue of Verona 
[Madonna Verona) in the same square, 
formerly had a sceptre and a crown to 
show that this city was once an imperial 
and royal residence, but these were 
broken off in 1797, and it is now covered 
with an arena that gives it altogether 
the air of a statue of Cybele, an emblem 
of the fecundity of the earth, which does 
not seem ill placed in the centre of a 
market. The statue holds in its hand 
that noble and harsh inscription, the an- 
cient device of the republic of Verona : 
Est justi latrix urbs hme et laudis 

Painting in reality runs along the 
streets in Italy. M antegna executed two 
frescos on the bouse of the painter Giol- 
fino, his friend, with whom he had lived 
as a guest; a poetic and not uncommon 
manner with the artists of the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries, of acknowledging 
hospitality. Mantegna's frescos are now 
scarcely to be recognised : having first 
been barbarously whitewashed, an un- 
skilful cleaning followed, and when I saw 
them they were again half covered by a 
large green Venetian blind. 

The Campo Santo of Verona was fi- 
nished in 1833; it is the work of S. Bar- 
bed, architect of the town, and, with its 
piazzas, temple, pantheon, and chambers 

1 See post, book vn. chap. vi. 

2 This casino was always very small; the garden 
is in the bad taste prevalent in the last century, 
w ilh its aviary and stone statues ; but the vegeta- 
tion is pretty good, and the view of the Adige 

of anatomy and of pathology, is the most 
imposing and best conceived of all recent 
erections of the kind in Italy. Pinde- 
monte, who now honours this pantheon, 
could no longer eloquently lament the 
confused and barbarous sepulture estab- 
lished in the first, the philosophic Campo 
Santo of Verona, created under the 
French administration : 


Son le fosse fra loro, e un' erba muta 
Tulto ricuopre : di cadere Incerto 
Sovra un diletto corpo, o un corpo ignoto, 
Nel cur il pianto stagneria respinto.— 

The name of Verona is connected with 
memorable events of our own days, it 
was for some time the asylum of an au- 
gust exile and his faithful companions; 
but these noble refugees did not And 
there the hospitality of the lord of La 
Scala, and in their deep sorrow, they 
could not have accepted his joyous con- 
solations. The Gazola casino, almost 
sunk into a cottage, and now occupied 
by gardeners, 2 saw the commencement 
of that reign at once so long and so short, 
which succeeded that of a captive infant 
king. 3 This reign, begun in a foreign 
land, was destined to have a peaceful 
conclusion at the Tuileries, amid a people 
who were astonished at having ultimately 
found the benefits of order and liberty. 

Verona became one of those rendez- 
vous of kings and emperors, grand poli- 
tical consultations, which the disquietude 
and agitation of Europe have rendered 
frequent in our days. Confines, an able 
judge in matters of business, was no 
partizan of such meetings : " Two good 
princes," says he, "who wish to be friends, 
should never see each other, but send 
good and prudent people to each other." 
This opinion, which Confines supports 
by the history of his own time, is not 
true now. One of the benefits of civili- 
sation is the improvement of the moral 
character of sovereigns. If Greece was 
abandoned at Verona, perhaps her mis- 
fortunes were less owing to the senti- 
ments of the princes than the practices 
of those good people so much recom- 
mended by Comines. 

3 Louis XV11I. was at Verona when he learned 
the death of Louis XVII, and published the mani- 
festo by which he declared that he neither could 
nor would change any part of the old French con- 
stitution, a rash engagement of which the Chart 
was afterwards a noble and Just contradiction. 



[ Book V. 

The impression that Verona leaves is 
notless vivid than its first sight is striking; 
it contains fine monuments of various 
epochs, of antiquity, the middle ages, 
and the revival; such as the amphitheatre, 
the chapel of the Scaligers, and the 
palaces of San Micheli and Palladio; in 
short, this town, the Austrian head- 
quarters of the Lombardo-Venelian king- 
dom, numbering forty-six thousand in- 
habitants, still produces the effect of a 
fine capital. 


Environs.— Gargagnago, residence of Dante. 

I have rambled through the environs 
of Verona, and its hills, which rise am- 
phitheatrically and are commanded by 
the Alps, present an aspect at once 
joyous and majestic. Several points of 
the Veronese territory recall events con- 
nected with the literary and poetical 
history of the revival, as well as the 
finest feats of arms of contemporary 

On visiting Gargagnago, the abode of 
Dante, I did not experience the disap- 
pointment sometimes produced by places 
inhabited by celebrated men, a disap- 
pointment that I fell at Ferney, and 
later, too, at Vaucluse. Dante wrote 
his Purgatory at Gargagnago, perhaps 
during his exile ; the Inferno was begun 
at Florence in the midst of factions; and 
the Paradiso in Frioul, at the castle of 
Tolmino, and under that tranquil grot 
which the traveller still frequents. Thus 
do the three parts of this immortal poem, 
the work of Dante's whole life, seem in 
keeping with. the misfortunes and situa- 
tion of the poet. Like the Homer of an- 
tiquity, this Homer of modern times has 
taken words from the dialects of the dif- 
ferent countries where wayward fate had 
thrown him. There is nothiDg left at 
Gargagnago of Dante's time, but the air 
and the site ; the latter, composed of lofty 
mountains, is grave and solitary, and one 
feels there a sort of harmony with the 
genius of the bard by whom it was in- 

1 We learn from De Thou that he practiced me- 
dicine gratuitously : one of his most pathetic pieces 
Is an epistle on the death of liis two children, ad- 
dressed to one of the three brothers Torriaoi, his 
friends :— 

I cannot reflect on my visit to Garga- 
gnago without sorrowful emotions This 
old manor of Dante was then the resi- 
dence of a distinguished lady whose 
death I have already lamented. The 
countess Serego-Alighieri had formed, 
at Gargagnago, a library of the rarest and 
best editions of this great poet, and had 
the intention of erecting a monument to, 
him ; truly was she most worthy to bear 
his name, for her devout admiration of 
him, the elevation of her mind, and the 
ardour of her Italian feelings. Three 
laurels consecrated toMonti.Pindemonte, 
and the improvisatore Lorenzi, were 
planted by her at the poetical fete that she 
gave in 1820, to Monti and Lorenzi, who 
had mutually wished to be acquainted 
with each other. In the recital of my 
short voyages, I love to mingle the re- 
miniscences of women with those of 
illustrious men, and the ever-new im- 
pression of nature's beauties, the wonders 
of art, and all the enchantments which 
enraptured me : this recollection still 
moves me with delight amid my sorrows, 


Incufti.— Fracastor's house.— Fracastor.— Rivoli. — 

I visited the house where Fracastor 
formerly lived, situated on the hill of 
Incaffi at the foot of Monlebaldo, between 
the Adige and lake Garda. Fracastor is 
now but a name, yet he was one of the 
first men of his day : natural philosopher, 
astronomer, great as a physician and a 
poet, he is a new instance of the affinity 
that ever since Apollo has seemed to 
exist between the two arts in which he 
excelled, — between the inspiration of the 
poet and the coup d'ail of the physician. 
Fracastor's pure and honourable life still 
adds to our admiration of his talents; 
generous, feeling, ever ready to aid, ' he 
enjoyed at Incaffi the two blessings of the 
soul, letters and friendship. Fracastor's 
house, internally much injured, is let at 
ten crowns to some peasants who inhabit 
it; but the walls are good and some 
traces of its better days are still visible ; 
for instance, a kind of wooden ladder 

Batte, aiiimos quando trlstes, curasque levare 
Musa potest 

Chap. XV111. 1 



affords the means of reaching the second 
floor, while the wall beside it is a polished 
and shining stucco; the place of the 
library and the wooden chair of Fracastor 
are preserved : the latter pretty much 
resembles Arioslo's arm-chair shown at 
Ferrara, and proves that men of letters 
at that period were not very indulgent 
in their habits. It appears, however, that 
Fracastor was not inattentive to comfort 
in his arrangements, for there is a fire- 
place in every room of the house, a kind 
of luxury at that time. The loop-holes 
made in the walls between the chambers 
and the staircase, over the door, for the 
purpose of watching and repulsing the 
Bravi, acquaint us with the violence and 
troubles of that period : the house of this 
poet and physician was quite a miniature 
citadel. The view is tolerably extensive, 
but to survey the whole of lake Garda, 
you must ascend for some minutes; and 
I confess that I prefer the views that it 
requires some exertion to find to those 
which perpetually present themselves to 
our eyes until we at last think no more 
about them. 

Fracastor resided at lncaffi when he 
was summoned to Trent to be the 
physician of the council. How many 
times must he have regretted, amid the 
tumult of theological disputes, and even 
the balls and banquets of the reverend 
fathers, his woods, his books, and his 
calm retreat! It was at lncaffi, during a 
plague which ravaged Verona, that he 
composed that chaste poem, though its 
title has small claim to the epithet, * a 
charming work, which has no other fault 
than that of being addressed to Bembo, 
and of containing frequent elogiums of 
that corrupt, grovelling man, who was 
much more worthy of the subject than 
the verse. 

I was enraptured while reading Fra- 
castor 's verses at lncaffi ; he is the Vir- 
gil of that beautiful spot, which after 
three centuries still retains the same 
aspect. It must, however, be acknow- 
ledged that Montebaldo, and the borders 
of lake Garda, with the translucid azure 

1 The Syphilis. A very inferior poem on the 
same subject had preceded Fracastor's : it was by 
Giorgio Sommaripa, a Veronese, and was printed 
at Venice, w ilh other minor poems, in 1487. This 
very scarce book was pointed out toBossi (notes on 

of its restless waves, are very superior to 
the watery plain and slimy marsh of 

Fracastor's imitation of Virgil con- 
sists not merely in form and externals, 
an imitation of words and sounds, like 
that of most modern Latin versifiers; his 
verses have real warmth and feeling, 
with the enthusiasm of a mind at once 
captivated with the beauties of nature 
and zealous of its country's welfare. One 
might fancy it a distant but full-toned 
echo of the pipe and lyre of the Roman 
poet. Perhaps the patriotic verses of 
Fracastor, inferior in expression to those 
of Virgil, are even superior in sentiment : 
he embraces all Italy in his complaints, 
in his lamentations, in bis desolation ; 
his grief is not that wealth-lamenting 
and somewhat selfish sorrow of the 
shepherd-courtier, Tilyrus, who is so 
easily comforted after Octavius restores 
his property, and all whose sympathy 
goes no further than to offer a night's 
lodging on the leaves {fronde viridi) to 
the fugitive shepherd. 

Independently of the beauty of its de- 
tails, Fracastor's poem is distinguished 
by the merit of invention = the episode 
of the young man Mho fell a victim to 
the new contagiou is very affecting, and 
I doubt whether our descriptive poets 
have any prettier verses than these on 
the citron-tree and lemonade : — 

Serf neque carminibus neglecla silebere noslris 
Hesperidum decus, et Medarum gloria, citre, 
Sylvarum : si forte sacris cantata poetis 
Parte quoque hac raedicam non dedignabere Musam. 
Sic tibi sit semper viridis coma, semper opaca. 
Semper flore novo redolens : sis semper onusta 
Per viridem pomis sylvam pendentibus aureis. 
Ergo, ubi nitendum est caecis te opponere morbi 
Seminibus, vi mira arbor cythereia praestat. 
Quippe illam Cytherea, suum dum plorat Adonim, 
Munere donavit multo, et virtutibus auiit. 

Ippolito Pindemonte has written a 
very fine epistle on Fracastor, like him- 
self a Veronese : it is a happy inspira- 

the history of the Life and pontificate of Leo 
323-4) by S. Francesco Testa of Vicenza, a deeply- 
read bibliographer, whose activity, learning, and 
kindness I can never forget. 




tion of the verse and sentiment of that 

My morning walk to Fracaslor's house 
and its environs is one of my sweetest 
and most vivid reminiscences. The rock 
of Minerbe, on the other side of lake 
Garda, struck by the first rays of the 
sun, seemed like a block of rose coloured 
granite. From the rock which crowns 
the height of Affi, I commanded on one 
side all the lake; on the other the valley 
of the Adigo, and before me were the 
lofty mountains of the Tyrol. It was at 
the foot of this eminence in the battle of 
Rivoli, that the Austrian general Lu- 
signan was defeated and taken, despite 
the beauty of his name , by those gene- 
rals of the French republic, young and 
new masters in the art of war, van- 
quishers of the tacticians of the old school, 
who were beaten probably in all the 
rules. I had beneath me the battlefield 
of Rivoli, a confined valley, a victorious 
Thermopylae, in which any other army 
would have surrendered without the in- 
trepid firmness of its chief, who that very 
evening went to defeat and take Provera 
under the walls of Mantua. Those were 
the bright days of Napoleon. I dis- 
covered, on visiting during the day the 
field of battle and the immortal plat- 
form, the traces of three cannons of our 
battery, a glorious furrow, which the 
earth now bedecked with turf and flowers 
seems proudly to preserve. 

The battle of Rivoli is one of the 
first feats of arms in the military his- 
tory of the world; the admiration it 
excites is redoubled on seeing the lo- 
cality, which makes one better able 
to appreciate the rapidity, the cou- 
rage, and constancy of the combatants : 
to increase the prodigy of this day, it 
was two Italian generals, Bonaparte and 
Massena, who triumphed in Italy, if not 
for Italy. 

I had an opportunity at Rivoli of con- 
versing with a man who has a sort of ce- 
lebrity in the country; it was Mosca, a 
notable name, though belonging to a 
smuggler, which was the trade he prac- 
tised at the time of the battle. Mosca 
was consulted by Bonaparte respecting 
the roads; he carried him on his shoul- 
ders to a steep passage of Mount Saint 
Mark, on the borders of the Adige; 
he would not ask any thing for his ser- 
vices and was only rewarded with a small 

I Book V. 

pecuniary present and permission to 
carry on his smuggling rather more 
easily. Mosca retired some twenty-five 
years ago after thirty years' business, and 
was when I saw him a merry old man of 
eighty-three ; he had purchased a small 
estate, which produced him corn and 
wine, and I found him working in the 
fields. Mosca could neither read nor 
write; in his account of the action, he 
frankly confessed that he advanced or 
retreated according to thechances of battle, 
and, like Moliere's Sosie, he might very 
well have taken 

Lu peu tie courage 
Pour uos gens qui se batlaieul. 

Notwithstanding his bit of an exploit, and 
his good fortune in military matters, 
Mosca did not seem a strong partisan of 
the French, and he remained attached 
to the ancient regime of the Venetian 


Aizano— The great Isotta.— Literary ladies in Half. 

Azzano was the abode of the great 
Isotta Nogarola, a learned lady, well- 
skilled in philosophy and theology, and 
famous for her dialogue on the fault of 
our first parents, in which she pleads for 
Eve against Adam, who is defended by 
her brother, before the podesta Nova- 
gero, who gives his decision. The scene 
takes place in the morning at Azzano, 
and the lawyers and judge, as was then 
the usage, take their arguments from 
Aristotle, Cicero, Hippocrates even, Ovid, 
and the Fathers. Isotta has composed a 
Latin elegy in honour of Azzano, the 
name of which she poetically traces back 
to the Sicilian nymph, Cyane, charged 
by Ceres with the care of her daughter, 
a trust of which she acquitted herself 
badly enough, and after the abduction of 

Chap. XIX. ] 



Proserpine, fled into Italy. Isotta's elegy 
concludes with a prayer for the prospe- 
rity and honour of the Nogarola family, 
a prayer which seems to have been heard 
as regards the latter part of it ; » she 
also, in the ordinary formula, wishes that 
Azzano may have a mild temperature, 
clear fountains, flowery meads, and pure 
streams ; but is there not something 
sordid in her desire to see them roll 
along the rich sand of the Pactolus, and 
does it not recall the verse of Petit- 

Mais sans argent l'bonneur n'est qu'nne maladie. 3 

The ancient manor of Isotta is nothing 
now but a new-built mansion, with an 
English part, great meadows, and a fine 
river, which also is of recent creation. Its 
avenue still exists ; it is closed by an old 
iron palissade, and some decrepit old 
oaks near it appear to be its contempo- 
raries. The portrait of Isotta is in one 
of the rooms of the house ; her features 
are broad and strong ; her mien some- 
what vulgar ; she is clothed in black and 
white, and, except the veil, her costume 
is not unlike that of a gray nun : beneath 
is a Latin inscription purporting that it 
is doubtful whether she was more admi- 
rable for learning or conduct.^ This 
portrait is, however, more than two 
centuries posterior to Isotta, as it bears 
the date 1666. In the university library 
at Bologna, I saw another portrait with 
the same physiognomy, which was for- 
merly in the library of Cardinal Filippo 
Monti. It is very probable that Isotta 

1 General Nogarola, who died in 1827, although 
an enemy of the French, was a generous enemy ; 
be saved several at the massacre of Verona in 1797. 
"History," says M. Daru, "owes him this honour- 
able testimony." (Hist, of Venice, book xxxvi, A.\ 

* The other works of Isotta are : Letters, unpub- 
lished Discourses, which have passed from the 
Ambrosian to the Bibliotbeque royale of Paris; 
latin discourse to bishop Ermalao Barbara ; Elo- 
giumof St. Jerome ; Latin letter toLudovico Foscari. 

3 The great part of the Italian women then fa- 
mous for their learning, were not less illustrious 
for their strict principles. Some even seem not quite 
free fron a kind of affectation and mania; such 
is the famous Veronica Gambara, of Brescia, born in 
the same century with Isotta : she lost her hus- 
band in her youth, and wore mourning for him to 
the day of her death; her apartment continued 
hung wilh black; her carriage was always of the 
same colour, and her horses were always the black- 
est she could procure. 

4 she died at the age of thirty-eight. Some bio- 

has not been flattered in these after-date 
portraits: she must have been handsome, 
since her former master, the learned 
Matteo Bosso, who had taken holy orders 
and been named canon after finishing 
her education, declined returning to the 
Nogarola family whose friend he had 
long been, that he might not be exposed, 
as one of Bessarion's correspondents 
rather singularly informs us, to the dis- 
tractions that the charms of his pupil 
might produce. 

The great Isotta Nogarola, although 
she did not reach an advanced age, 4 
obtained a high celebrity by her learning 
and writings : one of her chief works 
was a discourse addressed to Pope 
Pius II. and the princes assembled at 
Mantua, inviting them to a crusade 
against the Turks ; 5 she was honoured 
by the praisesof Ermalao Barbaro, Mario 
Filelfo, and excited the admiration of 
Cardinal Bessarion, who went from 
Rome to Verona to pay her a visit. 
Such a suffrage conferred sufficient 
glory. Amid the grand intellectual move- 
ment of the revival, the women were 
neither destitute of zeal nor ardour; 
queens, princesses, and ladies of noblest 
birth enthusiastically pursued the new 
studies. The first Greek book printed 
in Italy, the grammar of Constantine Las- 
caris, was composed by a lady, the 
daughter of Duke Francesco Sforza, wife 
of prince Alfonso, afterwards king of 
Naples. 6 Ariosto has given a poetical 
but incomplete list of the illustrious 
women who loved, cultivated, and pa- 
tronised letters. 7 This high origin of 

graphers make her ten years older ; although ladies 
in general remain stationary at thirty-eight for 
some years, one can hardly suppose such a weakness 
on the part of so rational and philosophic a person 
as Isotta. 

5 The princess Ippolita Sforza about to be spoken 
of, even went to Mantua and pronounced a dis- 
course on the same subject before the pope, which 
was formerly at the Ambrosian, and has been pub- 
lished by Monsig. Mansi (t. II, 192), a discourse 
which Pope Pius II. answered with great courtesy. 

6 Milan, Dionisi Paravlsino, 1476. Ippolita 
Sforza was not less learned in the Latin tongue; she 
transcribed nearly all the Latin classics. In the 
library of the convent of the Holy Cross of Jerusa- 
lem at Rome, may be seen a flue copy in her hand 
of Cicero de Seneolule, with a great number of 
thoughts collected by herself. 

7 Orland. fur., c. xlvi. str. 3 et seq. See also the 
work of Slgnora Ginevra Canonici Fachini, of Fer- 
rara, already mentioned : Prospetto biograftco 
delle donne italiane rinomate in litteratura, which 



[ Book V. 

science seems to have preserved to it a 
kind of dignity with the Italian ladies, 
that it has not elsewhere; their educa- 
tion is profound when they have any, and 
has not the pedantic character of our Savantes or of the blue-stock- 
ings of England. This knowledge, con- 
nected as it is with the discovery of an- 
tiquity, has something great and virile 
about it; it does not date from the hotel 
of Rambouillet, and has not been immor- 
talised by ridicule from its birth. The 
country, the aspect of the places, the 
names that they bear, and the reminis- 
cences they suggest, all combine to 
render the learning of ladies less extra- 
ordinary, and their Latin seems less a 
learned language than a dialect of the 
mother tongue. I have known some of 
these doctors of Verona, Padua, Venice, 
and Bologna, they were women of good 
society, amiable, lively, and natural, who 
were once beautiful and loved pleasure; 
they were, perhaps, less agitated, less 
harassed, and less impassioned than Co- 
rinne, but they had not fewer charms of 
character or intellect. 


Bridge of Vela.— The original type of tbe Infernal 
bridges of Christian poets. 

The natural bridge of Veja, in the 
mountains of the Veronese country, is 
one of the most curious things I have 
ever met with. One might say that na- 
ture, too, has not feared to give her spe- 
cimen of architecture (as Scamozzi calls 
this bridge) in the very country which, 
fromVitruviusto San Michcli, Scamozzi, 
and Palladio, seems the land of the most 
eminent architects. The majestic arch 
of the bridge of Veja is composed of rock, 
and its river, a limpid cascade which 
never fails, flows between the young 
shrubs on its turfy banks, glides over an 
immense stone polished by its waters, 
bordered with a bed of moss, and forms 
lower down a charming fountain. This 
savage bridge is decorated with light fes- 
toons of verdure which hang down pic- 
turesquely, swaying in the breeze be- 
neath its arch. The neighbouring val- 

!s preceded by a very sensible refutation of Lady 
Morgan's erroneous opinions respecting tbe ladies 
of Italy. 

lies, that must be passed before reaching 
it, are really infernal, so far as aridity and 
desolation can make them. Danle ram- 
bled over these mountains ; it is very pro- 
bable that the bridge of Veja gave him 
the idea of the bridges in his Inferno, of 
which the bridge thrown over chaos by 
Milton, between heaven and earth, is a 
grand imitation. Considered as the ori- < 
ginal type of the bridges in the hell of 
Christian poets, a new machine which is 
not found in the descriptions of Tartarus, 
the bridge of Veja would thus evidently 
have a rare poetical importance. We 
have already remarked, on the subject of 
Romeo and Juliet, that Shakspeare is io 
be met with at Verona ; Milton is found in 
its environs. How strange that the ge- 
nius of the first English poets should 
have the source of its inspiration at the 
foot of the Alps in a province of Italy ! 

By the side of the bridge of Veja is a 
subterranean grotto, a long and lofty 
cavern formed by rocks. If Dante ever 
visited it, and if the cicerone who con- 
ducted him had the same profusion of 
torches, throwing out as black a smoke 
as ours, he might have drawn from this 
expedition a scene of demons for his 
poem; but the muddy pool of the grotto 
(which lam not unacquainted with) was 
far removed from that river of hell sup- 
plied by the tears of all the unhappy. 


Tempio delta Madonna di Campagna.— Daylla.— 
Historical eibumatlons. 

On one side of Verona is the Tempio 
della Madonna diCampagna, a charm- 
ing structure by San Michell and his 
worthy nephew Giovanni Geronimo. 
The historian Davila, also an able war- 
rior, by a catastrophe which seems to 
associate him with the personages of his 
history, not a solitary example of this 
bloody epoch, was assassinated by a 
musket shot not far from the Tempio 
della Madonna. His tomb was disco- 
vered in 1822 by the exertions of Count 
Persico, then podesta ; it is in the church, 
and the old inscription Henrici Cathe- 
riniDavila cineres, 1631, has been res- 
tored. The second baptismal name of 
Davila, the godson of Catherine de' Me- 
dici, explains his apology and justifica- 
tion of her life and conduct ; an eloquent 

Chap. XXIII. ] 



and fanatical historian, « he treats the 
massacre of Saint Bartholomew with in- 
difference, and bitterly censures the ad- 
miral, who, according to his account, 
seems to have been treated pretty nearly 
in conformity with his merits. This dis- 
covery of Davila's tomb may be put in 
juxtaposition with other remarkable dis- 
interments that our days have witnessed. 
Charles I. reappeared in England after 
the death of Louis XVI. ; James II. was 
found again at Saint- Germain. One 
would say that these dead had returned 
out of curiosity, awakened by the noise 
of events similar to those of which they 
had been witnesses or victims. Thus, did 
the historian of the Saint Bartholomew 
massacre appear after the murders of 
September and the proscriptions of the 
Terror, as if to be convinced that the 
passions of man, whether they bedeck 
themselves with the names of religion or 
liberty, are at all periods equally violent 
and cruel. 

The cupola of the temple where the 
historian of the French civil wars re- 
poses, became, in the Italian campaign, 
a kind of military observatory for our 
victorious captains; but when I ascended 
to it, there was nothing to be heard but 
the musket volleys and cannon of the 
Austrians who were fightingasham battle 
on the plain oiCatnpo-fiore. 


Areola.— Obelisk. 

Areola is one of those names that vic- 
tory has rendered magical, one of those 
places that bear witness to the greatest 
efforts of French courage. The blunder 
of the general, if such there were, was 
here repaired and covered by the intre- 
pidity of the soldier. The obelisk erected 

i The siege of Paris, book xi. of the History of 
the French civil tvars, is very fine; in book x. the 
Imprecations of nenry III. against Paris, shortly 
before his death, when he was riding along the 
heights of Saint-Cloud, are remarkable for a spice 
of declamation ulmost modern ; tbey might very- 
well have proceeded from the mouth of some of 
thase foreign chiefs whom we saw on the same 
spot in 18)5, when Saint-Cloud was the Prussian 
quarter-general : — 

" Parigi, tu sel capo del regno, ma capo troppo 
grosso e troppo capriccioso : e necessario die 
I'evacuazione del sangue tl risani, e liheri tutto 
II regno dalla tua frenesla; spero che fra pocbi 
giorni qui saranno uon le mura, non ie case, ma 
le vesllgie sole di Parigi," 

on the bank of the Alpon » in memory of 
the battle of Areola is still standing, but 
despoiled of its inscriptions. The iron 
crown and imperial N have disappeared, 
and their traces inspire less regret. It is 
Bonaparte, the general of the army of 
Italy, and not the king of that same 
Italy that we seek at Areola ; the captain 
there is much above the prince, and the 
oak crown of the triumphal Romans 
would have been better on this monu- 
ment than the Gothic crown of the Lom- 
bard kings. 

Beside the mutilated obelisk stood a 
withered and broken tree, which seemed 
to associate nature's mourning with that 
of glory. A company of harvest-women 
were at work in the adjacent fields ; one 
of them, armed with her sickle, would 
explain to me this great bailie of three 
days, given after Martinmas, when the 
waters of the Alpon were much higher 
than I saw them, for the torrent had then 
dwindled into a tiny stream. 

The small bridge of Areola is still of 
wood and without parapets, but it has 
not the grand proportions conferred on 
it by our patriotic engravings ; a stone 
bridge might have been built at the erec- 
tion of the monument, which, in its im- 
perial and military magnificence, seems 
somewhat selfish. A village bridge is not 
without its value even beside the most 
glorious and best merited obelisk. 


Colognola. — Bonfadlo.— Illasi.— Amateur architects. 
—Pantheon.— Purga di Bolca. — Fossiles. 

Colognola was the abode of Bonfadio 
and the theme of his song ( de villa Co- 
loniola ). The house in which he was 
received, probably by some Spanish lord, 

(Magnee Alcon silvis cognitus Hesperiae, ) 

2 Bonaparte seems to have answered the reproach 
of injudiciously choosing his point of attack, and of 
not passing the Alpon at bis mouth the first or se- 
cond day of the battle as be did on the third; the 
French had suffered some reverses for eight days 
past, be could not expose himself in the plain with 
thirteen thousand men against thirty thousand, 
and the equilibrium was only partially established 
between the armies on the third day by the succes- 
sive advantages of the two first. Mcmoires pour 
servir a I'histoire de France sous Napoleon, ecrita 
a Sainte-Belene, par les tjeneraux qui out portage 
sa caplivtii. T. l e , written by General Montholoa. 
p. 19. 




[Book V. 

is near the great Portalupi villa. The 
small garden is more properly a terrace, 
whence the view is very fine, extending 
over all the valley. But yew-trees and 
cypresses have succeeded to the hazels 
under whose shade Bonfadio received 
from his Phillis that platonic kiss, a cold 
and refined pleasure, not at all resem- 
bling the acre baiser of Julie. Besides, 
cypresses are plentiful in the Veronese, 
and therefore lose, as in Greece, their 
funereal character ; this fine tree also 
yields a good return to the proprietor. 
I had some trouble to find this house 
of Bonfadio; the people of the village 
always directed me to that of the Signor 
Bonifacio, and this fact appeared to me 
a fresh instance of the little popularity of 
literary names, since literature has be- 
come a closet study. 

The letters of Bonfadio, though rather 
elaborate, are interesting for the philo- 
sophic and literary passion that they 
breathe : " II pensar e il vivcr mio," he 
writes to Benedetto Bamberti, a friend of 
Paul Manutius : his letters to the latter 
arc the finest eulogy of that great prin- 
ter : " Troppo occupata, e faticosa in vero 
" e la vita vostra : ne so a che fine cio 
" facciate : per arrichire ? non credo : 
" perche voi non misurate le ricchezze 
"con la storta regola del volgo, e dei 
' beni di fortuna, secondo i desiderj 
" vostri avete assai : e se le cose vera- 
" mente sono di chi le usa bene, siete un 
"gran signore... E poiche avete indriz- 
•' zatoilcorsodellanobileindustria vostra 
" a si bel fine, non bisogna che piegate 
" punto; benche per giudizio mio oramai 
" potreste talor riposare. Andava gli 
" anni passati la lingua latina rozza, e 
"come forestiera smarrita. II padre 
" vostro la raccolse in sua casa, e la ri- 
" dusse a politezza principiandoleun bel- 
" lissimo edifizio..." He counsels him 
not to leave his house nor even his bed 
on account of the wind. "Mentre che 
"dura qucsto tempo, non uscite, non 
" dird di casa, ma non uscite diletto; 
" ponete nel conservarvi maggior cura 
"che fin' ora non avete posto; avete 
" troppo grand' animo : 1' ingegno e 
"maggiore; ma le forze ove sono? vi- 
" viamo, messer Paolo, viviamo." Some 
features of manners in those days will 
appear singular now. " Questo verno 
" ho letto il primo della Politica d'A- 
' ristotele in una chiesa ad auditori 
" attempati, e piii mercantichescolari... 

" Mori il vescovo di Consa mio padrone : 
"era un giovane il piu robustoch'io 
" conoscessi mai ; affrontava gli orsi, ed 
" ammazzava i porci selvaggi ; era un 
" Achille." 

Not far from Colognola are the cha- 
teaux of the Counts Pompei, an old Ve- 
ronese family : that of Count Alessandro, 
built in 1737, is of his own architecture, 
as the inscription announces. The Ve- 
netian school of architecture is distin- 
guished by one peculiarity, namely, that 
it has produced besides clever architects 
by profession, a considerable number of 
amateurs, belonging to the more elevated 
classes of society, and altogether worthy 
of the name of artists by their proficiency 
and the style of their buildings. Count 
Alessandro Pompei, the editor of San 
Micheli, is in the first rank of these illus- 
trious amateurs. The chateau of Illasi 
was his first attempt; soon after there 
arose, in the environs of Verona, similar 
palaces from his designs for the marquis 
Pindemonte and Count Giuliari, palaces 
which are like traditions of Palladio's 
style, and Verona itself is indebted to 
him for its splendid customhouse. 

At Santa Maria delle Stelle is a sub- 
terranean apartment called by the pom- 
pous name of Pantheon, the subject of 
numerous doubtful notices by the Vero- 
nese antiquarians ; this antique monu- 
ment is paved in several places with a 
fine many-coloured mosaic, in which the 
following inscription in Roman letters is 
perfectly legible, Pomponim AristochicB 
alumnai, placed on a pedestal under a 
coarse basso-relievo representing the 
death of the Virgin ; for this cave of 
Trophonius, as it is called by the canon 
Dionisi, became a chapel in 1187, dedi- 
cated by Pope Urban III. to Mary and 
St. Joseph. The latter, by a whimsical 
anachronism, holds in his arms the Infant 
Jesus in the basso-relievo of Mary's death. 

The valley of Ronca, about fifteen 
miles from Verona, is celebrated through- 
out Europe for its shells, and likewise 
for a quarry of calcareous schistus full 
of fossile skeletons of fish, peculiar to 
distant seas, of species unknown or ex- 
tinct; these fish heaped together at the 
foot of the mountain Purga di Bolca, 
certain proofs of the revolutions of our 
globe, victims and wrecks of remote 
catastrophes, curious monuments, na- 
ture's antiquities, investigated and ex- 
plained in our days by her learned aud 

Chap. XXIV.] 



ingenious interpreters, > and which a 
great contemporary Italian poet has 
sung : 

Queste scaglie incorrotte, e queste forme 
Ignote al nuovo mar manda dal Bolca 
L'alma del tuo Pompei patria Verona." 


Montebello.— Vicenza.- Basilic- Library.— Read- 
ing society.— Olympic theatre.— Olympic academy 
of the sixteenth century. — ralladio's house.— 
Talace.— Churches. 

I stopped one night at Montebello and 
was horribly lodged, as this large village 
was then crowded with a numerous de- 
tachment of Austrian infantry on the 
march, but it reminded me of a victory, 
and one of the new historical names be- 
longing to France. 

Vicenza derives its glory from the 
birth and palaces of Palladio, whose taste, 
at the very period of the decline, has 
been constantly transmitted and main- 
tained. But the fllthiness of Jie town, 
which contains thirty thousand inhabi- 
tants, and the ugly shops of the place de- 
tract from the beauty of its monuments. 
An ordonnance de police would be 
there singularly useful to art. 

The public palace called the Basilica is 
a vast and magnificent restoration which 
began and extended the reputation of 
Palladio. This ancient Gothic structure 
renovated without any incongruity by so 
able a master, has become a model of 
taste, accuracy, and purity. In this pa- 
lace there are some masterpieces of ar- 
tists of the Venetian school. The half- 
moon representing : the two Rectors of 
the town at the Virgin's feet, under a 
rich pavilion with Saint Mark, a ma- 
jestic composition, and one of Bassano's 
best; the Podestd Yincenzo Dolfin, 
with Peace, the town of Vicenza, an 
old man, and Fame dispersing the 
Vices, a painting of the same size, by 
Giulio Carpioni, is ideal and true; the 
Martyrdom of St. Vincent, by night, 
in the tyrant's presence, one of the good 
works of Alessandro Maganza of Vicenza ; 
the Virgin, Sts. Monica and Mary 
Magdalen adoring the Infant Jesus, 
with a beautiful landscape ; the Virgin 

1 See the last edition of Cuvier's Recherclies sur 
les ossements fossiles, t. iv. p. 218 et 6eq., and the 
Description geologiqne des environs de Paris, by 

presenting her son to Simeon, by Bar- 
tolommeo JMontagna ; a St. Catherine ; 
the Virgin weeping over the dead Christ, 
with St. John and Mary Magdalen, by 
Marescalco, a graceful painter of Vicenza 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century ; 
the Adoration of the Magi, grand, by 
Fogolino ; the Virgin, Infant Jesus, 
Sts. James and Jerome, by Conegliano ; 
the Virgin in the air surrounded by an- 
gels and cherubim, with God the Father 
above, and an apostle and St. Jerome 
below, by Giovanni Speranza, of Vi- 
cenza, pupil of Mantegna. 

The Loggia of the Prefettizio palace, 
now occupied by the delegation, is a 
monument by Palladio. It has some 
good paintings by Antonio Fasolo, a 
painter of Vicenza in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, an imitator of Paolo Veronese, 
namely : Mutius Scoevola burning his 
hand; Curtius riding into the gulf; 
and Horutius Coccles fighting on the 
bridge ofSublicius. 

The library of Vicenza, called the 
Bertoliana, from the name of its founder, 
Count Giovanni Bertolo, a celebrated ju- 
risconsult and councillor of the Venetian 
republic, contains thirty-six thousand 
volumes and about two hundred manu- 

One the of five vellum copies of Orlando 
Furioso, Ferrara edition, 1532, is adorn- 
ed with the portrait of Ariosto, after a 
drawing attributed to Titian. This edi- 
tion, the eleventh, was the last published 
during Ariosto's life; he corrected the 
proofs of it, and it is pretended that it 
caused his death, so dissatisfied was he 
with the printer, and he wrote to his 
brother Galasso that he was mal servito 
in questa ultima stampa e assassi- 

A reading society has j ust been fou nded 
at Vicenza. The number of members is 
more than a hundred and twenty; it 
proves that the«Vicentian youth, noted 
for its love of pleasure and fetes, knows 
how to combine therewith a taste for 
reading and solid converse. 

The Olympic theatre of Vicenza, built 
from Palladio's designs after his death, is 
a noble, elegant, and curious monu- 
ment. It has the form of an ancient 
theatre; the stage even is like those of 

the same and si. A, Brongniart, inserted in this 
last edition, t. ji. p. 4^6 et seq. 
» Mascheronl. Invito a Lesbia. 



[Book V. 

two theatres discovered at Pompeii two 
centuries after, and which this great man 
had divined. The members of the Olym- 
pic academy, who had it erected, repre- 
sented there in the sixteenth century, the 
dramas of Sophocles and Euripides, 
translated into Italian verse, barren 
imitations which left Italy without a 
tragic stage till the time of Alfieri. The 
inauguration of the Vicenza theatre was 
performed by the Olympic academy of 
tbe town, who performed the Greek 
OEdipus translated by Orsato Justi- 
niani, a Venetian noble. Ludovico 
Groto, himself a dramatic author and 
blind, personated OEdipus, at least dur- 
ing the last act, when OEdipus comes on 
the stage after plucking out his eyes. 
I do not think that Groto's infirmity 
added to the perfection of his play ; it 
must, on the coutrary, have injured that 
sort of ideal, which is the first condition 
of the imitative arts, and he was doubtless 
belter inspired by that admiration, nay 
passion, that the learned of the revival 
felt for the chefs-d'eeuvre of antiquity. 
It was at Vicenza, according to Voltaire, 
that the Sophonisba of Trissino was per- 
formed in 1514 ; we are told by the same 
authority that Trissino was a prelate, and 
even an archbishop, although he had 
been twice married and had had four chil- 
dren. The Italian Sophonisba was the 
first of our regular tragedies," and Vi- 
cenza is therefore the cradle of the triple 

The little house, said to have been 
Palladio's, is a chef-d'oeuvre, but it was 
not his property as is commonly believed ; 
he built it at the order of the Cogolo fa- 
mily of Vicenza, and perhaps he after- 
wards occupied it as tenant; it was only 
surnamed little as compared with the 
other larger palaces that he had built 

The palaces erected from Palladio's 
designs are, the Chiericato palace; the 
celebrated Tiene palace, some parts of 
which only have been executed ; the 
Porto -Barbaran palace, to which some 
embellishments in bad taste have been 
added that do not belong to the illus- 
trious architect; the Folco palace, called 
Franceschini, of such majestic simpli- 
city; theValmarano palace, one of his 
best chefs-d'oeuvre ; the Trissino palace 

dal Velio d'oro which he did at twenty 
years of age. 

The Trissino palace, one of the finest 
in Vicenza and Scamozzi's masterpiece, 
built from his designs while he was at 
Rome, appeared even then the work of 
an artist who had nothing to learn. The 
Cordellina palace is by Calderari, a 
good architect of Vicenza at the end of , 
last century, a restorer of the art and 
one of those noble amateurs of whom 
I have spoken already. Only a third of 
the palace is finished, but if completed, 
its magnificence would not be unworthy 
of the neighbourhood of Palladio's pa- 

The churches of Vicenza are rich in 
paintings; and most of the masterpieces 
of painting and architecture which adorn 
this town are due to its native artists. 
The cathedral possesses, by Bartolommeo 
Monlagna, the Virgin, the Infant Jesus , 
and some saints ; a fresco of St. Joseph 
and other saints adoring the Infant 
Jesus ; by his brother Benedetto, the 
Eternal Father, the Christ, the Holy 
Spirit, the Virgin and St . John Baptist ; 
by AIcssandroMaganza, the Virginwith 
the Infant Jesus, Sts. John, Paul, and 
Gregory, one of his best works. The 
Miraculous Draught of Fishes; the 
Conversion of St. Paul, by Zelotti, one 
of the first painters of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, whose reputation is inferior to his 
merit, have been deemed worthy of 
Paolo Veronese, his companion, coun- 
tryman, and friend. In the choir is 
Noah's Sacrifice, one of the most dis- 
tinguished works of Liberi. The ora- 
tory of the Duomo, has some good paint- 
ings by Maganza. The Virgin em- 
bracing the Saviour in the temple, by 
Andrea Vicentino, is remarkable; the 
statues are of the Vittoria school, and 
the best are at the altar. 

The outside of the church Santa- 
Corona promises little ; but there is 
much within. The Saint, Sts. Mary 
Magdalen, Jerome, Monica;and Mar- 
tin, in pontifical robes, is a noble com- 
position by Bartolommeo Montagna. 
There are two other masterpieces, the 
Baptism of Christ, by Giovanni Bellini ; 
the Adoration of the Magi, by Paolo 

The same subject at the little church 

* Notwithstanding the disputes or the learned, It cellal, played at Florence before Leo X., was only la 
appears the liosmunda of Giovanni Bernardo Rue- i tbe year 1515. 

Chap. XXV. ] 



of Saint Dominick is a clever imitation 
of Paofo Veronese, and the good works 
of Maganza. 

The Poor Hospital, adjoining the 
church of Saint Peter, presents an ele- 
gant funereal cippus by Canova, who 
hasembellishedsomany-rich and splendid 
abodes. It is sacred to the memory of 
the Cav. Trento; the female figure en- 
graving the name of this beneficent man 
on the column bearing his bust, repre- 
sents Felicity, an odd subject and too 
cheerful for an hospital. The church 
has some fine paintings by Maganza, 
among which may be distinguished the 
St. Benedict, with St. Placid and St. 
Maur, and a king in the act of presenting 
his son to them : the Christ giving the 
keys to St. Peter, by Zelotti, is excel- 

The church of Saint Stephen ought to 
be visited for its Virgin on a throne, with 
Sts. Vincent and Lucy beside her, and, 
below, an angel playing on a harp, a 
work incomparably graceful and sweet, 
and one of the elder Palma's best. 

Santa Croce has an admirable Depo- 
sition from the cross, by Bassano. 

At Saint Rock there is an admirable 
Raphaelesque Madonna between two 
saints, by Marescalco, one of the best 
paintings in Vicenza; its St. Sebastian 
is of truly ideal beauty. 


Capra easiao.-CricoIl.— Trisslno.— Nostra Siguora 
del Monte. 

Without the walls of Vicenza is the 
celebrated Capra casino, a masterpiece 
of Palladio, which a peer of Great Bri- 
tain, Lord Burlington, an admirer of his 
genius, and himself an architect, has 
imitated in his park at Chiswick. Per- 
haps that delicate rotunda, which har- 
monises so well with the bright sky and 
living light of Italy, may not match so 
well with the misty atmosphere of Eng- 
land. The skilful architecture of Pal- 
ladio is attended with so much conve- 
nience when applied to modern wants 
and usages, that he has found a second 
home in the country proverbial for its 
love of comfort, and the first English ar- 
chitects seem to have naturalised his 

1 Tbe chief of these architects are Inigo Jones, 
the English Palladio, Christopher Wren, James 
Glbbs, and Chambers, cited by M. Quatremere de 

plans by their multiplied imitations. > 
The views from the four fronts of the ca- 
sino, are admirable for their variety, a 
variety which exhibits the character of 
Italian nature. 

Cricoli, one mile from Vicenza, is a villa 
built from the plan of Trissino, the au- 
thor of Sophonisba, a rural abode, still 
belonging to his descendants, in which 
he drew together the literary men of his 
time. It has a tower at each of its four 
corners, and there is something noble in 
the style ofKhe architecture. Like Pom- 
peii, Vicenza contains the house ofea tra- 
gic poet ; but that of the ancient city, 
carefully preserved by the ashes ot\Ve- 
suvius, is less damaged, after the lapse 
of seventeen centuries, than the house 
of the modern tragedian, which now ap- 
pertains to a large farm and is degraded 
into a barn. Trissino, however, render- 
ed architecture a more meritorious ser- 
vice by being the friend and Maecenas of 
Palladio, whom he conducted to Rome, 
than by his villa of Cricoli. Though he 
may have left no performance of super- 
eminent worth, it is evident that Tris- 
sino, an orator and poet both epic and 
tragic, was one of the most ardent cham- 
pions of letters and arts in an age when 
they were so very numerous. 

Near Vicenza is the church Nostra 
Signora del Monte, whose statue, of 
Greek workmanship, is overloaded with 
drapery. Some paintings are excellent : 
the Virgin holding the body of Christ 
in her arms, and with Saints Peter, John, 
and Mary Magdalen, by Bartolommeo 
Montagna ; the Virgin and Infant 
Jesus in the sky with angels ; the por- 
trait of the rector Francesco Grimani 
struck with »he rainbow, and below Jus- 
lice, Charity, Peace, Plenty, Prudence, 
and Hope, who is introducing some mer- 
chants and many poor, with women and 
children, a vast and beautiful composi- 
tion by Giulio Carpioni. The Virgin 
setting the Infant Jesus on a pedestal 
off which an idol has been thrown, 
with Saint Joseph and three angels, is by 
M6nageot, a French painter, who con- 
tributed towards the end of last century 
to the restoration of our school ; an affect- 
ing present made by the artist to the 
town of Vicenza, in remembrance of the 
asylum he found there during the trou- 

Quincy, Bistotre de la vie et des ouvrages lies plm 
celebres arcliilectes, t. u. p. 5, 



I Book v. 

bles in France. In the refectory of the 
convent are : the Adoration of the 
Magi, a chef-d'oeuvre of Benedetto 
Montagna, and the wonderful painting 
by Paolo Veronese, representing Christ 
in a traveller's dress seated at St. Gre- 
gory's table. Mount Berico, on which 
the church of Nostra Signora stands, has 
almost grown into a monument, and the 
path to its summit is al! under stone ar- 
cades. In this long structure, which is 
not the only one of the kind in Italy, 
there is a perseverance of art perhaps 
unique, and which belongs to this country 


Sette Comuni.— Of their Cimbrian origin.— Asiago. 
— Society.— Inhabitants.— Fair.— Ancient usages.— 
Popular election of the priest.— Ferracino.— Mer- 
lin Coccajo.— Per ubbidirla. 

I spent four days in going over the ce- 
lebrated Sette Comuni, tribes of real 
mountaineers but little known, species 
of Alpine Batuecas, that some learned 
men and travellers have been inclined 
to imagine of Cimbrian and Teutonic 
descent.' This genealogy seems to have 
somewhat annoyed the inhabitants of 
the Sette Comuni, for about the middle 
of last century they charged one of their 
compatriots to procure them information 
respecting it, and his work was executed 
at their expense. The historiographer 
of these villages has written an excellent 
book, but unfortunately the first volume 
only has appeared ; 3 he neither admits 
the fabulous antiquity, nor the etymolo- 
gical romance on which it is founded, 
and he regards the whole population as a 

' Marzagaglia, a learned Veronese of the fifteenth 
century, and master of Antonio Scaliger, was the 
first partisan of the Cimbrian origin, soperscveriog- 
ly defended by Maffei and supported by Marco 
Tezzo of Verona, author of the book de' Cimbri Ve- 
ronese Vicentini. In 1708 Frederick IV., king of 
Denmark, pretended to recognise some words of 
their language. Betlinelli consented to the belief 
that these villagers were only the remains of a Ger- 
man colony brought thither by the Othos. In our 
days M. Bonsletten alone has readopted the CJmbrigq 
origin. Malte-Brun, in an arlicle on the Tyrol and 
Voralberg {Annates des Voyages, t. Till), pretends, 
following the opinion of Baron normayr, the latest 
historian of the Tyrol, that these mountaineers were 
probably only carpenters and others artilicers in 
wood proceeding from the Tyrol, and that the word 
zemberleut, which tn Tyrolian signifies workmen 
in wood, may have given birth to the tradition re- 

mixture of different German hordes who 
at various epochs fled to these rocks for 

From Vicenza to Marostica, the road 
is a continual ascent through fields 
of flints. Marostica has produced some 
learned men, and of Ihem, the celebrated 
Prospero Alpino, a physician, traveller, 
and great botanist, was the person who 
introduced coffee into Europe, which, in 
spite of Madame de Se'vigne', was no more 
destined to be forgotten than Racine. 

From Marostica to Asiago, the chief 
place of the Sette Comuni, the journey 
is a true mountain excursion and none 
of the smoothest, which can only be ac- 
complished afoot or on mules. But the 
views in these mountains are beautiful ; 
the Brenta becomes visible there, and as 
the traveller climbs the steep, his eye 
commands a greater portion of its course. 
Below the Sette Comuni are the Ber- 
gonze hills, very interesting in a geolo- 
gical point of view, which were studied 
attentively by a learned Vicentian of the 
first rank, Count Marzani, who died in 
1836, aged fifty - six ; he ascertained 
that the strata of tertiary calx, gravel- 
stone, and basalt alternated as many as 
twenty-two and even twenty-five times. 
Before reaching Asiago the road passes 
through a forest of pines intersected with 
rocks, and the savage aspect of the town 
gives it a pomp well suited to such a 
capital. On the road, and not far dis- 
tant, are the ruins of the old government 
house of the Sette Comuni, which was 
overthrown by an avalanche, the sole con- 
spirator against this state, the only ene- 
my, the only barbarian which ever ven- 
tured to assault and destroy such a 

ceived among these supposed Clmbrians. A learned 
philologer whom I consulted at Milan, Count Cas- 
tiglioni, a great authority in the northern tongues, 
who has conversed with several of these moun- 
taineers, thinks that their dialect is only tho cor- 
rupted German of Suabia. I regret not having been 
able to procure Count Giovaunelli's work on the 
Suabian origin of the Veronese and Vicentian vil- 
lages, which was printed at Trent in 1820, and has 
been vehemently combatled by Professor Stoffella 
of Koveredo, although, in these questions, it is al- 
ways requisile to keep on one's guard against the 
national prepossessions and patriotic feelings of the 

» Uemnrie istoriche de' Selle Comune Vicentini, 
opera posluma dell'ab. Agostlno dal I'ozzo, Vicenza, 
1820, in-8vo, published by the representalives of 
Rotzo, one of the seven Vicentian villages, the birth- 
place of dal I'ozzo, who died at Padua in 4798. 

Chap. XXVI.] 



Asiago is not without a sort of rustic 
dignity ; its streets are well laid out, and 
is has several fountains with wooden taps. 
The church is solidly built; it contains 
the tombs of some old families of the 
country, covered with large slabs of 
marble, and the steeple, with its clock 
by the great Ferracino, » rises proudly on 
the flattened top of'the mountain, which 
is clothed with no vegetation but grass. 

It seems that strangers rarely frequent 
theSette Comuni, for my arrival in their 
capital was quite an event : my chamber 
at the inn was filled with a curious 
crowd in the evening, and in accordance 
with the Italian fashion, they first ho- 
noured me with a visit, as at Rome and 
Florence. The gendarme, whose zeal 
was less flattering, also came to ask for 
the everlastingpassaporfo; this military 
personage had not yet either arms or 
uniform, simply carrying the police staff. 

The society of Asiago is composed of 
seven or eight officials living at the inn 
or coffee house : these are the judge, the 
police magistrate, their two deputies, and 
three lawyers. These last have plenty 
of occupation, for the natives of the Sette 
Comuni are very litigious. The cle- 
verest of these lawyers, but recently es- 
tablished at Asiago, had found on his 
arrival sixty causes on questions of pro- 
perty, rent-claims for money, wheat, 
Turkey corn, etc., and the population is 
under four thousand. When I visited 
him I could not suppress my astonish- 
ment at the quantity of papers piled up 
in his office. Shepherds and manufac- 
turers, — theSette Comuni are famous for 
their straw hats, which are even carried 
to Paris ; their tobacco is good and their 
timber excellent for building, — these men 
have neither the innocence of the former, 
nor the good faith and integrity that 
ought to characterise the latter. 

Although the day of my arrival at 
Asiago was a Sunday, the costume of the 
female peasants struck me as by no means 
pleasing; they wear large round hats, 
like the men's, and their dark-coloured 
habits are ugly, differing but little from 
those worn on the plain. Instead of 
mountain airs and songs, I was unable, 
as at Chamouny, to procure any thing 
but some dull German canticles. The 
dialect of the Sette Comuni is daily 
growing obsolete, as their primitive man- 

i Se post, and in the next chapter. 

ners have imperceptibly passed away. 
How singular that the only work printed 
in this savage tongue is the Doctrine of 
the Jesuit Bellarmin which was attacked 
by Bossuet and suppressed by Maria- 
Theresa as contrary to the temporal 
power ! It will perhaps appear strange 
to engage in bibliographic researches in 
the bosom of these mountains where 
stones and grass are far more abundant 
than books; but it is an old habit not 
easily laid aside, and I must, therefore, 
crave the reader's indulgence. On the 
second day that I passed at Asiago one 
of the four great annual fairs was held ; 
the merchandise consisted of coarse ha- 
berdashery and vast quantities of those 
frightful round hats common to both 
sexes ; the cattle fair, outside the town, 
on a grassy eminence surrounded by huge 
fragments of rock, was more picturesque. 

Under the "Venetian government the in- 
habitants of the Sette Comuni did not 
pay tribute; they had the right of elect- 
ing their magistrates, were governed by 
their own laws, and enjoyed other privi- 
leges besides, of which smuggling was 
not the least; report says that they can 
scarcely resign themselves to the loss 
of the latter, which they exercise to the 
extent of their power. 

Notwithstanding the universal decline 
of the picturesque in manners, a some 
old usages still subsist in this country; 
if, like certain mountaineers of Auvergne, 
these people no longer marry exclusively 
among themselves ; if they no longer ma- 
nufacture their cloth ; if the merry mus- 
ketry of their wedding-feasts is no more 
heard; in a word, if their joyous cere- 
monies are nearly lost, like the ancient 
Germans, they still assemble to weep 
over the tomb of their dead, for whom 
they wear mourning a whole year, con- 
sisting of a heavy frock of black cloth, 
which they never relinquish however 
hot the weather may be. At the proces- 
sion of Rogation week, which they rather 
pompously call giro del mondo (going 
round the world), they make a half-way 
repast; for there is something bacchic 
and German in the otherwise very fer- 
vent devotion of these mountaineers; 
and on the last day, the young maidens 
present to their lovers one, two, or three 
eggs, according to the degree of their at- 

2 See Boot i. ch. in. 



Book V. 

The clergyman of Asiago is still 
elected by the people, who vote by 
ballot with a red or white ball ; the red 
is affirmative, the olher negative. The 
priest had been elected in this manner 
about a month before (September, 1828). 
The bishop proposes four candidates, and 
in this case the one chosen was third on 
the list ; the choice, however, is not ab- 
solutely restricted to the four thus named. 
Amid the extensive levelling of the Aus- 
trian administration, religion only has 
preserved to the Sette Comuni some ves- 
tiges of their ancient rights. 

The sonnet has penetrated even into 
the bosom of these mountains : one of 
them was placarded at Asiago in honour 
of the archpriest Montini, who had 
preached the Lent sermons in the parish 
of Saint James, and it expressed the ge- 
neral gratitude in the name of the paro- 
chial deputation. 

Asiago is the country of one of the 
most clever modern Latin poets, Gio- 
vanni Costa, professor and director of 
the celebrated college of Padua, called 
the seminary, who died in 1816, in the 
eightieth year of his age. His Carmina, 
which have gone through several edi- 
tions, and his fine translation of Pindar 
in three vols. Uo, ought to render his 
name illustrious. 

On returning to Vicenza by Bassano, 
across One mountains and superb rocks, 
at the foot of which a broad torrent rolls 
along its foaming waters on their way to 
join the Brenta, I found against the outer 
wall of the church at Solagna, the tomb 
of Ferracino, that simple and touching 
inscription on which recalls his singular 
genius. * 

On the banks of the Brenta, in the 
bosom of a smiling valley, I saw in the 
church of Campese the mausoleum of 
Merlin Coccajo, born near Mantua, an 
elegant Latin poet, the Virgil of the ward- 
robe, and the first of writers in the ma- 
caronic style, who appeared to me little 
worthy of inhabiting such places : 

d. o. M. 

Barlholomseo Ferracino 

Venetae Reip. Mechanico 

Inveniendi ingenio perRciundi solerlia 

Nalura unice magislra 

Machinalori Archimedis oemulo 

Jo. Baptista parenli optimo 

Bartholomajus avo dulcissimo 

Piis cum lacrumis 

M. P. 

Campese, la cui fama all' Occidente 
E ai termini d'Irlanda e del Catajo 
Stende il sepolcro di Merlin Coccajo. 8 

The inhabitants of the Vicentine have 
an affirmative formula which Ihey repeat 
incessantly, it is per ubbidirla to obey 
you ) ; it was ever the chorus of the very 
intelligent guide whom I took at Maros- 
tica to go over the Sette Comuni; if I 
spoke to him of a rock or torrent, he 
failed not to reply to me by his eternal 
per ubbidirla, and I am not quite cer- 
tain that when I met with the tombs of 
Ferracino and of Coccajo , he did not tell 
me these dead bodies were there per ub- 


Clttadella.— League of Cambrai.— Bassano.— Birlh of 
Bassano.— Bridge.— Brocchi.— Publications of Bas- 
sano —The Bassanians. 

The road from Vicenza to Bassano 
passes by Cittadella, the ditches, gates, 
and loopholed walls of which, although 
in ruins, have a fine effect. This remote 
part of the Venetian State forcibly recalls 
the recollection of its former power and 
the vicissitudes of its fortune ; at times 
you observe on the summits of a moun- 
tain an old fort of red brick, a memento 
of the reign of the Scaligers, or of the 
league of Cambrai ; of that league , the 
most formidable which was formed in 
Europe against a people, from the fall of 
the Roman Empire, to the coalitions 
against France ; but amidst its dilapida- 
tion and abandonment, these ruins still 
retain a sort of independence and gran- 

Bassano, an animated and commercial 
place, has 12,000 inhabitants, noted for 
their wit, intelligence, and politeness. 
Two of its manufactures evince an ele- 
gant and distinguished industry, the 

Vixit annos LXXXV. M. IV. D. VI. 
Obiit IX cal. janT. A. MDCCLXXVII. 

2 Secchia rapita, cviii, 24. The word Mac- 
caronee is derived from the Italian Macaroni 
composed of a mixture of flour, cheese, butler, and 
other ingredients ; a passage in the piece by Merlin 
Coccajo, entitled Merlini Cocaii apologia in sui 
exeusationem, confirms this derivation. 

Guap. XXVIII. 



first, of porcelain, is that of the marquis 
iGinoro, near Florence, the only one I met 
with in Italy ; the second, of straw hats 
which rival those of Tuscany. This 
pleasant town, formerly called Little 
Venice, derives a lasting renown from its 
great painter Jacopo Bassano, the rival 
of Titian and Gorreggio, esteemed, en- 
vied, and admired by Annibale Carracci, 
Tintoretto, and Paolo Veronese. 

At the oratory of Saint Joseph is the ce- 
lebrated Nativity by Bassano, bis finest 
picture, and perhaps the most remark- 
able of modern paintings for the force of 
its tints and its lights and shadows. It 
was presented by Bassano to his native 
town, a patriotic homage which makes us 
esteem the author not less than we admire 
the chef-d'eeuvre. 

The famous bridge over the Brenla is 
Ithe work of a villager of the Bassano, 
Ferracino, a sawyer, a peasant of genius, 
|a self-taught mechanic, and one of the 
iimost skilful engineers of the last century. 
It was also from Bassano that came one 
iiof the most learned contemporary geo- 
logists, the illustrious Brocchi, whoso 
.happily opposed Cuvier in his chef-d'eeu- 
j vre of the sub-apennine fossil conchy- 
liology, — the. best work that has ever ap- 
peared on the fossil shells of any country. 
Brocchi began his career, like most 
i other distinguished writers in Italy, by 
: poetry, and archeology ;— he was actively 
employed by the French administration 
as inspector of mines, and after losing his 
place he travelled over southern Italy 
and Sicily ; obliged for a livelihood to 
enter the service of the viceroy of Egypt, 
, this Italian, full of ardour, and in the 
: prime of his life, died of fatigue in the 
desert. He bequeathed to his country 
his manuscripts and rich mineralogical 
collection, now one of the greatest cu- 
riosities of Bassano, with the Nativity 
and the bridge, monuments of the active 
or scientific genius of the fellow-country- 
men of Brocchi. 

The numerous publications of Bassand, 
although devoid of typographical beauty, 
have not been without utility, since they 
were pretty correct and moderate in 
price. The printing-office of Bimondini 
Brothers, which at one time gave employ- 
ment to from fifteen to eighteen hundred 
workmen, is now in a languishing con- 
dition ; it has had as many as fifty presses 
at work, but at present there are o 
more than three or four. 

Such is the variety, the fecundity of 
the painting of the Bassanos, of those ar- 
tists so united and intelligent in the di- 
rection they gave their school, which 
has, as Montaigne said of his Latin, over- 
flowed even into the villages and as far as 
the territory of Asolo and Castelfranco. 

Among these rustic masterpieces, may 
be remarked : 

In the parish church of Borso, a Vir- 
gin on a throne with two little angels 
above it, and below St. Zeno, and St. 
John the Baptist, a work in the original 
style of Jacopo; 

In the church of Saint Zeno, a ma- 
jestic figure of the saint in a sitting po- 
sition, by the same; 

In the church of Fonte, St. John the 
Evangelist in a cloud with an eagle, 
holding a pen in his hand, an inspired 
figure; and below two bishops, one hav- 
ing a black beard and the other a white 
one, with two graceful Virgins by the 
same ; 

In the church of Poiana, the Martyr- 
dom of St. Laurence, an animated pic- 
ture, remarkable for the effect of the 
flames amid the darkness of the night, by 
Francesco, son of Jacopo; 

Near Trebaseleghe, in the small coun- 
try church of Saint Fiziano, the Saint in 
pontifical robes seated, St. Francis, and 
St. Sebastian, and above the Virgin in 
the midst of a cluster of little angels, a 
noble and natural work, with a fine 
landscape, by Leandro, another son of 
Jacopo, and his faithful pupil. 


Asolo.— Asolani.— Cathedral.— Cenotaph of Canova. 
— Bragadino palace.— Aquaduct.— Falieri palace. 
—Chateau of queen Catherine Cornaro. 

Asolo, a small ancient fortified town 
containing two thousand inhabitants, is 
in a delightful situation on a well-wood- 
ed mountain, commanded by an an- 
cient castle. The prospect is really ad- 
mirable for its grandeur and variety. 
So fine a specimen of nature ought to 
have inspired ideas a little less insipid 
than those of Bembo's Asolani, consisting 
of dialogues on love between the cour- 
tiers of Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, assem- 
bled in her garden, a kind of little Tus- 
culana full of gallantry and conceits ; in 
spite of their title and the general opi- 
nion, I have since easily satisfied myself 




[Book V. 

as to the fact that they were not written 
at Asolo. 1 

The cathedral of Asolo presents one 
of the finest works of Damini, St. Peter, 
St. Nicholas (bishop), Saint Catherine, 
and St. Prosdocimus baptising some 
nobles of Asolo, richly dressed, and 
attended by their pages. A Virgin in 
the midst of graceful little angels, with 
St. Anthony the Abbot, and St. Basil, 
is a youthful work of Lotto, then the 
too timid pupil of Giovanni Bellini. 

In the hall of the municipal council, 
a Genius weeping before the bust of Ca- 
nova was dedicated to the great artist 
by his friend, cousin, and fellow artist 
Manera d'Asolo, who died through grief 
at his loss. Another incident adds. to 
the religious interest which this elegant 
cenotaph inspires; the marble was a 
long time at Rome in Canova's studio ; 
he had commenced working it, but did 
not proceed on account of a flaw. 

At the extremity of Asolo, the ancient 
Bragadino palace is well deserving a visit 
for its extensive view, obtained by cut- 
ting through a hill, and for the numerous 
anonymous frescos, which ornament the 
rich front and exterior walls. On the 
front is a very animated representation of 
a great battle, in which the standard of 
one army is red, and that of the other 
blue, yellow, and white ; and Solomon 
receiving the Queen ofSheba, whose 
head reminds one of the majestic grace 
given to his women by Paolo Veronese ; 
the young ladies and pages of the queen's 
suite have a very charming effect. 

The ancient aqueduct is an admirable 
work. This long open gallery pierced 
through the rock of the hill, the extremity 
of which has not beeu discovered, conducts 
to the fountain the small but precious 
stream of the only spring in the neigh- 

The Falieri palace at the Pradazzi, 
near Asolo, possesses the most cele- 
brated production of Canova's youth, and 
which was considered as the dawning of 
his glory, the group of Orpheus and 
Eurydice, which he presented to his 
first benefactor, the Venetian senator 
Falieri. He was sixteen years of age 
when he completed the Eurydice and 

1 M. Renouard, in his excellent Annates de i'im- 
Vrimene tfes Aide, t.iil, p. 45, has not escaped 111 is 
error as to the place where the Asolani were com- 
posed. Bembo wrote thein at the court of Ercole 
d'Este, duke of Fcrrara, and they were dedicated to 

nineteen when he finished the Orpheus, 
and his rapid progress may be easily 
observed. The remembrance of this 
first attempt was always cherished by 
Canova, since, when he was bedecked 
by Pope Pius VII. with the title of mar- 
quis of Ischia, he took for his arms the 
lyre of Orpheus, and the serpent of 
Eurydice, blended together. Canova had ' 
the good taste never to sign his name 
otherwise than Antonio Canova. A 
yearly income of 3,000 Roman crowns 
(16,000 fr.) was annexed to the mar- 
quisate of Ischia, situated between Cas- 
tro and Canino ; the artist made a pre- 
sent of it to the academy of Saint-Luke, 
to the Archeological Academy, and to 
that of the Lincei; he founded three 
prizes, for painting, sculpture, and ar- 
chitecture, » ith a pension of three years 
for the laureats ; the prize called anony- 
mous was increased ; assistance was ac- 
corded to aged, infirm, or necessitous 
artists resident at Rome. A marquis of 
Ischia (the island), Inigo d'Avalos, is ce- 
lebrated by Ariosto (Orlando, xxxm, 
29). Some verses of the poet might al- 
most apply to the artist who succeeded 
to the name of the great seignor : 

Quel gran marchese, 

Che avra si d' ogni grazia il ciel cortese. 

Catherine Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, 
whom the policy of the Venetians com- 
pelled to abdicate, appears to have sought 
diversion when deposed from her throne, 
in the sovereignty of wit, and the con- 
versations on sentimental metaphysics 
then so much in vogue : one might call 
it the hotel of Rambouillet, or the court 
of Sceaux at the foot of the Alps. I had 
the curiosity to visit the remains of her 
ancient residence, which, being distant 
from the high road, was accessible only 
by the most horrible paths. This castle, 
in which such subtile discussions took 
place, where gallimatias was the not un- 
frequent product of want of employment 
and ennui, is now a farm house. But 
the traces of queen Cornaro are there 
imprinted on all sides : four columns of 
the front still remain ; the barn, which 
must have been the drawing-room, has 
its ceiling ornamented with elegant ara- 

bis wife the celebrated Lucrczia Borgia. See the 
article Bembo, in Iiayle, and the Life and Pontificate 
of Leo X., by Roscoe. Dissertation on Lucrezia 

Chap. XXIX.] 



besques, and the granary which is over 
it, and is of the same size, is decorated in 
a similar manner. The paintings on the 
outside are very singular. The queen 
is there represented riding on her hus- 
band bridled and saddled like a palfrey; 
la regina col suo marito, said an old 
woman to us in triumph; in another 
part she is represented as the goddess 
Diana hunting the wild boar. On one 
side of one of the principal doors is 
Apollo in the costume of a troubadour, 
and with pointed shoes, pursuing Daphne 
already half metamorphosed into a laurel, 
and on the other side is represented a 
cardinal as a hermit, with the aureola 
of a saint, a kind of Saint Jerome clad 
in purple, who tears out his heart and 
offers it bleeding to Jesus Christ on the 
cross. Over the same door is the lion 
of Venice, the connection between these 
latter paintings presents a faithful image 
of the poetical and religious life of the 
captive queen of Cyprus. 

The chapel still exists, and contains 
many small frescos of excellent taste, 
mingled with armorial bearings in the 
style of those in the castle ; this building 
alone retains its primitive destination, 
and whilst the pomp of royalty, the va- 
nity of wit, and the regrets of power have 
disappeared from the place, prayer has 


Possagno.— Temple by Canova.— Metopes.— Piety.— 
Painting of Canova.— His tomb.— His house." 

About four miles from Asolo, on a 
small elevation at the bottom of a valley 
commanded by a triple range of moun- 
tains, is the temple raised by Canova, 
near Possagno, a village containing four- 
teen hundred inhabitants, where he was 
born. Marbleiscommoninthesemoun- 
tains, and one would say that it was to 
give it animation that this great artist 
entered the world at their foot. Part 
of the riches of Possagno consists in the 
abundance of a stone precious by its qua- 
Uiy and by the diversity of uses to which 
it is applicable. Canova's family was 
engaged in the working of this quarry. 

The apparition of this pompous mo- 
nument of art in the bosom of savage na- 
ture, in the midst of woods and rocks, 
is marvellous. The portico, composed of 
eight fluted columns of the ancient Doric 
order, is similar to that of the Par- 

thenon, the vestibule to that of the tem- 
ple of Theseus, the cupola resembles that 
of the Rotunda, and, as in all the temples 
of antiquity, the light only enters by the 
doors and the roof, which has an opening 
of sixteen feet in diameter. This church, 
dedicated to the Trinity, was built from 
designs of the Venetian architect Selva, 
but which were in several instances cor- 
rected and changed by Canova. Through 
an absurd and very ancient custom at Pos- 
sagno, females alone have the privilege 
of entering the church by the great door ; 
this portico of the Parthenon is thus de- 
voted to the particular use of the female 
peasants, and it has been necessary to 
open two side doors for the men. 

The church, begun in 1819, was not 
finished until 1830, aud not brought into 
use for divine service until 1832. The 
death of Canova, which happened in 
1822, must have contributed to these 
delays. His heirs have been accused of 
evincing indifference towards the com- 
pletion of a monument which would 
prodigiously decrease the amount of their 
inheritance ; but it appears that the charge 
is unfounded, and that the work from 
some details in the construction could 
not proceed more rapidly. Such was 
the benevolence of Canova, and such 
the noble use he always made of his 
riches, 1 that when at the close of his life 
he wished to construct the church of Pos- 
sagno, his resources were found to be 
insufficient, and he was obliged to resume 
the most profitable of his labours, and 
with the same fatigue to which indigence 
alone had at first condemned him. The 
expense of the building has been a mil- 
lion, and the interest of a capital of 
113,437 fr. 66 c, is set apart for repairs. 

It is difficult to reflect on the destina- 
tion of this edifice without experiencing 
some emotion ; this Grecian temple erect- 
ed in a village in the Alps, this monu- 
ment dedicated to the service of God by 
one man, who intended to make it his 
tomb, and built it in his native village. 
The glory of Canova is more affecting on 
this spot; the European sculptor here 
shows himself only as a citizen and a 
Christian. No city monument will ever 
be more national or popular than the 
temple of this hamlet. The inhabitants 
came of their own accord, to assist the 

1 During one of tbe disastrous years of the French 
occupation of Borne, Canoya devoted 440,000 francs 
to charitable purposes. 



[ Book V. 

two or three hundred workmen who 
were daily employed there; on holy- 
days, at an early hour in the morning, 
men, women, young and old, rich and 
poor, animated with the same zeal, the 
priest at their head, and singing sacred 
hymns, proceeded to the neighbouring 
mountain to fetch the marble necessary 
for the construction of the temple ; they 
drew it in triumph, and in their rustic 
enthusiasm they had inscribed on their 
waggons the words religione, patria, 
Canova, who had come to Possagno, 
ordered vehicles to be made for the use 
of the young girls, who employed them- 
selves in bringii g the lighter materials ; 
these maidens, to the number of some 
hundreds, joyfully yoked themselves two 
and two to the carriage ; they were 
dressed in their holyday clothes, and 
had their hair ornamented with flowers. 
On the day of the ceremony of laying the 
first stone, they claimed and obtained 
the honour of going to fetch the water 
from a distant fountain. The sculptor 
of the Graces, of Psyche and of Hebe 
was pleased to dress with his own 
hand after the antique one of those ex- 
tempore naiads, and with all the taste 
which distinguishes his female mytho- 
logical figures. The new fashion so 
charmed the other villagers that this 
Grecian head-dress still continues to be 
worn on Sundays. An indemnity of 
1,000 fr. was granted by Canova to the 
girls of Possagno, during the continuance 
of the works. His brother has since 
continued this act of generosity ; a sum 
of 60 Koman crowns is every year de- 
voted as a dowry for three of the poorest 
and most virtuous; the choice was left 
to the churchwardens, who, embarrassed 
by the number of candidates, and by the 
dissatisfaction evinced by the unsuccess- 
ful, succeeded in having the sum divided 
into six portions. The multitude of can- 
didates may be explained by the fact, 
that any age from sixteen to forty-five 
was eligible. 

Some censorious spirits have blamed 
the erection of such a monument in 
such a small secluded village, but this 
monument will attract strangers to the 
place ; it has given it roads, and made it 
a thoroughfare ; for when I visited it, 
there was no access but by difficult foot- 

■ A bold bridge, of a single arch of forty yards 
span, has been thrown across between two rocks, 

paths, through the dried-up bed of tor- 
rents; the foundation of the church by 
Canova is as a magnificent and eternal 
benefaction bequeathed by him to his 
obscure and needy country.' 

The seven metopes of the portico, re- 
presenting different scripture subjects, 
(their models, noble, graceful works of 
Canova, are in the interior), were exe- 
cuted in marble by some of the first 
pupils of the Venetian Academy of Fine 
Arts. The interior of the building has 
an air of simplicity rather harsh and 
naked, Canova not having been able to 
execute some works with which he had 
intended to decorate it. A Piety, a marble 
group of his later years, which he could 
not complete, and which was skilfully 
cast in bronze by the Venetian founder 
Ferrari, offers a delicate and striking ex- 
pression of the artist's talent. The 
head of the Christ, according to the lively 
expressions of Pietro Giordani, resembles : 
" la bellezza, la bonta, il valbre, la man- 
" suetudine, e come fu benigno alia sem- 
" plicita dei poveri e alia innocenza dei 
" fanciulli, pietoso alia miseria degli in- 
" fermi, severo coll' arrogante dovizia 
" dei signori e colla superbia e a vara 
" dominazione deisacerdoti : non timido 
" insegnatore del doversi amare con sin- 
" cerita netta d'ogni superstizione Iddio, 
'' cui la misericordia e piu gradita che il 
" sacrificio, e che commando di amare e 
* v tollerare gli uomini come fratelli, e nou 
" usaresenonmisuratamentelericchezze 
" tiranne del mondo." 

The last chef-d'eeuvre of Canova is 
worthily placed at Possagno; for it is the 
point of departure, still more than his 
works, which makes the glory of the man. 

At the grand gallery is the Apparition 
of the Eternal to the three Marys, and 
to the disciples, near the dead Christ, a 
capital picture by Canova, which he 
painted in 1797, and retouched in 1821. 
Never did talent fall into a more deplo- 
rable error. The upper part of the 
painting represents the Eternal Father in 
the semblauceof asun, as Louis XIV. was 
represented, and his bended arms hang 
across this sun; the Holy Ghost, under 
the ordinary form of a dove, shedding 
luminous rays from the beak, and an 
angel, who has nothing either heavenly 
or divine in his appearance, although of 

oyer a torrent at the point called // sallo di Cres- 
pmo, in order to facilitate the approach to rossagno 

Chap. XXX. ] 



One form, is blowing a trumpet with a 
theatrical air. In spite of the bad colour 
of the whole painting, and the poverty 
of invention and composition, the lower 
part is much superior to the ideal ; and 
some traces of the sculptor's skill may 
be recognized in the draperies. 

Some good paintings of the Italian 
masters ornament the temple of the great 
contemporary artist. They are : a fine 
and touching Madonna delU Grazie in 
a double compartment by Pordenone ; 
the Virgin in the midst of an aureola of 
angels, and below St. Sebastian, St. 
Francis, St. Roch and St. Anthony, an 
agreeable picture by Andrea Vicentino ; 
Christ in the garden of Olives, by 
young Palma, a pathetic piece, and one 
of the best of his too numerous works ; 
and St. Francis de Paule, refused by 
the sailors and passing the straits of Mes- 
sina on his cloak with his two acolytes, 
by Luca Giordano. The twelve figures of 
the Apostles, a fresco by M. Demin, not- 
withstanding their too rapid execution, 
are noble and effective, and happily re- 
place the statues which Canova did not 
live to execute. 

The marble tomb of the founder of this 
splendid monument is very simple, it was 
raised by bis brother the bishop ofMindo, 
who, as the following touching inscription 
indicates, is to rejoin him there : — 


In the village is the small house which 
was inhabited by Canova, the beau ideal 
of an artist's residence from its elegant 
simplicity, simplex munditiis : his works 
are framed in the different rooms. A large 
hall contains all the plasters ; it forms a 
Canova museum, and the sight of this 
multitude of works, so great, so noble, 
or so graceful, soon makes one forget the 
wretched painting of the immortal sta- 


Maser.— Manini palace.— Cliapel.-Stuccos of Vit- 
toria. — Olympus or Taolo Veronese. 

The pretty village of Maser, ten miles 
from Possagno, possesses one of the most 
complete and most finished wonders of 
art, which the good Lanzi, who might 
faave described it, has compared to the 

villa of Lucullus; this is the Manini Pa- 
lace, built by Palladio, ornamented with 
stuccosby Vittoria, and painted by Paolo 
Veronese when in the flower of his age. 

Palladio returned from Rome when he 
was employed at Maser by the illustrious 
Daniele Barbaro, patriarch of Aquilea, 
the learned commentator of Vitruvius, 
and the friend of the first literary men of 
his time. The elegant chapel, a small 
round temple, shows the inspiration of 
antiquity. The interior is delightfully 
overrun by statues, grotesque heads, 
and arabesques in stucco by Vittoria, 
which will bear comparison with the 
best works in marble, and which have 
left no room for painting. The latter 
art, banished to beneath the portico, does 
not there appear ill-placed ; on the ceiling, 
the Resurrection of Christ, by Pelle- 
grini, shows some very skilful fore- 
shortening ; the Virgin and St. Joseph 
has, fantastically, for a pendant, Fame 
showing the portraits of the noble founder 
of this chef-d'oeuvre. 

The palace, which is situated on a de- 
clivity, has in front a flight' of steps 
extending the whole width of the front. 
The genius of Palladio and Paolo Ve- 
ronese bursts forth in the great hall. 

Amongst the personages placed in the 
brilliant balcony, painted on the ceiling, 
is one which excites general admiration ; 
an old woman pointing out to a young 
female a fine child who holds back a 
spotted dog, which is ready to fly at > 
another child who is reading ; near this 
are a young man and a parrot ; all these 
figures are life itself. The child with the 
dog, and the young woman, are said to 
be portraits of Paolo Veronese and his 
mistress. A singular optical illusion is 
here observed; w hen the spectator places 
himself under either of the children ,• the 
old woman and the young one instead of 
looking at the child, have their eyes 
directed towards himself. A lunette 
poetically unites Ceres and Bacchus, as 
the emblem and source of life ; one of the 
nymphs of the goddess is gently placing 
a little child on a bed of wheat sheaves; 
Bacchus is pressing the juice from a 
bunch of grapes into a cup ; his retinue 
of wanton nymphs forms a strong 
contrast to the group of modest nymphs, 
the attendants of Ceres. The lunette 
opposite shows Venus reclining inde- 
cently enough by the side of her aged 
partner, with a long smiths' implement 




[Book V. 

in his band, and Flora followed by a 
lovely train of nymphs and little chil- 
dren, wearing flowers in their dresses, 
or carrying little baskets. But the richest 
of all these compositions is the octagon 
in the centre of the ceiling, a sublime 
work, where are represented Olympus 
surrounded by the four elements, Plenty, 
Love, Fortune, and lastly, the figure of a 
female who appears a great admirer of 
Etruscan vases, as she is leaning on one 
and has another at her feet. 

The four rooms adjoining the hall, are 
covered with numberless allegorical fi- 
gures, of very ambiguous meaning. The 
eight elegant figures standing separate, 
which Algarotti took for the Muses, ap- 
pear to be only simple musicians. The 
two closed doors opposite each other ex- 
hibit two charming figures, the one a 
young valet in a Spanish dress, cap in 
hand as if waiting to receive orders ; the 
other a fair little girl, full of elegance and 
animation. It is impossible to conceive 
a more pleasing antechamber. 

Maser was the dwelling place of the 
last of the hundred and twenty Doges of 
Venice, JVIanini,' who so miserably abdi- 
cated ; the luxuries of his villa, the fear of 
losing it, or of seeing it laid waste, contri- 
buted perhaps to his want of character 
and resolution ; for this weak man was 
not a traitor, and he loved his country. a 


Castelfranco.— Saint Liberal.— Picture by Giorglone. 
—Frescos by Paolo Veronese.— Academy of the 
Flloglotti —Conegllano.— Duomo.— Saint Flore.— 
Picture of Conegllano. 

Castelfranco, a pretty town, is the 
country of the great painter, Giorgione, 
Titian's rival; he died at the age of 
thirty-four, in despair at having been 
betrayed by his mistress, whom his pupil 
Luzzo di Feltre had seduced. 

The church Saint Liberal, with its 
noble, harmonious cupola, presents an 
humble imitation of Palladio's Redentore 
at Venice. The architect Preti was of 
Castelfranco, as well as the greater 

* Some cbronologlstsonlyreckou one bundred and 
nineteen Doges, because they exclude the usurper 
rielro Barbolano of the Centranlco family, who 
v/ae, In 1026, the twenty-eighth doge. 

* The election of the first Dogo was in the year 
797; Manlnl was deposed In 1796, so that we find 
fulfilled the prophecy of the excellent Florentine 

number of the artists who have decorated 
this church, which is a real museum, the 
sacristy alone containing more than forty 
paintings. There is Giorgione's cele- 
brated picture of the Virgin, called 
by Algarotti the magnificent painting of 
Castelfranco, the production of his youth, 
the bold first step of a career destined to 
be so steady and rapid. The fine, the 
superb Saint Liberal, armed as a knight 
and holding his banner unfolded, pla- 
ced near the throne of the Virgin, 
passes for the portrait of Giorgione ; it 
contrasts strongly with the pious and me- 
ditative air of the Saint Francis opposite, 
which is believed to be the portrait of 
his brother. The details even are ex- 
quisite, and the trees of the landscape 
in the background, where a fine castle 
and an elegant little temple may be dis- 
tinguished, appear to be agitated by a 
gentle breeze. After the chef-d'oeuvre of 
Giorgione, comes the Presentation of the 
Virgin, by the younger Palma, a pleas- 
ing picture, but of that bluish tint which 
he was so fond of giving his paintings ; 
Christ descending into purgatory, to 
deliver the patriarchs and prophets, re- 
markable for the touching confusion of 
Adam, and particularly of Eve, a rich 
composition by Ponchino of Castelfranco, 
who took holy orders and afterwards be- 
came a canon. An Assumption, not- 
withstanding the difficulty of the subject 
for sculpture, is interesting from the 
fact of its author Torretti, who had his 
studio at Pagnano, a village of the 
Trevisan where he was born, being the 
first master of Canova, and because the 
little tower (monogram of Torretti) under 
Saint Liberal, passes for the work of the 
young Antonio. Such was the immense 
popularity of Canova in Italy, and the 
honour attached to the smallest trace of 
him, thaton his passingthrough Pagnano 
afterwards, this public inscription was 
dedicated to him : 






poet of the sixteenth century, Louis Alamannl, 
who said in his second satire that the liberty of 
Venice would not last a thousand years : 

Se non cangi pensier, 1' un secol' solo 
Non contera sopra II millesioi' anno 
Tua llberta, che va fugendo n volo. 

Chap. XXXII. 1 



The statues of Faith and Charity by 
S. Zandomenighi of Venice, recall to mind 
the morbidezza of Canova. 

The sacristy has received the three 
superb frescos of Paul Veronese, Time 
and Fame, Justice, and Temperance, 
successfully transferred on canvas, for- 
merly at the neighbouring palace of the 
Soranza, of the architecture of San Mi- 
cheli, barbarously demolished, in spite 
of its massive strength, and which was 
cited by Vasari as one of the largest, 
finest, and most convenient country re- 
sidences. The calm, healthy appear- 
ance of Temperance, whose attention is 
directed to a vase of water, well expresses 
the good effects of the virtue which she 
represents. Some other paintings in 
this sacristy are also remarkable. The 
Marriage of St. Ann and St. Joachim, 
by Beccarruzzi, a painter of the sixteenth 
century, well expresses the kind of ten- 
derness felt by an old couple, who per- 
haps knew each other too late, and 
presents a fine landscape. The St. Sebas- 
tian of the younger Palma, is expres- 
sive and the foreshortening good. The 
two tall figures of St. George and St. Li- 
beral clad in brown armour have a very 
martial air. The Supper at Emmaiis 
is by Paolo Piazza of Castelfranco, a 
pupil of Bassano, who became a Capuchin 
monk at Bome, and under the name of 
Padre Cosmo was a painter of great ori- 
ginality, as may be judged from the 
bustle which prevails in the kitchen 
where dinner is preparing. The Amours 
of Cleopatra, which Padre Cosmo paint- 
ed at the Borghese palace, was a subject 
less befitting his pencil as a monk. The 
skilful painters of Castelfranco showed 
themselves subject to exalted passions ; 
Giorgione died of amorous despair, Pon- 
chino and Piazza embraced the conven- 
tual life. 

Castelfranco has two other fine chur- 
ches; St. James the Apostle, by the 
clever Venetian architect Massari, where 
is to be seen a good painting of the 
Saint, by Damini, of Castelfranco, of 
whom it has been said, doubtless with 
exaggeration, that if he had not died so 
young he would have equalled Titian ; 
and the church of Saint Mary, which 
contains twelve exquisite little paintings 
by this same Damini. 

The small and elegant theatre was so 
well arranged that it served in the mor- 
ning for the annual sitting of the Academy 

of Castelfranco, called the Academy of 
the Filoglotti, where are produced the lo- 
cal panegyrics, dissertations, and verses, 
which latter are said to be occasionally 
rather harsh. 

Conegliano deserves a visit from the 
traveller for its charming environs, and 
for several of its paintings. 

The Duomo presents a Virgin on an 
elevated throne, and St. John the Bap- 
list, St. Nicholas the bishop, Saint Cathe- 
rine, St. Apollonia, St. Charles Borro- 
meo, and St. Joseph, and at the foot of 
the throne two little angels, by the ex- 
cellent painter of the town, Cima, called 
Conegliano ; the painting bears the date 
of 1192; though in a damaged state, the 
artist's gift of relief and perspective may 
be recognised; this patriotic painter only 
demanded 412 livres 12 sous for this 
chef-d'ceuvre. St. Mark, St. Leonard, 
and St. Catherine, in a chapel of the 
church, doubtless belong to the best 
days of the art. 

On the ceiling of Saint Boch, a lively 
and harmonious composition by M. De- 
ntin representsin two groups the Saint, 
and St. Dominick, carried to Paradise 
by Angels ; the dog of Saint Boch, who 
wants to follow his master, is playfully 
stopped by two little angels; the dog of 
St. Dominick, with his accustomed flam- 
beau in his mouth, also endeavours to 
follow his master, but two other angels 
execute the same task with him, and one 
of them takes away the torch. 

The fine church of Saint Martin has a 
soft and rural Nativity by Beccaruzzi, 
a native of Conegliano. 

San Fiore, the neighbouring hamlet to 
Conegliano, deserves a visit; its ancient 
and small parish church possesses the 
best preserved work of Conegliano, a 
valuable painting in eight compartments, 
the principal of which is occupied by a St. 
John the Baptist, dry, swarthy, stand- 
ing on the trunk of a tree, an admirable 
expression of the austere repentance that 
he preached. 


Trevisa.— Duomo. — Procession of Dominlci. — Mys- 
teries of the Rosary of P. Bordonne.— Frescos of 
Pordenone.— Annunciation of Titian.— Saint Ni- 
cholas.— Architecture of the convents of Safnt 
Dominick.— Fra Pensabene.— Portraits of Domi- 
nicans. — Saint Theonistes. — Saint Leonard.— 
Saint Gaetau.— San Giovanni del Battesimo. 

Trevisa is ill-built and ill-paved, but 



[Book V. 

still of importance as regards the arts. 
The school of Trevisa forms a brilliant 
branch of the Venetian. 

The Duomo, although modernised, is 
still of an imposing appearance. Three 
chapels are by the Lombardi, father and 
son, able Venetian sculptors and archi- 
tects of the fifteenth century ; their sim- 
plicity and purity render more conspi- 
cuous the false taste of the works of the 
last century. The contrast is still further 
shown by the beautiful tomb of Zanetli, 
bishop of Trevisa, by the Lombardi : the 
eagle with extended wings, surrounded 
by a wreath of flowers, greatly excited the 
admiration of Canova. The tomb of 
Pope Alexander VIII. (Ottoboni), who 
was a canon of the cathedral, by the 
Trevisan Comino, is horribly heavy. 

The Virgin on a throne, ornamented 
with beautiful crimson curtains, holding 
the infant Jesus, and beside her St. 
Sebastian and St. Roch, is by Geronimo 
Vecchio, of Trevisa, painted in 1487 ; it 
has all the languishing colouring and 
dignified grace of that painter. The 
Assumption by Penacchi, an artist of 
Trevisa of the sixteenth century, not- 
withstanding the stiffness of the drape- 
ries, produces a pleasing impression : a 
group of angels carrying up the Virgin 
is perfectly Mantegnesque. A long Pro- 
cession by Dominici, another painter of 
Trevisa of the same century, who died 
young, is extremely curious : all the 
small figures arc natural, true, and full 
of life, and exhibit the contemporary 
portraits of the authorities of the city. 
A whimsical inscription put at the bottom 
brings to our recollection the peculiar 
estimation made of this picture by Ca- 
nova, the rival of Phidias. The vault 
of Saint Liberal, where his tomb stands, 
is an ancient, bold, and solid construc- 
tion. The St. Justine, transparent, and 
well preserved, by Bissolo, a good Vene- 
tian artist of the sixteenth century but 
little known, has a sort of liveliness about 
it, notwithstanding the sword that pierces 
the bosom of the chaste martyr: the canon 
on his knees praying w ith such an earnest 
pious air, is said to be the portrait of the 
person who ordered the picture. 

A Virgin silting with the infant Jesus 
on one knee, supposed to be by Sanso- 
vino, is of the finest times of sculpture. 

The able Trevisan painter, Paris Bor- 
done, has decorated the Duomo with 
three masterpieces. The grand St. Lau- 

rence strikes by the beauty and ce- 
lestial expression of the saint's head, the 
flesh of St. Jerome, the foreshortening 
of St. Sebastian, and the excellent ar- 
rangement of the whole. The Nativity 
presents the most happy contrast : the 
Infant Jesus who is looking with an air 
so loving and so happy at his mother, re- 
presented in a chaste and noble attitude ; 
a shepherdess full of grace and simpli- 
city offering to Christ two doves, and the 
almost speaking figure with the ebon 
beard and hair, the portrait of Aloisa 
Rovero, who ordered the picture. The 
Mysteries of the Rosary, a small picture 
in six divisions, is exquisite and elegant, 
and may be considered a sort of minia- 
ture display of the author's peculiar 
qualities. St. John the Baptist, by Vit- 
toria, expresses penitence : the effect is 
still increased by the statue being from 
the quarries of Istria, better adapted by 
its dark grey colour for a subject of this 
kind than the most brilliant marble. 
The Cross carried by the angels, by 
Amalteo, a good painter of the Venetian 
school, with the figures of St. James 
major, St. Diego, St. Anthony the abbot, 
and St. Bernardin, is a noble, graceful, 
and animated composition : the land- 
scape is a view of Motta, a town of the 
Trevisan, where the artist resided : the 
colouring has not the ordinary vivacity 
of Amalteo, who was upwards of fifty- 
nine when he executed it. The Holy 
winding Sheet, held by three bishops 
followed by priests holding torches, 
and shown to the adoration of the faith- 
ful, by Francesco Bassano, is rich, broad, 
and true. Pordenone, a powerful artist, 
surnamed the Michael Angelo of the Ve- 
netian school, has painted two superb 
frescos; the Epiphany, which, notwith- 
standing some exaggeration, is bold and 
majestic ; there is a foolish vain inscrip- 
tion indicating that it was ordered by the 
canon Brocardo Malchiostro, whom we 
shall hereafter have occasion to mention. 
The Eternal Father surrounded by a 
multitude of little angels entwined and 
descending to the earth, a fresco in 
the cu ola, is wonderfully lively and 

But the finest of the pictures of the 
Duomo is the Annunciation by Titian 
when young, admirably expressive, true, 
and natural, both in the perspective and 
drapery ; the only fault is, his having in- 
troduced the canon Malchiostro, who, 




because he ordered it, had the whimsical 
pretension to figure in it. 

The church of Saint Nicholas, the finest 
in Trevisa, dates from the year 1300, and 
has the Gothic grandeur of the mona- 
steries of Saint Dominick . The architect 
belonged to the middle ages, but of 
his name we are ignorant, as we are of 
many others, builders of vast basilics, 
and immense monuments of that period, 
characterised by the strength and dura- 
bility of its works.' These singular and 
religious artists were more anxious about 
their salvation than their fame. Thus in 
architecture, the middle ages truly ap- 
pear, as some one has observed, to be the 
epoch of great men now unknown. Saint 
Nicholas owes its foundation to the zeal 
and bounty of Pope Benedict XI., who 
was born in the Trevisan ani belonged 
to the convent. 

As at the Duomo, an altar by the 
Lombardi, notwithstanding its exiguity, 
shews strikingly the false taste of the 
last century, exhibited in an enormous 
altar by the celebrated P. Pozzi. The 
tomb of Count Agostino d'Onigo of Tre- 
visa, a senator of Rome (which does not 
mean that he was a Roman senator), is 
another excellent work of the Lombardi. 

The Apparition of Christ, by Giovanni 
Bellini, shows by its morbidezza that 
the old master had the good sense to 
approach the manner of his two great 
pupils, Giorgione and Titian. In the 
lower part of the picture are the contem- 
porary portraits of the bishop, the podesta, 
and the prior of the convent; all members 
of the pious Monigo foundation, that 
charitably helped poor females, several 
of whom figure among the portraits and 
are full of life. The St. Christopher 
carrying the Infant Jesus on his shoulder 
is of the colossal size of thirty -four feet, 
independently of his legs which are in 
the water ; it dates from the year 1410, 
is a most able fresco by Antonio, of Tre- 
visa, and interesting as regards art. The 
Virgin on a throne with St. Thomas 
d'Aquin, St. Jerome, St. Liberal, St. 
Dominick, St. Nicholas the bishop, 
Benedict XL, and on the steps of the 
throne a little angel playing on the lyre, 
is an immense, elegant, and majestic 
composition, and was for a length of time 
supposed to be by Sebastiano del Piombo, 

' The architects of the churches Saint Anastasia 
of Verona, Saint Augustine of Padua, recently 

but was found from the registers of the 
conventtobe-byamonk, Fra Marco Pen- 
sabene, a Venetian, the great artist of the 
cloister, who must have been one of 
Giovanni Bellini's best pupils, though 
spoken of by none, notwithstanding his 
pretty interesting name of Fra Pen- 

The hall of the chapter, painted in 
1352 by Thomas ofModena, represents a 
gallery of celebrated Dominicans, each 
bending over his little desk, reading or 
meditating, some wearing spectacles ; 
figures with little of the ideal, and totally 
destitute of variety, but natural and true. 

The church of Saint Theonist, now ap- 
pertaining to a girls' school, presents on 
the arched roof, a Paradise, in which 
the soul of the saint enters triumphantly, 
a fresco by the Venetian Fossati and the 
figures by Guarana; it is remarkable for 
the ornaments and perspective ; an As- 
sumption by Spineda, a noble and able 
artist of Trevisa, the imitator and almost 
the rival of Palma, for drawing and 
delicacy of colouring; and a Magdalen 
at the foot of the cross, with the Virgin 
and St. John, a work after the manner 
of Titian, by Jacopo Bassano, who after- 
wards adopted a style of his own and was 
also chief of a school. 

The church of the Scdlzi ( or bare- 
footed Carmelites), by its form and ex- 
treme cleanliness, invites the soul to 
devotion. Notwithstanding it has under- 
gone a fatal restoration, we recognise the 
original touch of Paris Bordone in the 
Virgin with the Infant Jesus, St. John 
the Baptist, and St. Jerorne; the latter, 
half-naked and covered only with the 
cardinal's purple, is presenting his hat 
to the Infant Jesus, who takes it as a 

The church of Saint Augustine, of an 
elliptic shape and good architecture, has 
a Virgin, St. Joseph, and a saint, which 
brings to our mind the lively manner of 
Andrea Schiavone. 

Saint Leonard contains the Glory o, 
the saint, a fresco of fine colouring by 
GiambattistaCanaletto,and an old Virgin 
with the Eternal Father, St. Bartho- 
lomew, and St. Prosdocimus, perhaps by 
Jacopo Bellini, the worthy father of 
Giovanni and Gentile ; the retouching has 
injured the Virgin, but as regards the 

destroyed, Saint Jobn and Paul of Venice, are not 



[Book V. 

Eternal Father, the saints, and chiefly 
the little angels, it is a fine, noble, and 
graceful work. Another retouching has 
destroyed the figure of St. Sebastian, 
with St. John theBaptist and St. Erasmus, 
by Giovanni Bellini ; but the St. Erasmus 
remains untouched, and has preserv- 
ed all the charming characteristics of the 

The front of the church of Saint Gio- 
vanni del Tempio, or Saint Gaetan, is 
worthy, from its purity and chastencss, 
of its date, 1508, which is inscribed on it, 
and it shows the style of the Lombardi ; 
but with the exception of a small gallery 
with a cupola, the interior, horribly 
modernised, is not at all in conformity 
with such an exterior. 

The steeple of Saint Martin indicates 
that the building is of a very ancient date. 
An Assumption by Spineda is much 
esteemed ; likewise St. Martin giving 
alms, and a Trinity by Orioli, a prolific 
painter and poet of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, born at Trevisa, to which he con- 
fined his natural but almost uncultivated 

At Saint Andrew, the Virgin, St. 
John, Chrysostome, St. Lucy and below 
a little angel playing on the harp, in spite 
of its dilapidated state, exhibits the sim- 
plicity and taste of Gentile Bellini. 

The most ancient church of Trevisa is 
that of San Giovanni del Battesimo, 
which possesses a Baptism of Christ, by 
Spineda, and a St. Apollonius, by 
Francesco Bassano. 

The small church of Saint Gregory has 
the picture of the Saint habited in his 
pontifical robes, one of the masterpieces 
of the younger Palma. 


Mont-de-Piete.-The Dead Christ, by Glorglone. 

The Mont-de-Pi&e* (where money is lent 
by the State on pledges) of Trevisa has 
still its celebrated Dead Christ, by Gior- 
gione, painted for this establishment, a 
most magnificent proof of its antiquity 
and richness. Christ is supported in a 
sitting posture by angels on the long mar- 
ble stone of the sepulchre. The paleness 
and sunken appearance of the dead body 
is wonderfully contrasted with the fresh- 
ness, strength, and agility of the angel, 
who has started to the opening of the 
tomb to which he clings with one hand, 

and with the other holds the corner of 
the crimson cloth, placed under the body 
of Christ. In spite or the injury of time, 
the retouchings, and the bad light it is 
placed in, it will ever be admired for 
boldness of foreshortening, the play of 
the light, and the terror blended with 
compassion that it inspires. 

One of the rooms of the Mont-de-PieHe" 
displays a Miracle of the loaves and 
fishes, a small, curious, and unnoticed 
fresco full of life, with a charming land- 
scape ; this fresco, although much da- 
maged, obtained the suffrages of two 
good judges, S. Missirini, and Count 
Cambray Digny, a Tuscan architect, ori- 
ginally from Picardy ; they were both of 
them at Trevisa in 1831, and may be 
said to have in some manner found it out. 
An old clerk told these gentlemen that 
tradition attributed it to Ludovico Fiu- 
micelli, a native ofTievisa, who too early 
abandoned the study of painting for that 
of architecture and fortification, but S. 
Missirini has no hesitation in believing it 
to be worthy of the able Venetian master 
Bonifacio. In the same room are also 
the rich Epulon and Moses striking the 
rock, presenting two animated land- 
scapes, by Ludovico Pozzo, a Flemish 
artist, long resident at Trevisa, and rather 
posterior to Fiumicelli. 

Such was the fecundity of art in Italy 
in the sixteenth century that it is to be 
found even in an establishment to aid the 
indigent, where it shines amid the pledged 
garments of the poor, making a Mont- 
de-Piete" almost a museum. 


Library.— Theatre. — Pola palace. — Ancient Dofflnl 
palace. — Hospital,— Bridge. 

The chapter library was founded by a 
liberal and noble Trevisan, Count Azzani 
Rambaldo Avogaro, a celebrated anti- 
quary, the friend of Muratori, a canon 
zealous for the literature and history of 
his country. He resuscitated the old 
academy of the Solleciti, which for a 
length of time had ceased to deserve its 
name. The correspondence of Avogaro 
with the learned of different countries is 
preserved in this library, and forms 
no less than 26 folio volumes. 

The Onigo theatre, a good substantial 
building of stone both inside and out, 
harmonious in its construction, was ar- 

■ HAP. I.] 



ranged internally by one of the Galli 
Bibiena, who were famous in Europe 
during the last century for their taste and 
skill in decoration, and without whose 
aid it seemed hardly possible to celebrate 
a marriage, a victory, or a princely pro- 

The Pola palace, built by the Lom- 
bards notwithstanding the ruined state 
of the staircase, is worth notice for its 
noble front and vestibule. 

An honest shopkeeper occupies the 
ancient Dolflni palace, remarkable for 
the richness of its front, though the ar- 
chitect Pagnossini of Trevisa flourished 
when architecture was on the decline in 
Italy. In the arched roof of the principal 
saloon, now a warehouse, there is a 
Triumph of.Bacchus, a fresco of a yel- 
lowish tint, with some fine foreshorten- 
ing, by Dorigny, a Parisian artist, one 
of Lebrun's pupils, who came to Italy 
when young and established a school ; 
he lived at Trevisa, and died at Verona, 
at the advanced age of eighty-eight, 

having for many years infested the Ve- 
netian school to the utmost of bis power. 

The gate of Saint Thomas, which dates 
from 1518, has been held worthy, from 
the beauty of its front and its solid con- 
struction, to be attributed to PietroLom- 
bardi, as also the statue of St. Paul which 
surmounts it. 

The civil hospital of Trevisa is worth a 
visit, on account of two pictures in ihe 
director's new apartment : the Nativity, 
full of grace and nature, by Caprioli, an 
artist of the Modena sehool of the fifteenth 
century ; and the Holy family, a master- 
piece combining the graceful, natural, 
and expressive, by the elder Palma. 

A fine brick bridge in a good state of 
preservation, notwithstanding its three 
centuries, is thrown across the Sile of 
which the poet Dante has sung, 

Dove Sile a Cagnano s' accompagna, 

and which river waters the beautiful 
country of Treyisa. 




Venice.— lis decline.— Venice on terra liima. 

It would be difficult to describe the 
impression Venice produces on its first 
appearance ; the multitude of domes, 
steeples, palaces, columns, rising out of 
the bosom of the waters, looks at a dis- 
tance like a city under water and pro- 
duces a feeling of surprise and fear. 
One can scarcely imagine that to be the 
end of his journey and the destined 
place of his sojourn. Rotterdam, it is 
said, is not less extraordinary ; it may be 
so, but 1 cannot imagine that Holland 
ever resembled Venice : if commerce 
was the soul of the two states, in the 
one it was simple, grave, unassuming, 
austere, and economical ; in the other 
brilliant, pompous, dissolute, the friend 
of pleasure and the arts. Liberty in Ve- 
nice was the oppressive privilege of a 

class of nobles ; in Holland it extended 
to all classes. The paintings of Cana- 
letto have so familiarised us with the 
harbour, the squares, and monuments of 
Venice, that when we penetrate into the 
city itself, it appears as if already known 
to us. Bonington, an English artist of a 
melancholy cast, has painted some new 
views of Venice, in which is most per- 
fectly sketched its present state of deso- 
lation; these, compared with those oT 
the Venetian painter, resemble the pic- 
ture of a woman still beautiful, but worn 
down by age and misfortune. All those 
gondolas, hung with black, a species of 
floating sepulchres, look as if they were 
in mourning for the city ; and the gondo- 
lier, instead of singing the verses of 
Ariosto and Tasso, 1 is neither more nor 

1 These verses were, it is well known, only a 
Venetian translation; the gondoliers did not un- 
derstand the text. 



IBoou VI. 

less than a poor boatman with but little 
poetry in his composition, whose only 
song is a harsh screaming ah eh at the 
turning of each calle, ■ to avoid the danger 
of collision with other gondolas that are 
not immediately visible. This aspect of 
Venice has a something in it more gloomy 
than that of ordinary ruins : nature lives 
still in the latter, and sometimes adds to 
their beauty, and although they are the 
remains of by-gone centuries, we feel 
they will live for centuries to come, and 
probably witness not only the decay of 
their present master's power, but of suc- 
ceeding empires too : here these new 
ruins will rapidly perish, and this Pal- 
myra of the sea, retaken by the avenging 
element from which it was conquered, 
will leave no trace behind. No time 
ought to be lost in visiting Venice, to con- 
template the works of Titian, the frescos 
of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese, the 
statues, the palaces, the temples, the mau- 
soleums of Sansovinoand Palladio totter- 
ing on the very verge of destruction. 

I visited Venice three different times, 
at intervals of about a year; and at 
each visit was forcibly struck with its 
rapid decline. A skilful observer who 
was living there then calculated that it 
might go on for sixty years more in this 
manner. I cannot avoid acknowledging 
that the description I gave of Venice on 
my first visit, to be accurate now, must 
be reduced in some of its features. The 
population formerly was one hundred 
and ninety thousand, at the end of the 
last century it was but one hundred and 
fifty, and is now not more than one 
hundred and three, out of which forty 
thousand are dependent on the charity 
of the rest. The number of gondolas, 
formerly six thousand five hundred, was 
in 1827 six hundred and seventy-eight. 
Comines pretended when he was there 
they amounted to thirty thousand {il s'en 
finiroit trente mille). 

In the midst of its destruction Venice 
found a man full of zeal, taste, and 
knowledge, who has collected, and ren- 
dered imperishable in some degree the 
grandeur and magnificence of its monu- 
ments. In the work entitled Fabbriche 
piii cospicue di Venezia, by Cicognara 

' The catle are tbe streets, the passages of Venice, 
of which there are two thousand one hundred and 
eight; the number of houses twcnly seven thou- 
sand nine hundred and eighteen, and of bridges 
three hundred and six. 

and the members of the academy of fine 
arts of Venice, which is the first and only 
complete work on this fine city, is a 
faithful and precious inventory of all its 
masterpieces, some of which even since 
its publication are no longer in existence. 
Another excellent work, a collection of 
Venetian inscriptions by S. Cigogna, 
will also be the means of preserving re-« 
collections of what Venice was, and 
which the author has nobly dedicated to 
his country. 

Some years ago a bold plan was pro- 
posed by a zealous Venetian in order to 
prevent the ruins of his native city ; * this 
was to join Venice to the continent, a 
project already formed by Marco Fosca- 
rini, an enlightened Doge of the last 
century, at the epoch which preceded 
the fall of the republic. A road of com- 
munication was proposed to be made on 
the narrowest point of the lagoon, the 
length of which does not exceed two 
miles and a half; the materials to make 
this road might be easily procured in the 
mud of the marshes and the gravel of 
the neighbouring rivers; it was suggested 
that it should be planted with trees, 
paved for foot passengers, and edged by 
two parallel canals, with drawbridges for 
the defence of the city : the expense 
would not exceed a million and a half of 
florins (156,000 pounds). Not contesting 
the material advantages that Venice 
might immediately gain by its being join- 
ed to terra firma, the more particularly 
since the permission granted for a rail- 
road between Milan and this city, I do 
not know, if it were carried into effect, 
Whether such a change would not be to 
the imagination at least a different spe- 
cies of destruction, since it would lake 
from the queen of the Adriatic her pecu- 
liar character and wondrous aspect. 


Piazza of Saint Mark.— Pigeons.- Coffee-bouses.— 

The Piazza of Saint Mark has not its 
like in the world, the East and West are 
there brought into each other's presence : 
on one side the Ducal palace with the in- 

1 See Memoria sul commercio di Venezia, e sul 
mezzi d'impedirne il decadimento, letta at veuelo 
Ateneo dal socio ordinarlo Luigi Casarioi, segre- 
turio dell' inclita congregazione cenlrale. Venezia 
1823, in-8°. 

Chap. II. J 



dented architecture, the balconies, and 
galleries of Arabian monuments, and the 
church of Saint Mark with its angular 
front and lead-covered cupolas, remind 
the beholder of a mosque at Constanti- 
nople, or Cairo; on the other side regular 
arcades with shops similar to the Palais- 
Koyal at Paris. The same contrast is to 
be found among the men : there are 
Turks, Greeks, and Armenians, some 
lying down, others taking coffee and 
sherbet, under large awnings of different 
brilliant colours, resembling tents ; some 
smoking perfumes in their long amber- 
tipped pipes of* rose-wood, a crowd of 
indolent and majestic automata, while 
European travellers, and others occupied 
with their business, are hurriedly passing 
to and fro. 

The infinite number of pigeons that 
cover the piazza of Saint Mark, the cupola 
of the church, and the roofs of the Ducal 
palace, add also to the Oriental aspect of 
these monuments. In a country where 
the ruling power, though slow in action, 
is ever on the watch, one would prefer the 
conveyance of letters by these birds. 
These pigeons have been in Venice from 
its earliest days. It was the custom on 
Palm Sunday to let fly from above the 
principal gate of Saint Mark, a number 
of pigeons wilh small rolls of paper 
tied to their feet, which prevented them 
from continuing in the air, and as they 
fell they were caught by the crowd, who 
began fiercely to dispute the prizes the 
moment Ihey were loosed. This was a 
species of distribution to the public rather 
less jgnoble than ours. It sometimes 
happened that the pigeons got rid of 
their impediments and sought an asylum 
on the roofs of Saint Mark and the Ducal 
palace, near to those awful Piombi where 
human captives bemoaned a lot far more 
unhappy ;' here they rapidly increased, 

1 During the government of the Republic a person 
belonging to the city granaries fed the pigeons 
every morning on the piazza of Saint Mark and the 
Piazzetta. When Venice was taken in 1796, these 
slate pensioners were no longer supplied, and have 
since been indebted to the compassionof the Ve- 
netians for their subsistence. Consult the work 
of Madame Justine Itenier Michiel on the origin 
of Venetian fetes. Venice, 1817, 5 vol. 8vo, an agree- 
able and learned work, one of the best books that 
has been published on the history of Venice. I 
met with the authoress, a very amiable woman, 

and such was the interest they excited 
that to comply with the wishes of the 
public it was decreed that they should 
not only remain unmolested but be fed 
at the expense of the state. 1 

Venice still palpitates in the piazza of 
Saint Mark; this brilliant decoration costs 
a million annually in repairs ; while other 
distant quarters, some of which possess 
magnificent palaces, are left to fall into 
ruins : this corpse of a city, to use the 
expression of Cicero's friend, is already 
cold at the extremities, the life and heat 
remaining are confined to the heart. 

The Florian coffee-house, under the 
arcades Procuralie JYuove, in the old 
lime of Venice was a species of institu- 
tion ; it has not survived the decline and 
Tall of the city. This celebrated coffee- 
house, like the other great coffee-houses 
in the piazza of Saint Mark, Quadri, 
Leoni, Suttil, etc., is however open the 
whole night in all seasons, and, in fact, 
is never shut. Florian was formerly the 
confidant and universal agent of the Ve- 
netian nobility. The Venetian who alight- 
ed there, had news of his friends and ac- 
quaintances ; was informed when they 
would be back and what they had done in 
his absence ; there too he found his letters, 
cards, 2 and probably his bills ; in short, 
every thing of moment had been done 
for him by Florian, with care, intelli- 
gence, and circumspection. Canova 
never forgot the more essential services 
he had received from Florian at the 
commencement of his career, when he 
wanted to become known ; and he 
remained his friend through life. Flo- 
rian was often tormented wilh the gout 
in his feet, and Canova modelled his leg 
and foot so that the shoemaker could 
take his measure without putting him to 
pain. This leg of a coffeehouse-keeper 
appears to me no less honourable to Ca- 

nolwithstauding the deafness which afflicted her 
when advanced in years. She died at Ihe age of 
seventy-eight in the year 1832. Madame Michiel 
also translated Shakspeare, and defended Venice in 
the most patriotic manner against M. de Chateau- 

2 The visiting cards in Italy are commonly orna- 
mented with emblems and monuments : I received 
cards at Verona on which was an engraving of the 
amphitheatre ; the Venetians have on theirs the 
bridge of the Rialto, the front of Saint Mark, the 
columns of the Piazzetta, etc. 





[Book VI. 

nova than his Theseus, it is pleasing to 
2stecm him as a man whom we have 
sdmlred as an artist. 

At the extremity of the piazza there 
are three pili or flag-masts which form- 
erly bore the glorious standards of Saint 
Mark, now replaced by the Austrian 
flag. The pedestals of these masts are 
in bronze, by Leopafdo, and possess the 
elegance and taste of the Grecian artists. 
Independently of the great pains taken 
by the artist, they are so beautifully po- 
lished that the figures have all the ap- 
pearance of having just quitted the work- 
shop; whereas they have been there 
upwards of three centuries, exposed to 
the injury of the air, the African siroccos, 
and to the misty saline spray of the 
raging Adriatic. 


Church — Baptistry. — Bronze gate. — The Virgin 
della Scarpa.— Pala d'oro.-Uislorical stones.— 
Horses.— Lion of Saint Mark. -Campanile.- log- 
gietla.— Treasury. 

The basilic of SaintMark, begun about 
the end of the tenth century by the doge 
Orsolo, is of chequered architecture, a 
mixture of Greek and Roman, but more 
especially Gothic. A description of the 
mosaics, sculptures, basso-relievos, and 
arabesques with which it is ornamented, 
would be endless. There are brilliantly 
blended Grecian elegance, Byzantian 
luxury, and the talents of the Venetian 
masters. On seeing these splendid com- 
partments, the golden arched roofs, the 
pavement of jasper and porphyry, the 
five hundred columns of black, white, 
and veined marble, of bronze alabaster, 
vert antique, and serpentine, one would 
feel inclined to take this christian temple, 
except that is is somewhat too gloomily 
lighted, to be a palace of the Arabian 
Psights. Religion has preserved all these 
riches, which might have been dissipated 
in the speculations and enterprises of a 
commercial and navigating people. The 
v recks of the magnificence of ancient 
Rome ornament the cathedrals of the mo- 
dem city, its successor. Saint Mark has 
collected the costly spoils of Constan- 
tinople. Italy thus embraces the ruins 
of these two imperial cities. 

The benilier, or holy-water vase, a 
work of ihe fifteenth century, of por- 
phyry, is supported by an antique altar 
of Grecian sculpture, ornamented with 

dolphins and tridents. One of the bronze 
doors of the baptistry, covered with the 
figures of saints and Greek inscriptions, 
appears to have been brought from the 
basilic of Saint Sophia. The mosaic, of 
the eleventh or twelfth century, on the 
wall, represents the Baptism of Christ, 
and is a warm animated composition. 
St. John the Baptist, in bronze, placed 
over the font, by Francesco Segala, is 
one of the good statues of the sixteenth 
century. I remarked in this chapel of 
the baptistry, against the wall, the tomb 
of the doge Andrea Dandolo, who died 
in 135i, an intrepid warrior and skilful 
politician, the friend of Petrarch and the 
oldest historian of Venice, as his ancestor 
was its greatest hero. The name of 
Dandolo is so nobleand great that I loved 
to repeat it under the vaulted roofs of 
Saint Mark, and had not my respect for 
the solemnity of the place prevented me, 
1 should have made it re-echo there, as 
an illustrious traveller did that ofLeo- 
nidas on the ruins of Lacedemon ; but 
Ihe echo of Saint Mark would doubtless 
have died away as speedily as that of 
Sparta, although the heroic acts of the 
Venetian warrior are less ancient by 
fourteen centuries. 1 must confess that 
my feelings were very different when, as 
I looked at the bronze door of the vestry 
behind the altar, a work that occupl I 
thirty years of Sansovino's existence, 
I saw there in relievo the almost living 
head of Aretino beside those of Titian 
and the author, both of them his friends. 
I could perceive in it all the presump- 
tion of his talent and disposition; a man 
who made a trade of calumny, who 
praised for a certain price, and who may 
be considered the representative of the 
licentious and ancient manners of Ve- 
nice. The friendship between Titian, 
Sansovino, and Aretino, if it does but 
little honour to the two artists, must 
have contributed in an extraordinary 
degree to the good taste and splendour 
of Venice. These three men aided each 
other by mutual counsels, and the superb 
gate of Sansovino is a kind of monument 
of their close and constant union. Titian 
could not always escape the importunate 
pecuniary demands of the grcedj author, 
nor his calumnies when the money was 
not forthcoming.' The four Evange- 

' See Ihe following passage from one of Arellno's 
loiters to Hie clulie of Florence, doled October, (5i5 : 
'■ La nun poca quaulila di danari cue M. Tiziauo si 

Chap. III.] 



lists of bronze in tbe choir, are also by 
Sansovino, and are considered as some 
of his finest works, also an altar behind 
tbe high altar, ornamented with basso- 
relievos in marble and bronze gilt. 

The Zeno chapel, the altar, and the 
monument of the Cardinal are the inesti- 
mable works of Pielro and Antonio Lom- 
bardo, and Leopardo. Here is also the 
celebrated statue of the Virgin cast by 
Alberghetti, with the cognomen of della 
Scarpa, because the Virgin has shoes on. 
The altar, the statue of St. James, and 
other masterpieces of Leopardo, are both 
noble and graceful. The finest of the 
numerous columns of Saint Mark in white 
and black porphyry, is in the oratory of 
the Cross, nearest the altar on the epistle 
side. The twelve Apostles, the Virgin, 
and St. Mark, in marble, placed above the 
architrave which separates the body of 
the church from the choir, are by ihe 
brothers Jacobello and Pietro- Paolo 
dalle Slassegne, excellent Venetian artists 
of the latter end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, pupils of the Pisa school, who seem 
worthy of a more advanced epoch. The 
great chandelier of Saint Mark, notwilh- 
slanding the oddness of its base, is con- 
sidered as one of the most remarkable 
works of its kind for the taste and nature 
of the figures, and the elegance of the 

The Pala d'oro, a species of mosaic 
in gold and silver on enamel, placed 
above the principal altar, is a curious 
monument of art belonging to the Greeks 
of the Lower-Empire, and of that pros- 
perity — that military and commercial 
civilisation of the Venetians which pre- 
ceded the poetical and literary civilisa- 
tion of other Italian cities. Ordered at 
Constantinople by the republic towards 
the end of the tenth century, the Pala 
d'oro was augmented and enriched at 
Venice in the three following centu- 
ries : it exhibits, symmetrically enchased 
among its numerous ornaments, a series 
of pictures representing subjects from 
the Old and New Testaments, the life of 
Saint Mark, the Apostles, the angels, 
and the prophets, with Greek and Latin 

ritrova, e la pure assai avidila che tiene (ii accre- 
scertn, causa ch' egli non dando cura e obbligoche 
si abbia con amico, ne a dovere die si convenga a' 
parent!, solo a quello con islrana ansia attende die 
gll promette gran cose.'' 

1 Cicagnara was tbe first who gave a detailed 
account of tbe Pala d'oro in the Fabbriche di Vene- 

inscriplions that are almost barbarous ; 
the figures are stiff, plain, and sin- 
gular, but the ensemble has something 
dignified in it : one might compare it to 
an old poem or some ancient chronicle, 
interesting as regards the period to 
which it belongs, but which it would 
be irrational to take as a model after the 
masterpieces of the great artists. 1 

If the fickle and conquered people of 
Venice appear to have forgotten their 
history, the stones and monuments are 
indelibly impressed with it, and no- 
where perhaps is the historical aspect 
of a place less defaced than there. A red 
marble pavement without any inscrip- 
tion near to the sixteenth arcade, recalls 
the most ancient recollections of Venice. 
It was there that Narses when he suc- 
ceeded Belisarius built the ancient church 
of Saint Geminian, destroyed in the 
twelith century, when the canal on the 
edge of which it stood was filled up. 
Every year the doge and senate vi- 
sited the new church of Saint Geminian, 
pulled down in 1809, a and they were 
reconducted with great pomp to this 
identical stone, the original limit of the 
piazza of Saint Mark. Not far from 
thence, in a retired street, there is a small 
white stone marking the spot where 
Boemondo Tiepolo, the Catiline of Ve- 
nice, perished ; he was killed by a pot of 
flowers that a too curious old woman ac- 
cidentally threw down from her window, 
in leaning forward to see him as he was 
going, at the head of the conspirators, to 
seize the Ducal palace and overthrow 
the Great council, a flower-pot which has 
effectually saved Venetian liberty, as the 
Catiline Orations did Rome and tbe 
senate, immediately after the defeat of 
Tiepolo's party, the council of Ten was 
created; a formidable institution, also 
due to the old woman's flower-pot. In- 
dependently of the mementos of glory 
and conquest which abound in Saint 
Mark, certain squares of red marble, 
under the vestibule, still mark the spot 
of the famous interview where a dis- 
sembled reconciliation was affected be- 
tween Alexander III . and the emperor 

zia, although a work of that kind belongs less to 
the history of architecture than that of painting. 
Tbe description is remarkable for its scrupulous 

a See post, chapters XIV. and XXIV. This elegant 
church occupied the present hall and staircase of 
the Royal palace. 



[Book VI. 

Frederick Barbarossa, throughlhe media- 
tion of the victorious Venetians. 

Saint Mark presents a collection of re- 
lics of the greatest antiquity, the various 
mementos of conquest and revolutions. 
Before the entrance of the church, on the 
right, near the Piazzetta, are. two pillars 
covered with Coptic and hieroglyphic 
characters, said to have originally be- 
longed to the temple of Saint Saba, at 
Saint Jean d'Acre. According to anti- 
quaries, the porphyry group, at the 
angle near the door of the Ducal palace, 
represents Harmodius and Aristogiton, 
the furious assassins of Hipparchus, the 
Athenian tyrant. The four famous horses 
of Corinth, or of the Carrousel, have 
resumed their former position on the 
tribune, over the principal door. Never 
was a trophy of victory more modestly 
placed, or worse, for they are scarcely 
perceptible. Won at Constantinople, 
brought back from Paris, these Greek or 
Roman steeds ■ are associated with the 
two grandest instances of taken towns 
that history record. 

The lion of Saint Mark is replaced on 
his column, but mutilated. He ought 
never to have left it; though insignificant 
as a work of art, at Venice it was a public 
and national emblem of its ancient power. 
It is venerable on the piazza of Saint 
Mark, but on the esplanade of the Inva- 
lides it was only a superfluous mark of 
the bravery of our warriors, less noble 
than all those*tallered flags taken on the 
battlefield and suspended in the nave of 
the church. It was, moreover, a singu- 
larly ill-judged and odious act of a rising 
republic to humiliate, and spoil of the 
vestiges of their past glory, such old 
republics as Venice and Genoa. The 
Sacro Catino, * and the Lion of Saint 
Mark, were there patriotic monuments 
worthy of respect ; elsewhere they sunk 
into mere shop or cabinet curiosities, the 
prey of ruthless conquest. 

The Campanile of Saint Mark is a bold 
structure, and one of the solidest and 
most elevated in Italy or even Europe ; 
it was begun in the tenth century, but 
not finished till the sixteenth. The chief 
builder was the illustrious maestro Buono, 
a great Venetian architect, who is some- 

1 Clcognara regards these horses as a Roman 
work of .Nero's lime; the Cav. Musloxidi pretends 
that they are Greek from the Island of Chios, and 
that they were carried to Constantinople in the 
tilth century by order of Theodoaius. The metal 

times confounded with other artists of 
the same name; he died in 1529. The 
ascent to its summit is by path, a real 
foot-pulh of brick, smooth and without 
steps. The sea, Venice rising from its 
bosom, the resplendent verdure of the 
fields on terra firma, the hoary tops of 
the Frioul Alps, the crowd of islets grace- 
fully grouped around this imposing city, 
present a point of view which may almost 
be called a prodigy. 

The Loy'yietta, at the foot of Saint 
Mark's steeple, is of rich and elegant 
architecture, by Sansovino ; the four 
bronze statues of Pallas, Apollo, Mer- 
cury, and Peace, by the same artist, are 
held in estimation, as are also the orna- 
ments by Titian Minio, his clever pupil, 
and those of Geronimo Lombardo of 
Ferrara. one of the first sculptors of the 
sixteenth century. The marble basso- 
relievos are exquisite, especially the Fall 
ofHella from the ram ofPhryxus, and 
Tethys aiding Leander. In the interior 
is a Nostra Siynora, another beautiful 
work of Sansovino. 

My eagerness to examine Saint Mark's 
Gospel, which was not in the library, as 
I had been informed, induced me to 
solicit admission to the treasury,— an 
intrigue stimulated by the curiosity of a 
traveller and amateur for which I have 
no blush, and which was crowned with 
success. The Gospel, now almost moul- 
dered to dust, is enclosed in a frame ; 
the damp has so far destroyed it, that 
only a few straggling letters can be with 
difficulty perceived The ecclesiastics 
who showed it to me pretended, how- 
ever, in opposition to Montfaucon, that 
it was on parchment and not papyrus, — 
though which is correct cannot be easily 
decided now. This manuscript is in 
Latin, and was taken by the Venetians at 
Utina in 1420. Notwithstanding all the 
miracles attending its transfer to Venice, 
it is impossible to regard it as authentic, 
since, as before observed, the apostles 
wrote only in Hebrew and Greek. 3 The 
part of the treasure deposited in Saint 
Mark's ( the other part, consisting of vases 
and pateras of hard Oriental stones 
mounted in gold and silver, is at the 
Mint ) may be reckoned, I believe, one 

was analysed at Paris, and ascertained lo be pore 
copper, instead of Corinthian brass as gcneially 
stated, and as it was natural lo suppose, 

2 See hook xix. ch. vii. 

3 See book II. ch. xi. 

Chap. IV.] 



of the most extensive reliquaries in the 
world— a kind of glass-covered charnel- 
house, seen by the glare of candles and 
torches : there are exhibited some of the 
too numerous pieces of the true cross, 
with the nail, sponge, and reed used in 
our Saviour's passion ; the knife he used 
at the last supper, with some Hebrew 
characters on the handle so nearly effaced 
thu t Moutfaucon could not decipher them ; 
some earth from the foot of the cross 
impregnated with the divine blood ; the 
humerus of Saint John Baptist; num- 
berless relics of Saint Mark; a superb 
silver cross, presented by the empress 
Irene, wife of Alexis Comnenes, to the 
church of Constantinople; and especially 
two admirable chandeliers, chefs-d'oeu- 
vre of the Byzantian goldsmiths, which 
alone would ample repay a visit to the 
treasury. All these spoils proceed from 
the taking of Constantinople ; that vast 
pillage of the wrecks of antiquity, of 
saints' bones and modern jewels — a bar- 
barous conquest, as it even tore from the 
people the objects of their faith and ve- 


Ducal palace. — Government of Venice. — Calen- 
dario's figures and capitals. — Allegorical paint- 
ings. — Kape of Europa, by Paolo Veronese. — 
Pregadi.— Tilian's St. Christopher.— Ceiling by 
Paolo Veronese. — Council of Ten. — Lions mouth. 
— Stale inquisitors. — Grand council. — Portraits of 
the doges. — Tintoretto's Glory of paradise. 

The Ducal palace, by its architecture 
and stern gloomy aspect, gives no bad 
representation of the ancient government 
of Venice : it is as the Capitol of aristo- 
cratic power ; its origin even is surrounded 
with terrors; the doge who begun it, 
Marino Faliero, lost his head, and the 
architect Filippo Calendario was hung as 
a conspirator. 1 The names, too, of some 
parts of it, are in unison with the impres- 
sion it produces : the Giants' Stairs, a 
superb structure, witnessed the coro- 
nation of the doges, and the Bridge of 
Sighs has the shape of a large sarcopha- 
gus suspended over the sea. A palace, 
a prison, and a tribunal, one might say, 
if the word centralisation were not ri- 
diculous applied under such circum- 
stances, that the ducal palace had fur- 
nished the first and most terrible example. 

1 See tte iialian Miscellanies. 

It is impossible, however, not to per- 
ceive that a singular exaggeration prevails 
in all the narratives concerning the ty- 
ranny of the old Venetian government. 
For instance, we are told by a recent 
traveller that the reservoir of fresh water 
for the use of the city was placed within 
the limits of the ducal palace, and the 
nobles had thereby obtained the means of 
making their rebel subjects perish with 
thirst. It is a fact that there are two fine 
bronze cisterns, of the sixteenth century, 
in the centre of the palace court; but 
there are others in the various squares of 
the city, and every house has one to 
itself. The accusations against the Ve- 
netian government, which was admired by 
Commines, were redoubled towards the 
close of its existence, at an epoch when, 
probably, they were least merited. It 
was long the fashion to extol its consti- 
tution, the wisdom of its laws, and the 
incorruptibility of its justice, which was 
even frequently invoked by foreigners, 
as it has since been to write on the con- 
stitution, finances, and commerce of 

Notwithstanding the heavy forbidding 
appearance of the Ducal palace, it has 
some elegant details, and in some parts 
is remarkable in an artistic point of view. 
The capitals of the Tuscan columns in 
the front, ornamented with foliage, 
figures, and symbols, original master- 
pieces, of a taste at once bold and pure, 
and so interesting for the history of art, 
are chiefly by Calendario, the Michael 
Angelo of the middle ages, equally 
eminent as a sculptor and architect, 
whose foundations of the Ducal palace on 
the unstable soil of Venice arc still a 
miracle for solidity. The Loggietta is 
one of the most frequently mentioned 
works of Alessandro Vittoria ; the prin- 
cipal door, called della Carta, and its 
statues, are excellent works of Maestro 
Bartolommeo; there are eight beautiful 
Grecian statues on the clock front ; the 
Adam and Eve, on the inner front, are 
esteemed; the small front to the left of 
the Giants' Stairs, by Guglielmo Berga- 
masco, is of superior architecture; the 
two colossal statues of Mars and Nep- 
tune on the Giants' Stairs, are by San- 
sovino, but of his latter years; and the 
Golden Staircase, magnificently embel- 
lished by Sansovino, is ornamented with 
stuccos by Vittoria. 

The by-gone glory and splendour of 




{Book VI, 

Venice are conspicuous in every part of 
the Ducal palace : immense paintings by 
Titian, Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese, and 
other able masters, recall the grand 
events of its history ; these beautiful 
paintings seem to breath a species of 
patriotism. Venice ever stands forth in 
them as the emblem of might, grandeur, 
and beauty ; she is a powerful goddess 
who breaks the chains of the bondsman, 
and receives the homage of subjugated 
cities; she is seated in heaven' amid the 
saints ; she is represented sitting between 
Justice and Peace; she is encircled by 
the Virtues, crowned by Victory, or ap- 
pears in the clouds amid a throng of 
deities : allegory there loses its ordinary 
coldness, as it serves to express a feeling 
of patriotic pride. 

I observed in one of the first rooms 
( that of the stuccos ) a portrait of Hen- 
ry III. by Tintoretto ; he has not that 
exaggerated childish air generally, and 
improperly, given him : when he was 
called to reign in Poland, Monlluc bad 
caused his portrait (o be exposed to the 
public view, that his mild and noble 
physiognomy and majeslic stature might 
win him the affection and respect of his 
new subjects. It was on the occasion of 
his passing through Venice when return- 
ing rrom Poland, that Tintoretto sketched 
his portrait ■ on board the Bucentaur, 
where he had gone with the king's at- 
tendant. The curious narrative by the 
Parisia n Claude Doron, revised by Pibrac, 
of the fetes attending this passage, relates 
that "the people, atthe sight of this king 
so young in years, calling to mind his 
noble deeds, thought him a second Alex- 
ander, and called him the wonder of 
the world." Henry III., in his youth a 
hero, may have been feeble, inconsistent, 
and ridiculous on the throne of France; 
but, like all the princes of the Vaiois 
family, he was neither deficient in intel- 
lect nor courage; he died at forty, when 
apparently recovering himself; he had 
already regained his warlike ardour, as 
may be seen in Davila, and, had he 
reached (he ordinary age of man. it is 
not unreasonable to believe he would 
have again displayed himself in reality a 

The hall of Four Doors is by Palladio: 

' Tintoretto did die portrait in crayons at first, 
pninted it in oil directly after, and obtained the 
king's permission lo Qnish it from lite. 

over its superb doors, supported by ele- 
gant columns and adorned with Eastern 
marble, are four beautiful statues by 
Giuliodal Moro, Francesco Castelli, Cam- 
pagna, and Alessandro Viltoria. The 
Faith of the doge Marino Grimani is a 
grand intellectual composition, full of 
warmth and energy, by Titian. The 
Doge Grimani kneeling before the Vir-, 
gin, St. Mark and other saints, by the 
Cav. Contarini, had, as well as its neigh- 
bour, Titian's chef-d'oeuvre, the honour 
of being taken to Paris. The Doge Ci- 
eogna receiving the Persian ambas- 
sadors; the Doge giving audience to 
some ambassadors, are by Caiietlo 
Caliari, the eldest son and cherished 
pupil of Paolo Veronese, who publicly 
declared that he wished to be surpassed 
by him; this young and talented master 
died at the age of twenty-five, a prey to 
bis love of study. The Arrival of Hen- 
ry III. at the port of Lido, a vast paint- 
ing by Vicentino, is interesting from the 
circumstance of its preserving the trium- 
phal arch erected on that occasion from 
a design by Palladio. The ceiling of this 
ball of Four Doors was also designed by 
him; the stucco ornaments, executed by 
Vittoria and other able artists., are by 
Francesco Sansovino, and the frescos 
by Tintoretto. 

The Rape of Europa, a masterpiece 
by Paolo Veronese, is in the room called 
anti-collegio : having been varnished 
and restored at Paris by a process totally 
unsuited to the works of this great pain- 
ter, which only require a slight washing, it 
has lost its transparency and lustre ; but 
its grace and expression are still left : 
Europa is in the S r enetian costume ; aud 
but for the majesty of the god, which 
transpires even through his bull's head, 
one might think that she is flying through 
the lagoons like another Bianca Capello. 
This same room also contains other chefs- 
d'oeuvre, four paintings by Tintoretto : 
Mercury and the Graces.; Vulcan's 
Forge ; Pallas expelling Mars ; and 
Ariadne crowned by Venus; by I3as- 
sano, Jacob's return to the land of Ca- 
naan; a fresco by Paolo Veronese, on 
the ceiling; and over the splendid door, 
by Scammozzi, three statues by Vittoria. 

The painting over the door of the room 
called colleyio, and the three others to 
the right are by Tintoretto. Over the 
throne is the grand painting by Paolo 
YttMMM!*^, in which, amid so many admi- 

Chap. IV.] 



rable details, the Venice in the shade is 
so beautiful . He also painted the ceiling, 
which is richly ornamented by Antonio 
da Ponlc, and the fire-place adorned with 
pilasters of vert antique and statues by 
Campagna. A Venice is by his son, 
whose genius promised so much, and the 
tapestry representing the adventures of 
Jupiter is reckoned a very precious work 
of 1540. 

The hall of the Pregadi remains as it 
was ; the senators' stalls are very well 
preserved. The respect that such an 
ancient assembly ought to inspire is sin- 
gularly diminished by the ignominy of 
its last sittings, when the powerless laws 
of Venice no longer obviated the evils 
arising from an hereditary aristocracy, 
and when, according to the prophetic 
remark of Montesquieu on this, kind of 
government, " people had sunk into a 
spirit of carelessness, indolence, and neg- 
lect, which left the state powerless and 
inert." Is it not singular that this learn- 
ed senate, which listened to and com- 
posed so many and such long harangues, 
never produced an orator, though De- 
mosthenes and Cicero, painted in ca- 
maieu by Giambattista Tiepolo, are still 
in the place of its sittings, the former 
crowned/the second speaking? The li- 
berty of modern republics does not seem 
to inspire eloquence; neither the aristo- 
cratic liberty of Venice, nor the demo- 
cratic of Florence or Siena, has produced 
any of those men, numerous in the re- 
publics of antiquity, who aroused a whole 
people by their words. It is true that 
the Venetian orators had no public forum, 
and it is that which makes men eloquent. 

The hall of the Pregadi has some re- 
markable paintings : the Election of St. 
Lorenzo Giustiniani as patriarch of 
Venice ; on the ceiling, the Mint, by 
Marco Vecellio, the nephew and pupil of 
Titian, who has best maintained the 
honour of that name; the Redeemer 
dead, the Doge Pictro Loredano before 
the Virgin, the octagon of the ceiling, 
by Tintoretto: the Doge Francesco Ve- 
nieri before Venice, the Doge Pascal 
Cicogna kneeling, the League ofCam- 
brai, by the younger Palma ; likewise the 
Doges Lorenzo and Geronimo Priuli 
adoring the Saviour, one of his best 

In the chamber near the chapel is the 
celebrated composition of the Buyers 
and sellers driven out of the Temple, by 

Bonifazio, a clever imitator of Giorgione, 
Palma, and Titian, which, for effect, 
life, and colouring, would guarantee his 
immortality. Two paintings, St. Louis, 
St. Gregory, and St. Margaret, St. 
Gregory and St. Andrew are by Tinto- 
retto. The statue of the Virgin, on the 
altar of the chapel, is a chef-d'eeuvre by 
Sansovino. On a small staircase adjoin- 
ing,, the St. Christopher of Titian, ad- 
mirable for character and expression, is 
the only fresco of that great master now 
in Venice, a solitary figure escaped from 
the ravages of time and the elements. 

The hall of the council of Ten exhibits 
no trace of its former occupants; it is to 
be made the emperor's picture gallery. 
This ceiling, painted in camaieu by Paolo 
Veronese and other Venetian artists, is 
perhaps the most magnificent in Italy. 
One of the ovals of this ceiling represents 
an old man sitting near a handsome 
woman: a charming production of Paolo 
Veronese, which seems rather oddly 
placed in the council chamber of the Ve- 
netian decemvirs. These last did not 
pass away violently and abruptly like the 
decemvirs of Rome. We can neither 
imagine the attempt of Appius at Venice 
nor the revolution which ensued in con- 
sequence : the members of the council of 
Ten blended prudence with ambition and 
severity, and while we see the women 
of Rome mixed up in the principal events 
of its history, those of Venice, except the 
courtisans, » had no influence, nor does 
there exist a single instance of their em- 
pire. Other fine paintings adorn the 
council chamber of the Ten. IhaReturn 
of the doge Sebastiano Ziani is an es- 
teemed work of fceandro Bassano. The 
Congress held at Bologna by Pope Cle- 
ment VII. and Charles V., a vast com- 
position, remarkable for the lifelike and 
profound expression of the emperor's 
countenance, is by Marco Vecellio; and 
a large Adoration of the Magi, by 
Aliense, an artist born in Greece, in the 
island of Milo, full of imagination and 
ease, which qualities he sometimes abu- 
sed, though in this instance he has shown 
more prudence and attention. 

In the hall of the Bussola, the Sur- 
render of Bergamo is by the last men- 
tioned master ; the Doge Leonardo Dona 
before the Virgin, by Marco Vecellio; 
and ihe ceiling, by Paolo Veronese, who 

* See postt chap. xxh. 



[Book VI. 

has also painted an Angel driving away 
the Vices, on the ceiling of an adjoining 
apartment, formerly the saloon of the 
chiefs of the Ten. 

The hole alone remains of the mouth 
of denunciations; it was not into the 
lion's mouth, as is commonly supposed, 
and as some drawings represent it, but 
under, that informers dropped their let- 
ters. The lion's head is gone ; and it was 
scraped in 1797, like all the other lions 
of Saint Mark. 

The hall of the tribunal of Stale In- 
quisitors, when I visited it in 1828, was 
converted into a pretty room fresh paint- 
ed in the Italian style, which forms a con- 
trast with the terrible reputation of the 
inquisitors. I have since had the extreme 
satisfaction of correcting my prejudices 
respecting them : it is sweet to find some 
oppressors the less in history. It is to be 
regretted that an enlightened and con- 
scientious historian like Daru should 
have given credit to the pretended sta- 
tutes of the State Inquisition, discovered 
by him in manuscript in the Bibliotheque 
du Roi, which are regarded as apocry- 
phal at Venice by all men of education, 
and as fabricated by an ignorant enemy 
of the republic The State Inquisitors, 
guardians of the laws, silent tribunes 
beloved by the people, who, even to the 
close of last century, celebrated their 
triumph by fetes, defended the multitude 
against the excesses of aristocratic power ; 
this tribunal was the opposition of Ve- 
nice; an opposition in conformity with 
that sort of mysterious government, and 
which, as Montesquieu had already said, 
violently brought back the state to 

The wainscoting of the ancient hall of 
the great council presents a portion of 
the collection of the doges' portraits, 
painted by Tintoretto, Leandro Bassano, 
and the younger Palma. In the. place 
where Marino Faliero should have been 
painted, is the famous inscription in a 
frame on a black ground : Hie est locus 
Marini Falethri, decapitati pro crimi- 
nibus, a deadly menace held out to power 
in its very palace. The subsequent part 
of the collection is in the Balloting cham- 
ber : a the portrait of Manini, the last 

' See on Ibis subject tue \?o: !; of Count Dom. 
Tiepolo, entitled Discorsi sutla stortu vcueta, cioe 
reltifieitziont tli utcuni equivoci riscontralti n tin 
Storm ill Vcneziu del signore Daru; Udina, 1828, 
oiiitii rcctlUcution, p. 08 et seq. 

doge, who abdicated, is not there, for the 
portraits of the doges were not executed 
till after death. Notwithstanding the 
purpose entertained of placing Manini 
there, he does not deserve it : the chief 
of a slate who suffers it to perish through 
his own weakness, if he is not so cul- 
pable, is often as fatal to his country as the 
ambitious aspirer who pants after sove- 
reignty. It is true that in the genera! 
decay of Venice, the doge's authority had 
declined with every thing else; the first 
magistrate of the republic was then only 
a mere shadow, an obedient puppet 
charged to appear in public and hold 
levees in pompous robes, and I believe 
his principal function was the espousing 
of the Adriatic. 

The doge Manini may, however, excite 
our compassion ; he fainted away at the 
moment of taking the oath of allegiance 
to Austria, after the peace of Campo 
Formio; if he wanted strength of mind, 
he was at least sensible to the loss of 
his country's ancient liberty, and he 
became great in his grief. 

The vast paintings which cover the 
walls and ceiling of the great council 
chamber, independently of their beauty, 
have also an historical interest, as a 
great number represent the religious, 
military, or political events which then 
had the most influence on the destinies 
of European nations. The immense 
painting of (he Glory of Paradise, a 
work of Tintoretto's old age, so greatly 
admired and extolled by the Carracci, 
though it seems all confusion, would be 
still a chef-d'eeuvre, if it had not suffered 
so much from time and its restorers. 
This great artist also painted the Ambas- 
sadors presented to the emperor at Pa- 
via; and on the ceiling, the Prince of 
Este routed by Vittorio Loranzo ; the 
Victory of Stefano Contarini on lake 
Garda; the Venice among the deities; 
the Doge da Ponte receiving the depu- 
tations from the toivns; ihnVictory of 
J. Marcello over the Aragonese ; the 
Defence of Brescia, by Francesco Bar- 
bato. His son and best pupil Domenico, 
who would be more known were it not 
for his father's glory, painted the Naval 
Combat in which Otho, the emperor's 

» There ore sevtiity-s.ii portraits in tbeGrstrooui, 
tbirty-eigut in tbe second. 

Chap. V.] 



son, was taken prisoner by the Venetians, 
a vast composition, curious for the form 
of the arms and the nava! manoeuvres; 
and the Second conquest of Constanti- 
nople. The Pope giving Otho permis- 
sion to return to the emperor his father ; 
the First conquest of Constantinople by 
Dandolo ; the Venice seated, on the 
ceiling, so remarkable for the undraped 
pails of the slaves; the fine Naval vic- 
tory won on the Po by Francesco 
Bembo, are by the younger Palma. The 
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa before 
Alexander III., by Federico Zuccari, is 
a celebrated work of this chief of a de- 
clining school, which he did in 1582, 
and retouched in 1663. The Return of 
the doge Andrea Conlarini after the 
victory gained, over the Genoese ; on 
the ceiling, the Apotheosis of Venice, 
are admirable paintings by PaoJo Vero- 
nese, as well as the Defence of Scutari 
and the Taking of Smyrna. 

In the Balloting chamber is a triumphal 
arch dedicated to Francesco Morosini, the 
Peloponesian, which is embellished with 
six allegorical paintings, a magnificent 
work of Lazzarini, the best painter of 
Venice in the seventeenth century. The 
Universal Judgment is one of the mas- 
terpieces of the younger Palma. The 
Battle of Zara; the greater part of the 
doges' portraits, are by Tintoretto. The 
Victory of the Dardanelles, by Pietro 
Liberi, is remarkable for the naked slave, 
which shows the painter's skilful drawing 
and which has procured this battle pic- 
ture the name of the Slave of Liberi. 

The Gallery leading to the Giants' 
Stairs contains one. of those fine dead 
Christs, by Giovanni Bellini. 


Saint Hulk's library.— Petrarch's donation.— Bcssa- 
ricn's letter and donation.— Manuscripts.— Book of 
the Gospels. — Attavanlc's miniatures. — Amadio's 
Plants.— Manuscript of Fra Paolo's History of the 
council of Trent;— of Guarini's Pastor fulo.— Fva 
Mauro's map of the world.- Librarians of Saint 
Mark. — Museum. 

The hall of the Great Council has re- 
ceived Saint Mark's Library: these books 
are, I believe, the most magnificently 
lodged of any in the world; but the 
grandeur and beauty of the paintings 
which surround them, and the antique 
statues placed in the middle of their 
apartment, throw them into the shade, 

and they have only the appearance of 
accessories. The library of Saint Mark 
counts sixty-five thousand volumes, and 
about five thousand manuscripts. Pe- 
trarch really laid its first foundations, 
as he expresses himself in a letter respect- 
ing the donation of manuscripts that he 
sent to Venice; it was a noble acknow- 
ledgment for the hospitality he had found 
there during the plague." Only a very 
small number of the manuscripts pro- 
ceeding from Petrarch's stock are now 
in Saint Mark's ; it is said that they re- 
mained forgotten in a small room near 
the bronze horses, where they were 
spoiled. But the learned librarian of 
Saint Mark, Morelli, has demonstrated 
that the Venetians did not deserve Gin- 
guen^'s reproach of having suffered Pe- 
trarch's library to perish; he had only 
given some few works; at his death, 
twelve years after the donation, Petrarch 
did in reality leave a very precious li- 
brary, but it was dispersed, as is evident 
from the manuscripts preserved in the 
Vatican, the Laurentian, the Ambrosian, 
the Bibliotheque du Roi, and not one 
ever reached Venice. The man whose 
literary liberality still lives and shines at 
Saint Mark's among so many noble do- 
nors, such as the Grimani and Conla- 
rini, is Bessarion. Although inserted in 
some erudite collections, the letter in 
which he announces to the doge and the 
senate the present of his manuscripts to 
Saint Mark's, may not be devoid of in- 
terest here; it portrays at once this illus- 
trious man and the epoch of the revival, 
when books, on appearing, were hailed 
with such a lively enthusiasm ; it also 
contains a very fine panegyric of the 
Venetian government, without the con- 
cetti of Petrarch's letter, written on a 
like occasion; in which he said that if 
Venice were environed with waves salsis, 
it was defended by counsels salsioribus. 

"To the most illustrious and invincible 
prince Cristoforo Mauro, doge of Ve- 
nice, and the most august senate, Res- 
sarion, cardinal and patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, sends greeting: 

" From my earliest youth I have applied 
all my attention, efforts, and zeal, to the 
collecting of books on the different scien- 
ces. In my boyhood I transcribed many 
with my own hand, and the little money, 
that a thrifty frugal life afforded me, 



[Book Vlj 

1 devoted to the purchase of others. It 
seemed to me that there did not exist in 
the world an article more useful, a trea- 
sure more precious : books, indeed, con- 
tain and present us with the words of 
the sages, the examples of antiquity, its 
manners, laws, and religions; they live, 
converse, and speak with us; they give 
us instruction and consolation, and jay 
before our eyes the remotest objects as 
if actually present. Such is their power, 
their dignity, their majesty, their divi- 
nity even, that if they did not exist we 
should all be ignorant barbarians; there 
would remain no trace or memory of the 
past ; we should have no acquaintance 
with things human or divine, and men's 
names would be buried with their bodies 
in the tomb. Although 1 have ever been 
occupied in searching for Greek books, 
my zeal and ardour redoubled after the 
ruin of Greece and the ever-to-be-lamenl- 
cd taking of Constantinople, and I de- 
voted all my powers to collect them ; 
I feared, I trembled that so many excel- 
lent works, so much of the labour and 
midnight toils of great men, so many 
lights of the world, might be exposed to 

imminent destruction 

To the utmost of my abilities, I have, 
in all cases, preferred merit to quantity, 
being satisfied with a single copy of each ; 
I have therefore obtained nearly all the 
books of the learned Greeks, especially 
those which were scarce and difficult to 
find. I nevertheless regarded all my 
exertions as insufficient, unless I pro- 
vided that the books collected with so 
much difficulty were so disposed of in 
my lifetime, that at my death they could 
neither be sold nor dispersed, but that 
they might be established in a secure and 
convenient place, for the use of learned 
Greeks or Latins. Of all the Italian 
towns, your illustrious city appeared 
to me most suitable for the purpose. 
What country could offer a safer asylum 
than yours, ruled in equity, obedient to 
the laws, and governed by integrity and 
wisdom; where virtue, moderation, gra- 
vity, justice, and loyalty, have fixed their 
abode ; where power, although very great 
and extensive, is also equitable and mild ; 

1 Amyot translated live books of ilio history or 
Diodorus Siculus from a manuscript in Saint Mark; 
a manuscript Iliad of the tenth century served 
DAnse de Villoison to give his celebrated folio 
edition, Venice, 1788; the manuscripts of Proclus 
supplied M, cousin with various readings for his 

where liberty is exempt from crime and 
licence ; where sages govern, and the 
good command the wicked; where in- 
dividual interests are unanimously and 
unreservedly sacrificed to the public 
welfare ; merits which give ground to 
hope (as I really do) that your state may 
increase from day to day in strength and 
renown? I also felt that I could not, 
chose a place more convenient or agree- 
able for my countrymen than Venice, 
whither flock nearly all the nations of 
the world, and particularly the Greeks, 
who resort thither from their provinces 
and land there, and for whom it is like 
another Byzantium. Could I, indeed, 
chose more appropriate objects for such 
a gift than those to whom 1 am attached 
by numerous benefits received? what city 
could I prefer to that which I chose as 
my home after Greece had lost its liberty, 
and in which I have been so honourably 
received? Knowing that 1 am mortal, 
feeling the advances of age, and afflicted 
with numerous diseases, to prevent all 
possibility of accident, I intend giving 
all my Greek and Latin books to the ve- 
nerable library of Saint Mark, of your 

illustrious city, that you, 

your children, and descendants may sec 
how deeply I was penetrated with your 
virtue, wisdom, and kindness, that you 
may derive abundant and perpetual ad- 
vantages from my books, and impart the 
enjoyment of them to those who delight 
in good studies. I therefore address to 
you the deed of gift, the catalogue of the 
books, and the bull of the sovereign 
pontiff, praying God to grant your repub- 
lic all possible prosperity, and that it may 
be blessed with peace, tranquillity, re- 
pose, and perpetual concord. From the 
baths of Viterbo, the last day of April 

Bessarion's present has not been fruit- 
less ; for more than three centuries 
the learned of all Europe have gone to 
consult his manuscripts : the French 
literati have not neglected them, from 
Amyot to Villoison and M. Cousin.' The 
laboursof the Aldi.the firstprintcrsofthe 
(heck, and multiplicity of their editions, 
have extended Bessarion's boon. Thus 

edition. So persevering and judicious have his 
researches been, that he brought to light several 
Greet manuscripts that even Morelli failed to dis- 
cover, and it is desirable that the list of them should 
be published us a supplement to the catalogue of 
the latter. Henri Etienne, who had been honour- 

Chap. V/| 



has this great man contributed to the 
typographical glory of Venice, and the 
advantages she must have derived from 
that extensive, trade. How deeply it is 
to be regretted, that the formality of de- 
positing a copy of each work, very legi- 
timate in such cases, was not then pre- 
scribed! Had it been so, Saint Mark 
would now possess an unique Aldine 
collection complete, which would be pre- 
cisely where it ought. 1 The library of 
Saint Mark possesses many unpublished 
manuscripts of Bessarion, and his master 
Gemistus Plethon, the father of Plalonism 
in Europe, a whimsical character, whose 
Greek, in the opinion of the learned, is 
dry, abrupt, and vulgar; nor did he 
speak so elegantly as in lh% Lascaris of 
M Villemain. Gemistus Plethon, as 
well as his pupil, repaired to Italy for 
the council of Florence, the real epoch 
of the literary and philosophic emigra- 
tion of the Greeks into Italy, and not, as 
generally supposed, the taking of Con- 
stantinople, which only sent thither gram- 
marians and rhetoricians. The two 
beautiful Arabic manuscripts on silk 
paper presented by Bessarion, of which 
the Venetians were so proud, have not 
rc-appeared at Saint Mark's, nor the 
precious Bible called La Magontina, 
now recognized as of 1456, and which is 
believed to have issued from the presses 
of Guttenberg. 

The book of the Gospels, which is 
nearly a thousand years old accord- 
ing to Morelli, is one of those books 

ably received at Venice, gave his Diogenes Laertes 
of J570 and his Xenophon of 1581, with corrections 
made from the manuscripts of Bessarion. 

1 The younger Aldus, who died at Rome, had 
intended to bequeath to the republic of Venice his 
extensive classical library, which he had inherited 
from his forefathers : but it was, as well as his 
other property, seized by the public authority ( la 
censura apostolica) and his many creditors. The 
library was divided between the latter and his ne- 
phews, after having been previously examined and 
despoiled of a number of articles by order of the 
pope, who doubtless did not bear away the least 
valuable. See M. Renouard's Annates de Vlmpri- 
meriedes Aide, t.iii. p. 20S, and Morelli, Delia pub- 
blica Libreria di San Marco, p. 5S-*. The deposit 
of a copy of all works printed in the Venetian stale 
was not commanded by a decree of the senate till 
1603. The most considerable library of Aldine edi- 
tions ever collected, was that of M. Renouard, sold 
retail in London, in 1828. 

which would suffice for the glory of 
any library less rich in ancient manu^ 

The celebrated manuscript of the 
Lombard laws, called the laws of 
Previsa, is one of the most precious 

A curious manuscript was discovered 
in 1826 by a learned Prussian professor, 
Charles Witte, and published by him in 
the Anthology of Florence ; 2 it is the 
canzone of Dante on the death of the 
emperor Henry VII., and other unpub- 
lished pieces, which reveal new and 
touching details, relative to the sorrows 
of the poet's exile, his tender love for his 
country in Ihe midst of its civil discords, 
the illusion of his hopes, and that pas- 
sionate appeal, that kind of idolatry for 
the foreigner, 3 so extraordinary in a 
man possessing a genius so elevated 
and proud, but which showed him in 
the phantom of the Roman empire, and 
that of Charlemagne, a means of in- 
dependency and of grandeur for Italy, 
far preferable to the republican and 
persecuting anarchy of which he was 
the victim. Perhaps also the chivalrous 
and feudal manners of the German 
warriors of the middle ages were less 
repugnant to the generous minds of 
that epoch, than the practices of Roman 
policy, and the vices and simony of cer- 
tain popes. 

A manuscript of the book of Ihe an- 
cient African author, Marcian Capella, 
whimsically entitled : On ihe marriage 

2 See No. LXIX. We are also indebted to M. Witte 
for the publication of the interesting collection of 
the letters of Dante with notes, printed at Breslau. 
and which appeared in 1827, under the rubric of 
Padua, in Svo, 107 pag. 

3 In one of the unpublished sonnets of the ma- 
nuscript of Saint Mark, Dante goes so far as to com- 
pare the emperor to the Holy Sepulchre : 

Tomato e '1 sol, che la mia mente alberga, 
E lo specchio degli occhi onde era ascoso, 
Tornato e '1 sacro tempio e prezioso 
Sepolcro, che'l mio core e V alma terga. 

In the canzone he makes this fine eulogium oa 
Henry VII : 

Nol vinse mai superbia ue avarizia, 
Anzi 1' avversita '1 facea possente, 
Che magnanimamente 
Ben contrastasse a chiunqne il percosse. 



[Book VI. 

of Philology and Mercury, presents 
lively, brilliant, and poetic miniatures 
by Attavante, a Florentine artist of the 
fifteenth century, representing the as- 
sembly of the gods, and the different 
attributes of the arts and sciences. 

The manuscript of the fifteenth cen- 
tury of the work de Simplicibus by 
Doctor Benedetto Rini or Rinio, of Pa- 
dua, is singularly remarkable. The four 
hundred and thirty-two plants drawn 
by Andrea Amadio, a Venetian painter, 
have all the striking beauty and grace 
of the flowers of Redoute. A collec- 
tion of this kind, so well executed, 
shows the taste at that time, and also 
the progress of botany and natural 
sciences in Italy, further confirmed by 
the important works which were print- 
ed there, such as the primitive editions 
of Pliny and Aristotle published in the 
same century at Venice, and the cu- 
rious Herbarius Patavie, printed at 
Mayence in 1484. 

The council of Chalcedon, a folio 
manuscript of the fourteenth century, a 
gift of Bessarion, is doubtless very vene- 
rable ; but 1 confess that I was more 
curious about the History of the Council 
of Trent, a manuscript corrected by the 
hand of its celebrated author. The copy 
is by his pupil and secretary Fra Ful- 
genzio Micanzio, who succeeded him as 
consulting theologian of the Republic. 
The corrections which are very nume- 
rous, are interlineary and marginal. 
This manuscript is in perfect conformity 
with the first edition published in London 
in 1619, by Marcantonio de Dominis, 
with the exception of the title, and the 
preface added by this Dalmatian apostate 
the unworthy countryman of St. Jerome; 
the true title is : Isloria del Concilio di 
Trento di Pietro Soave Polano, an 
anagram of Paolo Sarpi Vencto. Pere 
Le Courayer, the French translator of 
the History of the Council of Trent, 
presents one of those extraordinary re- 
semblances of character, talents, and 
destiny with its author, which are so 
rarely met with; i both were worthy 
monks, good writers, and bold thinkers, 
and were persecuted for their opinions. 
The portrait of Fra Paolo, believed to be 
by Leandro Bassano, is in the library; 

1 See Book IV., ch. U. 

his look is full of expression and viva- 
city, and one may there observe the 
turbulent genius of this theologian of 
the republic, of this Bossuet of the li- 
berties of the Venetian church, but 
who has not the calm and solemn judg- 
ment of the theologian of Louis XIV., 
or of the orator of the assembly of the 
clergy in 1682. 

Twelve letters by Tasso (published at 
Venice in 1833 by S. Gamba), addressed 
to. his friend Luca Scalubrino, are in- 
teresting, inasmuch as he speaks in 
some of them, of the composition of his 

The autograph manuscript of the 
Pastor Fido of St. Mark's is anterior to 
that of the library of Ferrara, which 
appears almost a fair copy. 2 The ma- 
nuscript of Saint Mark is much corrected, 
and full of additions, and passages sup- 
pressed ; one may thus judge of the ex- 
cessive labour which this poem must have 
cost its author. 

The manuscript of the two treatises on 
goldsmith's work and sculpture, by Ben- 
venuto Cellini, is most curious; it ap- 
pears to have been the author's rough 
sketch, from which the printed text 
was compiled. Several fragments have 
been published by Morelli, and by Ci- 
cognara and Camba. A new and com- 
plete edition of these treatises would 
probably be interesting for the history 
of the art. 

Amongst the printed works, we ad- 
mire the superb copy on vellum of the 
Florence Homer (1488), retaken in 1815 
from our Royal Library and magnifi- 
cently bound with the arms of the Em- 
pire ; the line copy in vellum, of the 
Rhetoric of Guillaume Fichet a Sa- 
voyard, who became doctor of the Sor- 
bonne, and rector of the university of 
Paris. This rare and choice edition, one 
of the first books printed at Paris, 
and, though without date, of the year 
1471, is due to the three German part- 
ners, Ulric Gering, Martin Crantz. and 
Michael Friburger, who first practised 
the art of printing there. The copy in 
vellum of the library of Venice was sent by 
the author to Cardinal Bessarion, who is 
there depicted sitting under a canopy, with 
Fichet before him presenting the work. 

- See post, book VII., ch. xli. 

Chap. VI. 



The different books and manuscripts 
given or bequeathed to St. Mark, as has 
been already seen by the letter of Bes- 
sarion, show the' esteem and reputation 
in which the Venetian government was 
then held. Venice was worthy of such 
gifts from the facility with which its lite- 
rary treasures were constantly accessi- 
ble; the mystery of- its policy and ar- 
chives did not extend to these learned 

The celebrated map of the worid by 
Fra Mauro, a Camaldolite monk of 
St. Michael in Murano, formerly in this 
convent, drawn in 1460, and described 
and explained in our days by Cardinal 
Zurla, another learned Camaldolite of 
the same convent, is a most curious mo- 
nument of cosmography. It is there 
seen that this cloistered d'Anville of the 
fifteenth century was acquainted with 
all that the ancient and modern authors 
had written before him on geography ; 
the Cape of Good Hope is there pointed 
out, although it was not then discovered, 
and Africa "itself in its general form, dif- 
fers but little from the reality. 1 

The first historical names of Venice 
figure amongst the librarians of Saint 
Mark; several have attained the dignity 
of Doge ; the library appears the road to 
dhe palace ; a novel and imposing example 
of the union of letters with the knowledge 
of affairs, even under an aristocratic go- 

The museum of antiquities annexed to 
the library of Saint Mark possesses some 
precious morceaux, works of the best 
times of Greece ; the fair and lascivious 
Leda; the little group of the Carrying 
off of Ganymede, the eagle of which is so 
spirited; two Muses; the group of a 
Faun and Bacchus ; the statues of Ulys- 
ses, Love, Plenty, Diana, and the Dead 
Soldier. A young female, in whose hand 
the restorer has placed a ridiculous 
pitcher, to convert her into an Hebe, is, 
in the antique part, of admirable pro- 
portions. There is also to be noticed 
the basso-relievo, called Niobiade ; two 
others representing little children ; a 

1 The author of the article Fra Mauro in Ibe Bio- 
grapliie has even remarked that in the interior 
of Africa, as represented in this map of the world, 
Is the name of Dafur (Darfour), a country since 
unknown to De-lisle, d'Anville, and all the other 
geographers of Europe, until Bruce, who was the 
first that heard of this country, discovered and ex- 
plored by Browne. It is to be regretted howeverthat 

very fine colossal foot, the almost colossal 
heads of a male and female faun of ex- 
quisite workmanship, and above all the 
superb cameo of Jupiter Egiochus (co- 
vered with the aegis), found atEphesus in 
1793, and brought back from Paris to 
Venice in 1815. Amongst the medals, 
there is a very fine one representing 
Cardinal Domenico Grimani ; on the re- 
verse are Philosophy and Theology ; it is 
of 1493, and by the Venetian Vitlorio 
Camelio, an adroit counterfeiter of an- 
tique medals,— an illustrious forger, 
whose clever imitations have tormented 
and mystified more than one antiquary. 


Piombi.— Pozzi.— Different ages of the prisons. 

The loss of liberty is the oldest and 
worst of misfortunes; and the histories of 
prisoners are most replete with touching 
interest. The Venetian Casanova, the 
prisoner of the Piombi, is one of the first 
heroes of these tales ; he who refused to 
read the Consolation of Boetius during 
his captivity, because it pointed out no 
means of evasion. I saw the window by 
which he escaped with such adventurous 
boldness ; the chamber was then occupied 
by the graceful pigeons of Saint Mark of 
which mention has been made. The 
prisons of Venice, the subject of so much 
declamation, towards the end of the re- 
public, had become antiquated like every 
thing else. Just as in France, where the 
Bastile was scarcely stronger than the 
monarchy. The Piombi, of much later 
date than the Pozzi, which had been long 
tenantless when the republic fell, were 
only the upper parts of the ducal palace 
just under the leads, and the prisoners 
passed the periods of their imprisonment 
there without injury to their health, even 
after a detention of ten years, there 
being a current of air sufficient to coun- 
teract any excess of heat. Howard, who 
must be allowed a competent judge, ac- 
knowledged the salubrity of the Venetian 
prisons. No prisoner there was ever load 

the map of Fra Mauro has been engraved so very 
inaccurately in the description by Cardinal Zurla. 
(See a curious letter relative to the chief deviations 
it presents, written from Warsaw, June C, tSSU, to 
M. de llammer, by Count Joseph Sierakowsky, who 
had collated it with the original, but who was 
wrong in believing that the latter had been taken 
to Vienna. 


[ Book VI. 

with irons, a privilege perhaps unique 
in the history of prisoners : if many were 
confined there for life, it was owing to 
the punishment of death being more ra- 
rely inflicted in Venice than elsewhere. 1 
These terrible Piombi are new delightful 
and much sought afler apartments (in 
Italy apartments in the upper stories are 
generally preferred), and a president of 
the court of appeal in Venice, Count 
Hcsenberg, an impartial man, who has 
occupied them, has stated in a journal 
that he wished many of his readers might 
not be worse lodged. 

The Pozzi formerly consisted of several 
stories, two of which are still in existence. 
I have gone through these ancient dun- 
geons (eight are on a level with the court 
of the Ducal palace, and nine on the story 
above), the majority are still boarded 
round with planks which had been put 
up in order to prevent humidity, and the 
ancient bedstead, similar to those used 
by theTrappists, is in the middle of some 
of them.' The vulgar opinion that these 
cells are under the canal is erroneous, 
though asserted as fact by Nicolini in 
his tragedy of Foscarini, when speak- 
ing of this prison; nor have boats ever 
passed over the heads of the guilty par- 
tics confined in them. It is very pro- 
bable that the Pozzi of Venice were not 
more horrible than the other dungeons of 
the period ; every age and regime have 
their peculiar prisons, in accordance with 
the various degrees of civilisation ; but 
the impenetrable prisons ofdespotism are 
always cruel ; the forts of the Empire 
were not inferior to the ancient donjons ; 
at an era of reason, liberty, and industry, 
prisons are changed into a sort of work- 
shops; subject to continual inspection and 
superintendence, they are merely the 
instrument of the impassive magistrate 
who enforces the law. 


1 lie Royal ralace.— The Great nail.— Exposition of 
tlie products or Venetian industry. — Zecca. 

The celebrated Procuratie Nuove, the 

most important work of Scamozzi, are 

now the Royal Palace; and, certainly, 

here is hardly any building more noble, 

irnple, or varied. The ancient library 

1 On the arrival of the French in (797, Ihe regis- 
ter of condemnations for state crimes haying been 

forms part of it. This masterpiece of 
Sansovino, this ediGce which, according 
to Palladio, was (he richest and most 
ornamented that had been cu-nstrucled 
since the ancients, which Aretino 
found above envy (this was, certainly, 
plating it very high), was erected by de- 
cree of the senate, in front of the Ducal 
palace, for the reception of books ; so* 
great and so splendid was the hospitality 
Venice ever accorded them. 

The condition of artists was rude in the 
sixteenth century ; they appear to have 
been subjected to a rigid responsibility, as 
is seen by numberless examples. Scarce- 
ly had Sansovino achieved his marvel- 
lous work, when, the arched roof falling 
in, he was cast into a dungeon, deprived 
of his employment as architect of the re- 
public, and condemned to a fine of one 
thousand ducats. He was delivered, re- 
instated, and reimbursed by the exer- 
tions ot Titian, and especially of Aretino; 
a trait which proves that the latter, in 
spite of his vices, was not incapable of 
aiding in a generous action, and of fulfil- 
ling the duties of friendship ; the mean- 
est minds have sometimes, in the events 
of life, a sort of readiness to oblige from 
which other virtues of a purer kind think 
themselves dispensed. 

The two superb and colossal Cariatides 
at the entrance are by Villoria, who also 
executed the stucco ornaments of the 
magnificent staircase. The first hall, de- 
corated by Scamozzi, presents a ceiling 
by Crislol'oro and Slefano Rosa, two 
skilful artists in this department : in the 
centre, a figure of Wisdom, crowned 
with laurel, although of the extreme old 
age of Titian, is full of grace and life. 

The great hall has two remarkable 
paintings by Tintoretto : the first is the 
Carrying away of tlie body of St. Mark 
from the Sepulchres of Alexandria, by 
two Venetian dealers who concealed it 
beneath slices of fresh pork, in the hope 
that, at this abhorred sight, the .Mussul- 
man custom-house officers might let it 
pass without searching. The second re- 
presents St. Mark saving a Saracen 
from shipwreck ; a beautiful painting, 
which displays the charity and noble 
spirit of the saint. The magnificent ceil- 
ing has seven compartments, each enclos- 
ing three ovals : it was painted in corn- 

opened, their number amounted to fourteen since 
the beginning of the century. 

Chap. VIII.] 



petition by the first masters of the six- 
teenth century, and Paolo Veronese bore 
oft' the prize "for his figures of Honour 
deified, Music, Geometry, and Arith- 
metic. The portraits of sages, placed 
between the windows and the angles of 
Hie ball, are by Schiavone and Tinto- 

The exhibition of the products of Ve- 
netian industry, for 1827, was held in 
this superb hall. There was nothing 
there of much importance, and this in- 
dustry, once so famous, appeared ordi- 
nary enough. Straw hats, in imitation of 
the Florence fabric, were the most re- 
markable article. This importation is 
said to be very useful and successful; 
these hats are as fine as those of Florence 
and cheaper, but somewhat whiter and 
more flimsy. They are manufactured by 
a house of Bassano. I remarked several 
bottles of a wine of very fine colour, but 
which appeared oddly placed amongst 
manufactured goods. During the four 
exhibitions which took place from 1823 
to 1831, M. Berlan had obtained nine 
gold and silver medals, for his different 
mechanical instruments. In 1831, the 
silk from the fine agricultural establish- 
ment of M. Maupoil, at Dolo, between 
Padua and Venice, appeared of a superior 
quality ; the worms there are fed on the 
mulberry-tree of the Philippine Islands, 
cultivated with success by the skilful di- 
rector. Independently of the ancient 
and celebrated manufactures of glass, 
crystal, and pearls, Venetian industry 
has its spinning mills, sugar refineries, 
tan-pits, and manufactories of wax, 
drugs, silks, and gold-leaf. These es- 
tablishments, including that for straw- 
hats at Bassano, occupy nine thousand 
work-people, and yield an annual profit 
of about six hundred thousand pounds 

The third part of the Royal Palace 
also offers some admirable paintings : in 
the octagon room, the Adoration of the 
Magi, St. Joachim driven out of the 
Temple, by Tintoretto ; in the chapel, 
the Eternal Father, xvith the Saviour 
on his knees, by Carlelto Caliari; the 
celebrated Ecce homo, by Albert Durer; 
the Dead Christ, and two friends 
weeping, by Paris Bordone. In three 
rooms of the governor's apartments, Ve- 
nice surrounded by Hercules, Ceres, 

1 See post, chap, sxiii. 

and some genii, is one of the first mas- 
terpieces of Paolo Veronese, who, also, 
did the Adam and Eve repentant, the 
Institution of the Rosary, and the 
Christ's agony in the Garden. The 
Christ's Descent into Purgatory, is by 
Giorgione, and the Passage of the Red 
Sea, in the earlier style of Titian. 

The Zecca (Mint), near the ancient 
library, is another chef-d'oeuvre of San- 
sovino. Such is its skilful distribution, 
that, after nearly three centuries, it is 
still applicable to the purposes of the pre- 
sent coinage. 

Over the cistern in the court is an 
Apollo, which enjoys a sort of popu- 
larity in Venice, although the sculptor, 
Danese Cattaneo, pupil of Sansovino, 
and a distinguished poet, is not much 
known. This Apollo is fantastically 
enough seated upon a globe placed 
above a little mountain of gold, and 
holds in his hand an ingot also of gold. 
But for the rays emanating from his 
head, the god of music and of song, who 
in other respects has not a very noble 
air, might be taken for the god of riches 
only. He ought to be accompanied by 
statues of the Moon and of Venus, the 
forme-r silver, the latter copper, so as to 
indicate the three kinds of money. The 
celebrity of the first Venetian ducats or 
sequins, so esteemed for the puruy of the 
gold, and which are still at this day the 
money preferred in the East, is as an- 
cient as the year 1284 : many of the 
pieces pretending to a greater antiquity 
are apocryphal ; the genuine, which de- 
termine the commencement of a well 
authenticated series, bear the religious 
legend Christus imperat. 


Grand canal.— Saint Martha.— Venetians.— Palace.— 
Venetian nobility. 

The grand canal, bordered by magni- 
ficent marble palaces, erected in the 
course of ten centuries by the best ar- 
chitects, would be, if paved, the finest 
street in the world. These palaces of 
different ages exemplify the progress of 
Italian art, and form a vast, majestic, 
and instructive gallery of architecture. 
By a whimsical refinement of luxury and 
grandeur, the mud-buried pilework of 
some is composed of the precious wood 
of Fernambuca : so that the foundations 


were neither less splendid nor less costly 
than the marble and columns of the 
6umptuous superstructure. 

The morrow of my first arrival at Ve- 
nice, in July, was the festival of Saint 
Martha, a popular holy day. Some il- 
luminated barks, full of musicians, passed 
along the grand canal during the night ; 
and although few in number, they pro- 
duced an effect truly enchanting, and 
gave an idea of the long-past pleasures 
of this fallen city. The feast of Saint 
Martha, which lasted till daylight, was 
celebrated at one extremity of the city, 
in a quarter bearing her name. Tables 
were set out, and jovial parties quaffed 
their wine in the boats and on shore; it 
was like a marine Vaugirard or Cour- 
tille. Notwithstanding the lively joyous- 
ness of that multitude, there was neither 
strife nor disorder. So generally well 
disposed are the people of Venice, that 
even in the time when Saint Martha was 
in all its glory, the Venetian government 
never made a display of police force 
there, and the safety of each individual 
was under the safeguard of the universal 
pleasure. All that is good in the Italian 
character is complete at Venice; gay, 
fickle, agitated, thoughtless, it appears 
yet more amiable from the grace, soft- 
ness, and originality of the dialect. 

The stillness of Venice has, I think, 
been singularly exaggerated; after Rome, 
there is no part of Italy where the sound 
of the bells is more astounding, and the 
cries of the people are exceeded by none 
but the Neapolitans. Madame de Stae'l, 
who has made so many ingenious and 
profound observations, pretends that not 
even a (ly is to be seen in this place ; 
the conopeum ' placed over the beds but 
too well proves the contrary. 

There is a soft and melancholy plea- 
sure in gliding along the grand canal, in 
wandering amid those superb palaces, 
those ancient aristocralicdwellings,Avhich 
bear such fine names, and are the me- 
morials of so much power and glory, but 
are now desolate, shattered, or in ruins. 
These Moorish windows, these balconies 
whence, the fair Venetian, shut up like 
the Eastern dame, but volatile as the Eu- 
ropean, appeared to her lover, as he re- 
luctantly retreated in his gondola, are 

' A gauze curtain to keep off the flies and gnats, 
In tlie Venetian language zenzat/cra. 
» The French in 1810 formed u public garden, 

VENICE. [ Book Vt 

now dilapidated, without glass, or rudely 
boarded ; some few of them which are in 
good condition only bear the inscription 
of certain administrative or financial au- 
thorities of Austria, or the national arms 
of some indolent consul. In the midst of 
this destruction, the gardens, (a singular 
circumstance!) supply the place of build- 
ings at Venice; it is just the reverse of* 
Paris, and I recollect that when seeking 
for the house of Titian, I only found in 
its place the wall of a garden, in a Utile 
blind alley ostentatiously called the Strait 
of Gallipoli. 9 

The desertion of the Venetian palaces 
began in the last century with the fall of 
the republic, when the degenerate pa- 
tricians preferred lodging in a casino 
near the Piazza of St. Mark, to inhabiting 
the ancient palaces of their fathers, too 
great for their littleness. Gambling, 
celibacy, and the species of social sel- 
fishness which they produce, had ener- 
vated the manners of the Venetian 
nobility. What public morals could be 
expected from the senator, who, clothed 
with his toga and the pompous insignia 
of his dignity, had acted in person as the 
croupier at the pharao table ; or from 
those patricians, one of whose privileges 
was to open gaming-houses, and who 
attended there in their magisterial robes? 
We are told that they unanimously re- 
nounced this lucrative privilege, when 
gaming was abolished, some time before 
the fall of the republic ; but it is probable 
that the mischief was done, and it was 
too late for them to return to the exercise 
of more serious and elevated sentiments. 
The gaming of the Venetians, pretend the 
defenders of its ancient regime, aided the 
dcvelopement of moral courage; they 
were renowned for the almost stoic im- 
passibility with which they lost or won 
the most enormous sums. That kind 
of daring which risks a fortune on a 
card may show firmness or energy in 
individuals, but it must be the ruin of 
society, and the habit of relying on chance 
is particularly injurious in a political 
point of view. As to celibacy, which 
was repressed and punished a'mong the 
Romans, it was then at Venice as one 
of the privileges of the elder branch, of 
the talented or ambitious member of each 

which still exists; but it is neglected, and little fre- 
quented, the Venetians preferring their ancient and 
central promenade of the piazza of Saint Mark. 

Chap. IX.] 



family, and marriage became one of the 
charges of a younger brother or of the 
least promising. It is just the reverse of 
the plan pursued by great families in 
monarchical states. But these different 
kinds of celibacy, -which were neither the 
holy celibacy of religion, nor the philo- 
sophic celibacy of study, nearly approxi- 
mated that which springs from liber- 

The Venetian patriciate may be re- 
garded as the most ancient and the most 
national in Europe, since it originated 
with the founders of the republic, and 
preceded by many centuries the ancestors 
of the oldest aristocracies. « But these 
haughty patricians, who allowed every 
body to assume what title he chose, did 
not in general take any themselves, and 
I know not what French author once 
upon a time composed a dissertation, to 
prove that in fact they were not gentle- 
men. > In the choir of the church of the 
Charterhouse at Florence is to be seen 
the tomb of a patrician of Venice, the 
inscription of which expresses the noble 
regret athaving been compelled to change 
his title for one conferred by the grand 
duke of Tuscany. 


Ttevlsan palace.— Foscari.— Mocenigo.— Lord By- 
ron. — Pisuni palace.— Of poelic truth. — raolo Vero- 
nese. — Barbarigo palace. — Death of Titian. — Gri- 
mani palace (at Saint Lake).— Bridge of the Itialto. 
— Micheli, Corner, Pesaro, Vendramini, and Man- 
fiini palaces. 

The Trevisan palace, covered with 
Grecian and Egyptian marble, although 
it has no object of curiosity in the in- 
terior, merits notice ; its elegant archi- 
tecture of the school of the Lombardi, 
marks the epoch of the revival of taste. 

The Bario palace is in the same style 
and possesses the same, kind of interest. 
On it may be read these words : Genio 

1 The Conlarini, according to some authors, de- 
rive their name irotn the word contadini, peasants, 
or villains. 

3 See the justificative documents of the Uisloire 
de Venise by M. Daru. 

i These letters, which are sometimes more affec- 
tionate and tender than seems natural in Frederick, 
soon became those of a hard and severe master; he 
tljus anuounced to him his accession to the throne, 
"My dear Algarotti, my lot has changed. 1 expect 
you with impatience, do not Jet me languish." Ttvo 
years afterwards he reproached him for his self 
sufficiency, and dryly asked bim, if it yyerecouve- 

urbis, Joannes Darius, a patriotic in- 
scription which the present ruin of Venice 
renders more touching. 

The Giustiniani-Lolin palace had a 
choice library, some fine paintings, a 
considerable number of valuable engrav- 
ings, various collections formed with 
greattaste by Doctor Aglietti, a celebrated 
physician of Italy, who published a fine 
edition of the complete works of Algarotti, 
in which are inserted the letters written 
by Frederick during twenty-five years to 
this Italian Fontenelle, the originals of 
which existed at the Giustiniani-Lolin 
palace. 3 Doctor Aglietti some "years 
since by an act of great delicacy enriched 
these collections with a fresh curiosity. 
He and Doctor Z... had professionally 
attended Cicognara during his last illness, 
the latter bequeathed to the two doctors, 
his friends, whatever article of his effects 
they might prefer; Doctor L... chose a 
small antique head ; Doctor Aglietti the 
pen of the historian of sculpture in Italy . 4 

The ancient Foscari palace is in ruins, 
but its majestic and melancholy aspect is 
in unison with the reflections it suggests : 
the observer feels that it must have been 
the residence of that unhappy family, 
fallen from power, punished by impri- 
sonment, exile, and death, the Stuarts 
of aristocratic families. 

The Mocenigo palace on the grand 
canal was occupied by Lord Byron. I 
have heard much of his several- years' 
residence at Venice, and of the scenes 
which took place at this palace, 3 and I 
have seen with regret that esteem is not 
the inseparable companion of glory. By- 
ron may however deserve some indul- 
gence on account of his abundant charities, 
which were quite equal to his dissipation 
and shameful licentiousness. The life 
of Venice, that life of quietude, pleasures, 
night-studies, and reading, must, how- 
ever, suit the taste of a poet. Few cities 
have been sung more frequently, or 

nient to make an engagement with him. (Letter of 
the 10th September, 1742.) Never perhaps was ihe 
anger and contempt of Frederick against Voltaire 
vented with such sharpness as in these letters. See 
the letters of the 12th September 1749, tub January, 
and 261b. May 1754. 

4 Aglietti had an apoplectic fit on the 4th August 
1S29, and lingered till the 3rd May 18.16; he was se- 
venty-nine years of age. His collection of engravings 
is now the properly of S. Giovanni Papadopoli of 

5 Sec, on this subject, his Memoirs, w bich, how- 
ever, do ugt tell all, vol. HI. ch. xvli. 




[Book VI. 

better than Venice : Petrarch called it 
la Cittd d'oro : the classic verses of San- 
nazzaro, in which he sets forth iis supe- 
riority over Rome, are well known : 

Mam homines dices, lianc posuisse Deos, 

the fine sonnet of Alfieri : 

Ecco, sorger dall' acque to veygo altera 
La canula del mar saggia reina 

the romantic strophes of Childe Harold, 
and some pieces of several of our young 
poets. Amongst the fine paintings of the 
Mocenigo palace is the sketch of the cele- 
brated Glory of Paradise, painted by Tin- 
toretto, now preferable even to the pic- 
ture, which is to be seen in the ancient 
hall of the Great Council, since it has 
not had the misfortune to be retouched. 

The Pisani palace ( at Saint Paul ) 
contains the valuable painting of Paolo 
Veronese, the Family of Darius at the 
feet of Alexander; the females are dress- 
ed as Venetian ladies, the Hero of Ma- 
cedon wears the costume of a general of 
the republic. In spite of the incor- 
rectness of these costumes, this chef- 
d'eeuvre is full of charms. Poetic truth, 
the only true, the only durable in 
works of art, the only truth which comes 
from the soul and responds to it, does 
not confine itself to chronology, and dif- 
fers entirely from that external and 
common reality, to which every body 
may attain, and of which some people are 
much too proud. The picture by Lebrun 
on the same subject is, excepting the full 
bottomed wigs, more regular than that of 
Paolo Veronese; but certainly it cannot 
bear comparison with it. On seeing the 
dwarf, the monkey, the burlesque- scenes 
which this great painter generally intro- 
duces in his most important compositions, 
and which arc seen in his Family of 
Darius, his admirable, his poetic picture 
appears like a comico-heroic painting : it 
is Ariosto on canvas. 

The Barbarigo palace bears imprinted 
on it the traces of Titian, who lived in 
this family, preferring the residence in 
his dear Venice to the proposals made 
him by the popes Leo X. and Paul III., 
and to the honours pressingly offered 
him by Philip II., a strange suitor, re- 
jected by the painter. ■ At the Barbarigo 

' See Bonk XII. cli. iv. 

palace is to be seen his celebrated Maq- 
clalen, less ideal than true, found at his 
house at the moment of his death and 
which perhaps may be regarded as the 
original of his several Magdalens : a 
Venus, spoiled by the scarf which the 
scruples of a Barbarigo had thrown over 
her bosom, and which has since been 
scraped off; a St. Sebastian, his last 
work, on which he was employed when 
the horrible plague of 1576, which af- 
terwards ravaged Milan, carried him off, 
full of health, at the age of ninety-nine 
It would appear that nothing less than 
such a catastrophe could destroy this im- 
mortal artist, and that otherwise he would 
never have died. The last moments of 
the honoured, opulent, and centenary 
life of Titian, were frightful ; he expired 
on the same couch as his cherished son 
and pupil Horace, who could not close 
his eyes; a band of robbers, taking ad- 
vantage of the dispersion of the magis- 
trates, forced his house, pillaged it, and 
carried off from before the glazing eyes of 
the artist even his most treasured works, 
which he would not sell at any price! 
As soon as the communications were 
again open, his second son Pomponio, a 
priest of most disreputable character, 
came post from Milan, sold almost for 
nothing the furniture, jewels, and paint- 
ings which had escaped the robbers, or 
which had been recovered by the hands 
of justice ; and like a second pillager, 
dissipated his inheritance in a few months, 
and blushed not to dispose of the small 
patrimonial house of Cadore, leaving the 
last resting place of his glorious father 
tombless and unknown. 

The Barbarigo palace possesses two 
other curious and remarkable works of 
the great masters. The Susannah is a 
prodigy of Tintoretto, it presents a park 
with poultry, rabbits, and other domestic 
animals which this mettlesome painter 
has executed and finished with exquisite 
taste; it might be likened to Bossuet 
relating the dream of the princess Pa- 
latine. The group of Dedalus and 
Icarus, by Canova, in his most youthful 
days, a true and natural composition, 
indicates the return to a better taste, but 
has not yet the elevation which the talent 
of the ai List was destined to attain, and 
which Rome was to impart. 

The Grimani palace ( at Saint Luke), 
one of the most extraordinary chefs- 
d'oeuvre of San Micheli, who had to 

Chap. IX.] 



remedy the irregularity of the ground : 
this palace, one oflhe most magnificent 
and elegant of Venice, remarkable for 
the pure and noble taste of its front, ves- 
tibule, and lower story, is now the Aus- 
trian post-office. The delegation resides 
at the Corner palace in the Ca grande, 
a superb edifice, oneofSansovino's finest 

The ancient Farsetti palace, now the 
hotel della Gran Bretagna, has on one 
of the staircase landings, two small bas- 
kets of fruit in marble, executed by Ca- 
nova at fourteen years of age for his first 
and constant protector, the patrician 
Faiieri, a precocious attempt evincing a 
certain dexterity and delicacy of chisel 
acquired at his father's, who was enga- 
ged in the selling and cutting of the fine 
Possagno stone. 

The celebrated mercantile bridge of 
the Rialto, by the Venetian architect of 
the sixteenth century, da Ponte, is showy 
and substantial, and carries back the 
mind to the origin of Venice, its festivals 
and prosperity. The wanderers who 
were the first inhabitants of the kind of 
islet with which it communicates, and 
the name of which it bears, — those men, 
compared by Cassiodorus to birds that 
build their nests on the waters, doubtless 
had no idea that they were founding a 
powerful republic which was one day to 
have dominion over Italy, to take Con- 
stantinople, to resist the league of kings 
and emperors, to monopolize the com- 
merce of the world, and to last fourteen 

The Micheli palace (dalle Colonne) 
offers some magnificent tapestries from 
designs by Raphael. A handsome ar- 
mory contains the suits of armour worn 
by the illustrious doge DomenicoMicheli 
and other crusaders his companions. 
In another room are. the books and pon- 
tifical ornaments of Cardinal Barbarigo, 
holy and peaceful relics contrasting with 
the arms of those warriors. 

The Corner della Regina palace was, 
for a most singular reason, unoccupied 
in 1828 : its last proprietor had bequeath- 
ed it to Pope Pius VII., as a token of his 
high estimation of that pontiff's virtues, 
and its usufruct had been ceded to some 
.eclesiastics engaged in education, who 
wanted to let it, but were too scrupulous 
o accept the offer of certain rich Jews 
>vho had proposed to become their te- 
ams. These worthy priests did not, 

like the Roman emperor and our own 
age, think it impossible for money lo 
have an ill odour. 

The Pesaro palace was forsaken by its 
master a short time after the republic 
was no more ; he has not since returned 
to it, wishing to avoid the sad spectacle 
of his conquered country. The owner 
of this marble palace, one of the largest 
and finest in Italy, occupies apartments 
in London ; from the ceiling in one of his 
rooms, he has simply suspended a draw- 
ing of his former dwelling, which makes 
those who behold it marvel at his con- 

The palace of Vcndramini-Calergi, by 
Pietro Lombardo, for taste, richness, 
and magnificence, is not inferior to the 
most exalted in Venice. There may be 
seenTullius Lombardo's two fine statues 
of Adam and Eve, which were formerly 
a part of the doge Andrea Vendramini's 
mausoleum, at the church of Saint John 
and Paul, but have since been decently 
replaced by two female saints. 

The Manfrini palace is noted for its 
rich gallery of the different schools, and 
its curiosities. The Virgin and Infant 
Jesus, and the. Christ at Emmaus are 
by Giovanni Bellini ; a Descent from the 
Cross, the pearl of the gallery, and one 
of the finest and least injured copies of 
that masterpiece, is admirably pathetic 
and collected; the corpse of the Saviour 
bears the imprint of his incorruptible and 
divine nature; the portrait of Ariosto, 
lifelike and poetic; that of Queen Cor- 
naro, by Titian ; the latter differs from 
the portrait at Brescia : the expression 
of the physiognomy is vulgar in one and 
prudish in the other; which last is probably 
the better likeness. A Woman playing 
on the guitar; the celebrated painting 
called the Three Portraits are by Gior- 
gione, who seems triumphant there. This 
last masterpiece drew from Byron se- 
veral stanzas of admiration in his Vene- 
tian tale of Beppo, two verses of which 
are not, however, very accurate, as Gior- 
gione was never married.' Moses strik- 
ing the rock is by Bassano; Ceres and 
Bacchus, by Rubens ; the Sacrifice of 
Iphigenia, by Padovanino ; an Ecce 
homo, a Flight into Egypt, by Agostino 
Carracci ; two superb portraits, one by 
Rembrandt, the other by Paolo Vero- 

1 'T is but a portrait of his son and nife, 
And self, but such a woman 1 love in life 

(St. xii.) 



[Book VI. 

nese; a Shepherd, by Murillo;the Vir- 
gin presenting the Infant Jesus to Si- 
meon, by Giovannid'Udina. Pordenone's 
portrait of himself is perfect ; Petrarch's 
portrait, by Jacopo Bellini, is any thing 
but pleasing; Laura's portrait, by Gen- 
tile Bellini, is very Gne ; a Circumcision, 
by Fra Sebastiano del Piombo; a Lu- 
cretia, by Guido. The works of the old 
pointers, Cimabue, Giotto, and Man- 
tegna, are very judiciously placed to- 
gether in one room. 

TheGiustiniani palace (at the Zattere) 
has a library rich in national manu- 
scripts, several pieces of Grecian sculp- 
ture, a cabinet of medals, and a gallery, 
which has Padovanino's Ganymede for 
its chief masterpiece. 


Douses of Teolocbi-Albrizzi aud Cicognara. 

The houses of Teotochi-Albrizzi and 
Cicognara, but a short distance from 
each other, equal palaces by their inha- 
bitants. Like Aspasia, Signora Albrizzi 
was a Greek, and like her, too, the friend 
of illustrious men differing in genius and 
talent, whom she has succeeded in por- 
traying, with faithfulness and ingenuity, 
in a style impregnated with all the grace 
of her sex. 1 In the centre of her draw- 
ing-room is a bust of her compatriot 
Helen, a figure full of charms and volup- 
tuousness, presented to her by Canova, 
as an acknowledgement of his gratitude 
for the description of his sculptures given 
by Signora Albrizzi; this bust has been 
sung by Byron :— 

lu this beloved marble view, 

Above the worts and thoughts of man, 
What nature could, but would not, do, 

And beauty and Canova can ! 
Beyond imagination's power, 

Beyond the hard's defeated art, 
With immortalily her dower, 

Behold the Uelen of the heart ! 

The head-dress has the form of a trun- 
cated egg, a felicitous allusion to the 
birth of Leda's daughter. 

Signora Albrizzi, whose amiable me- 

See tier agreeable work entitled Rilratti. 
Eisais de Palingenesie sociale, by M. Ballanche ; 
Paris, Didol,t827. 

5 Three busts of Beatrix by Canova aie now in 
existence : Cicognara's ; Madame K'***'s, on which 

mory I shall always cherish, died in 
1836, aged sixty-six, after a long illness, 
which had neither impaired her lively 
imagination nor the attractions of her 
mind ; during this illness the Memoirs 
of Madame Lebrun, her contemporary 
and friend, were read to her, and they 
brought to recollection her Venice of 
forty years past, with its joyous plea-^ 
sures, its beautiful religious music, and' 
its good society of French emigrants : in 
this manner did the authoress of the 
Iiitratti find her pains alleviated by the 
narrative of our great portrait-painter. 

Cicognara possessed Dante's Beatrix, 
another of Canova's chefs-d'oeuvre, given 
by him to this amiable, learned, excel- 
lent man, his worthy and partial friend, 
as a friend ought always to be, whatever 
Plato's proverb may say to the contrary. 
A writer who unites elevated thought 
with delicacy of feeling, thus relates, in 
an important work, the origin of this 
figure: a "An artist of pre-eminent 
renown, a statuary who not long since 
shed so great a lustre on the glorious 
country of Dante, and whose graceful 
fancy had been so often exalted by the 
masterpieces of antiquity, one day saw, 
for the first time, a woman, who seemed 
to him a living apparition of Beatrix. 
Full of that religious feeling which genius 
ever imparts, he immediately required 
the marble ever obedient to his chisel to 
express the sudden inspiration of that 
moment, and the Beatrix of Dante 
passed from the vague domain of poesy 
into the reality of art. The feeling which 
resides in this harmonious countenance 
is now become the new type of pure and 
virginal beauty, which, in its turn, gives 
inspiration to artists and poets." This 
woman is a French lady celebrated for 
the charms of her person and her noble 
character. It is some honour for France 
to have revealed to the first statuary of Ita- 
ly the conception of that mysterious ideal 
beauty sung by her greatest poet. The 
calm enthusiasm of this admirable figure 
has often been reproduced, but most fre- 
quently in a very imperfect manner.* 
In Cicognara's house there were also two 
gigantic busts : the first, of Cicognara, by 

he has put a crown of olive and inscribed with bis 

own band these verses of Dante : — 

Sovra candido vel cinta d'ollva 
Donna m'apparve 

The third is In England. 

Chap. XI.] 



Canova, and his latest work ; the second, 
of Canova, by his clever pupil Rinaldo 
Rinaldi, after the original so admirably 
sculptured by Canova himself ' 


Griiuani palace (at Santa Moria Formosa).— Cor- 
niani d'Algarotti.— Spirit of Venetian society,— 
Last Venetian lady. 

The family portraits of the Grimani 
palace (at Santa Maria Formosa) com- 
pose a fine gallery of paintings by Titian, 
Paolo Veronese, and other able masters. 
This palace is worthy of Rome or Naples 
for its multitude of antique statues, in- 
scriptions, and bronzes. The Venetian 
nobility, trading with Greece and the 
Levant, first began to make a display in 
antique collections. There are to be re- 
marked at the Grimani palace an infant 
Hercules, a most beautiful Grecian bust, 
the colossal statue of Marcus Agrippa, 
transferred by a singular fate from the 
vestibule of the Pantheon amid the waves 
of the Adriatic; an obscene group of So- 
crates and Alcibiades, in which the for- 
mer is not even the very equivocal 
friend of the young Alcibiades. A 
chamber decorated by Sansovino is mag- 
nificent. The Institution of the Ro- 
sary, a celebrated painting by Albert 
Durer, contains his portrait and his 
wife's. The Story of Psyche, on the 
octagonal ceiling, by Francesco Salviati, 
was regarded by Vasari as the finest work 
in Venice, the exaggerated eulogium of 
a friend, though the painting certainly 
has some good points. A Cupid is by 
Guido; a Purification, by Gentile Bel- 
lini ; and the painting of the elegant cha- 
pel, Christ crowned with thorns, by the 
elder Palma. 

Canova's Hebe is at the house of 
Heinzelmann. This charming though 
somewhat elaborate figure is one of the 
most famous and most popular master- 
pieces of its author; he has repeated it 
with slight variations as many as four 
times ; = it has been worthily sung by 
Cesarolti and Pindemonte, and the follow- 

' The bust of Cicognara, since Ms death, on the 
5th of March 1834, has been taken to Ferrara, his 
country, which also claimed the body of the illus- 
trious deceased. The sale of the collection of en- 
gravings and nielles was announced for the month 
of February that year ; the learned catalogue was 

ing pleasing verses of the latter are far 
superior to the sonnet of Cesarotti :— 

O Canova Immortal, che indietro lassl 
L'italico scarpello,e il greco arrivi: 
Sapea che i marini tuoi son molli e vivi : 
Ma chi visto t'avea scolpire I passi? 

The palace of Corniani d'Algarotti 
presents two curious collections, differ- 
ing in kind, but both bearing some ana- 
logy to the scientific and literary name 
recalled by its appellation : the first is 
composed of more than six thousand 
specimens of stones and minerals of Lom- 
bardy and the ancient Venetian pro* 
vinces ; the second is a dramatic library, 
comprising all the pieces played at Ve- 
nice from the establishment of the first 
theatre in 1636 to our own times. The 
house of Goldoni, who flourished se- 
venty-one years after, was calle de'Non- 
boli. A few weeks' sojourn at Venice 
is sufficient to produce the conviction 
that the real Italian comedy must have 
originated or rather beeu regenerated 
there (Machiavel and Ariosto still main- 
tain the supremacy over the Italian dra- 
matists) ; for the spirit of society survives 
there amid the decay of all beside. This 
famous and longlived society is still wor- 
thily represented by the heroine of the 
Biondina, the countess Benzoni, dis- 
tinguished for the gracefulness, simpli- 
city, and piquancy of her wit ; it was this 
lady who, with the familiarity of the 
Venetian dialect, told Byron certainhome 
truths to which he listened with delight, 
and perhaps never heard them save in 
that burlesque language : this lady, still 
so full of vivacity, so unaffected and 
cheerful, may be called the last of the 
Venetian dames. 

The Contarini palace, replete with the 
ancient and glorious reminiscences of 
that family which became extinct at the 
beginning of this century, is decorated 
with frescos by Tiepolo, and four admi- 
rable paintings of Luca Giordano, one 
of which is Eneas carrying his father 

drawn up in French by two Venetians, SS. Alessan- 
dro Znneti and Carlo Albrizzi. 

2 Of the three oilier Debes of Canova one (Jose- 
phine's) belongs to the emperor of Russia, another 
to Lord Cawdor, and the third to the marchioness 
Guiccierdini of Florence. 



[Book VI- 


Aldus.— Printing a manufacture.— Present state or 
priming in Venice. 

1 deeply regretted not being able to 
find any certain trace of one dwelling, 
Imean that of Aldus Manutius,' in which 
he assembled that veritable typographic 
academy, composed of the most learned 
characters,' who spoke nothing but Greek 
when engaged in the examination and 
discussion of the classics. The press of 
Aldus Manutius and his son would now 
be a real monument; it was the only 
treasure that the former of these great 
men left to the second, after devoting his 
fortune and profits to the discovery and 
purchase of old manuscripts in Greek 
and Latin, and occupying his whole life 
in deciphering, completing, correcting, 
and publishing them. 3 It is easy to con- 
ceive with what almost poetical enthu- 
siasm the discovery of this all-powerful 
ait must inspire a man so learned as the 
elder Aldus, and so passionately attach- 
ed to that reviving antiquity, which he 
thus saw rendered indestructible and 
universal. The rather strange inscrip- 
tion over the door of his chamber shows 
the extraordinary ardour of his applica- 
tion : Quisquis es, rogat te Aldus etiam 
atque etium: ut, si quid est quod a se 
velis, perpaucis agas, deinde actutum 
abeas , nisi tanquam Hercules, defesso 

' In 1828 an honorary inscription was put on an 
old house, No. 2013 in the Campo de San Agoslinn ; 
granling that the tradition be not very positive, 
there can bo no doubt that the residence of Aldus 
Manutius was thereabout : some letters sent to the 
latter by Marco Musuro bear the address appiesso 
Sanclo Augustin dove se stampa. 

2 Marco Musmo, Bembo, 4ngelo Gabrielli, Andrea 
Navagero, Daniele Rinieri, Marino Sanulo, Bene- 
detto Hamberti, Battista Egnazio, Fra Cioeondo the 

3 When Paul Manutius setted at Home, in 158*, 
he transported his printing-oflice tliither: part of it 
was, however, left at Venice, under the direction of 
his son Aldus; nor did it remain inactive, as may 
be inferred from the number of editions published 
every year during his absence, among which are 
several of his own works — Annates de I'Impiimerie 
des Aides, by M. Renouard, vol. III., p. 155, 150, 100. 

4 See Annibal Caro, Lett. burlevoK; tell, xxxi., 
and on the lie and laboursof Paul Manutius, a letter 
of Bonfadio's, quoted ante, book V. chap, xxiii. 

5 The reader will recollect the excellent work of 
Count Darn, entitled, iY'olfoiw stutistiqiies sur In li- 
bmiric, pour tcrvir a la discussion de la loi sur la 
presse en 182", which notions were founded on the 
lill'tioarapliie de ta France. It results from this 

Atlante, veneris suppositious h\t- 
meros. Semper enim crit quod et tu 
agas, et quotquot hue attulerint pedes. 
—"Whosoever thou art, Aldus en- 
treats thee again and again, if thou hast 
business with him, to conclude it briefly, 
and hasten thy departure ; unless, like 
Hercules to the weary Atlas, thou come 
to put thy shoulder to the work. Then, 
will there ever be sufficient occupation 
for thee, and all others who may come." 
Paul Manutius appears to have been no 
less indefatigable than his illustrious fa- 
ther, as we may learn from the re- 
proaches of his friends.'' Printing at 
that period, instead of being merely an 
honourable manufacture of great pro- 
duce, 5 sold to curious and eager, rather 
thun delicate consumers, was a liberal, 
an admirable art, which was discovered 
late, 6 but seems to have had no in- 
fancy. The clearness of the impression, 
and the beauty of the ink? and paper of 
the first printers have not been surpassed. 
Printing-offices now are merely book 
factories, and the same nicety and even- 
ness of working cannot be expected from 
the pressman who prints a thousand 
sheets a day. The editions of Nicolas 
Jenson, Vindeline of Spire, of the Aldi, 
and others, were moreover printed in 
smaller numbers. Some of Cicero's 
works, such as the Epistolw familiares, 
published by Paul Manutius, were re- 
printed almost every year. The elder 

useful document that the number of volumes print- 
ed in France, in the year 1825, was between thir- 
teen and fourteen millions (more than four hundred 
thousand issued from (be presses of MM. Firmin 
Didot alone) w tilcli produced in trade a real value 
of 33,750,000 fr. and afforded employment and sub- 
sistence lo thirty-three thousand seven hundred 
and fifty persons. A still more precise return of 
the productions of the French press has appeared 
in a valuable miscellany (Revue des Deux-Mondes, 
t. VI. p. 68); according to this table the number of 
sheeu printed In 1835 was one hundred and twenty- 
live millions. 

d When we consider the perfection attained by 
the ancients In the art of coining and their ac- 
quainlnncev, ith moveablecharacters, it is astonish- 
ing that printing escaped their observation. It was 
invented at the epoch of the emigration of Grecian 
learning into Italy, just at the lime when most 
needed, and doubtless for that very reason. 

7 The excellent ink of Mcholas Jenson and olher 
Italian printers of the lifleen III century was procured 
from Paris, as in these latter days that f Bodoni. 
This ink has a bright jet n bich our present ink has 
not; but It is pretended that age produces it, and 
that some centuries hence ours will be as flue. 

Chap. XIII.] 



Aldus slates in the preface or his Euri- 
pides (1503) that he was commonly ac- 
customed to work a thousand copies. 
This extraordinary man, for the beauty 
and usefulness of his editions, must be 
put in the first rank of those propagators 
of thought; he invented the octavo form, 
and printed the first Virgil (in 1501) with 
which one could ramble in the groves. 
Aldus united to his talents and vast ac- 
quirements a most estimable character, 
very different from his contemporary 
Tomas Junte of Florence, who, according 
Varchi, "was only a dealer whose ava- 
rice was equal to his riches, and more 
interested in the profit than the honour 
of his rinting-office." 

If the glory of the olden days of Ve- 
netian printing be irrevocably past, the 
press, now chiefly devoted to religious 
works, translations of the classics, or li- 
terary publications, is by no means unpro- 
ductive. I have now before me the Elenco 
(catalogue) of the volumes printed and 
published in Venice and the Venetian 
provinces during the year 1826; the 
number amounts to eight hundred and 
twenty-one, of which six hundred and 
ninety-six thousand seven hundred and 
ten copies were printed. Two hundred 
and twenty-four articles are marked 
gratis, equivalent to the ne se vend pas 
of the Bibliographie, and they amount 
to fifty-six thousand six hundred and 
fifty-four pieces and volumes. The co- 
pies given by the author are much 
more profusely distributed in Italy than 
in Fiance, and this kind of presents is 
considered one of the chief social obli- 
gations of a writer. The five hundred and 
ninety-seven volumes with their six hun- 
dred and forty thousand and fifty-six co- 
pies for sale, represent a value of 1,354,4.70 
Austrian livres ( 47,135Z. 10s. ). The 
printing-office known by the name of 
Alvisopoli, at Venice,' under the ma- 
nagement of S. Bartolomeo Gamba, has 
reprinted the Universal Biography in 
Italian, at twelve hundred copies; and 
the work of that learned bibliographer 
entitled Serie dei testi di lingua italiana 
e di altri esemplari del bene scrivere, 
published in 1828, is very satisfactory as 
regards the typographical execution. 

1 This ofDce derires ils name from tbe little vil- 
lage of Alvisopoti, in which the senator Alviso 
ILudovico) Mocenigo, an eccentric character, had 
the fancy to establish a printing-office about thirty 
years ago. Alvisopoli was a fief of bis illustrious 


Academy of Fine Arts. — Venetian school. — Tilian's 
Asmmplioii.— Paintings. — Bronzes. — Models. — 
Vanity of a brother ol' the Confraternity of Charity. 

The Academy of Fine Arts is an ex- 
cellent institution, chiefly due to the zeal, 
information, and patriotism ofCicognara, 
who Mas named its president in 1808. 
This academy has become an inestimable 
asylum in the midst of the dispersion and 
decay of so many chefs-d'oeuvre. It has 
already collected many works from the 
oppressed churches and convents, and 
will doubtless be still serviceable in the 
advancing ruin of Venice. This rich 
collection of more than four hundred 
paintings consists almost entirely of works 
by the great masters of the Venetian 
school — a school, admirable rather for its 
adherence to nature and truth than the 
ideal, for brilliancy of colouring, bold- 
ness, and the picturesque rather than 
purity of drawing, which our young 
school imitates, just as ihe new school of 
poetry, tired of contemplating the models 
of antiquity, turns toShakspeare. These 
means of regenerating art appear very un- 
certain; talent would find in meditation 
a more productive and certain resource. 

Amid the decay of Venice, the disco- 
very of Titian's masterpiece, the Assump- 
tion, which he executed before the age 
of thirty, is a kind of compensation for 
so many losses. By some strange chance 
this blackened painting had been long 
thrust aside and almost hidden in the 
top of the church Dei Frari, when Cico- 
gnara had himself raised up to it, wash- 
ed one corner with spittle, and, being 
sure of its author, offered a newer paint- 
ing to the clergyman, who was delighted 
with the change. This painting is per- 
haps the most extraordinary for effect : 
the mystery of the head of the Father, 
the brilliancy and softness of ihe group 
of the Virgin, and thirty little angels 
near; her ethereal, heavenly grace ; the 
marvellous contrast of light and shade, 
and the conception of the whole, are dif- 
ferent merits that cannot be described. 

Gentile Bellini's painting, representing 
the piazza of Saint Mark about the end 
of the fifteenth century, at the moment 

family: the establishment was too expensifeinsucli 
a place to support itself more than two years; 
Alviso Mocenigo was obliged to transfer it to Yenice, 
but retained its primitive name, by which it is 
now called. 


[Book VI. 

of a procession passing, is full of nature 
and life, and of great curiosity for the 
costumes of the time and ihe aspect of 
ancient Venice. The Supper at Em- 
maus, by Giovanni Bellini, of the na- 
tural size, with costumes of the time and 
a Turkish ambassador, is superb. The 
celebrated Purification, Carpaccio's 
masterpiece, had it more colouring in 
the flesh and greater softness of outline, 
would be worthy of the greatest masters 
for grace and pathos. The old Simeon 
figures between two priests in the cos- 
tume of cardinals; the child in the centre 
tuning its lute is divine. 

The SI. Lorenzo Giustiniani sur- 
rounded by saints is a masterpiece of 
Pordenone : the figures of St. Augustine 
and St. John Baptist are admirable; the 
undraped parts of the latter exhibit the 
greatest chastity of design, and St. Au- 
gustine's arm seems to protrude from the 
canvas. The Rich Epulon, by Boni- 
fazio, is of extraordinary beauty. 

The Slave delivered by St. Mark, a 
masterpiece of Tintoretto, is one of the 
wonders of this grand Italian school. 
What life, what variety of expression in 
the physiognomy of those executioners 
who see the bonds break asunder from 
their captive extended on the ground ! 
The saint crosses the heavens with his 
face turned towards the beholder, and 
he looks downwards to superintend his 
miracle; his immense beard allows 
only a small portion of his body to be 
seen, foreshortened, which seems really 
suspended in the air. 

The Marriage of Cana, a rich, ele- 
gant, animated painting in the style of 
Paolo Veronese, is Padovanino's best 
work. The Virgin on a throne with 
the Infant Jesus] St. Joseph and other 
saints, by Paolo Veronese, was, with 
many of its neighbours, thought worthy 
of a journey to Paris. The Ring of St. 
Mark, Paris Bordone's masterpiece, pre- 
sents an architecture and basso-reiievos 
perfectly true in the colouring and very 
cleverly" composed. Three other of Ti- 
tian's works are respectively admirable : 
the Presentation of lite Infant Jesus, 
of his early youth, distinguished by the 
architectural richness of the temple front, 
and the marvellous perspective of the 

• Opcrediscultura edi plaslica d'Anlonlo Canova 
descrilte da Isabella Albrlzzi nata Teotochi ; Fisa, 
I8I2-'i, 4 vols. 8vo, [>t. 

ediGces in the back-ground; the pro- 
digious St. John Baptist in the desert, 
so full of sublimity and inspiration, that 
one feels be lived on locusts, with the 
deep, gloomy, and rugged landscape, and 
the old woman's head, that is supposed 
to be the portrait of his mother. He has 
also done some heads and emblematic 
figures, exquisite morceaux, which bor-* 
der the cornice of the chief room for the 
sittings of the Academy. 

A basso-relievo of marble gilt, over 
the door, represents the Virgin, the 
Infant Jesus, and other figures. This 
astonishing work of 1345 is expressive, 
simple, and graceful, and bears witness 
to the antiquity and perfection of the art 
at Venice. A small tabernacle door in 
bronze, formerly at the church of the 
Servi, and believed to be by Donalello, 
is in the purest taste. The four basso- 
relievos attributed to Andrea Riccio are 
works full of fire, activity, and imagina- 
tion, particularly the basso-relievo re- 
presenting Constantine's battle near the 
Tiber, and his triumphant entry into 
Rome. There are many other bronzes 
not less precious; such are the elegant 
basso-relievos of the ancient mausoleums 
of the Barbarigo family, by an unknown 
author, and the superb basso-relievo of 
Briamonte's tomb, by the Venetian Vit- 
torio Camelio. 

The model of Theseus vanquishing the 
Minotaur, a work of Canova's youth, is 
remarkable as a return to the antique; 
this chef-d'eeuyre, so eloquently des- 
cribed by Signora Albrizzi, 1 and so well 
sung by Pindemonle, 8 is to be seen at 
the Academy of Fine Arts. 1 he statue, 
executed for a public square at Milan, 
at the expencc of the Italian government, 
is now, by right of conquest, in the 
garden of the People ( Volksgartcn) at 
Vienna, where a splendid building is 
devoted to it. Pindemonte's poem be- 
gins with the following touching com- 
plaint on Italy being despoiled of the 
Theseus :— 

Ciunque in me terma lo sguurdo, e quesla 
Molle rreia spirante, e quesle mira 
Degne dun semldeo forme leggiadre, 
Non si compianga, se tai forme in duro 
Marino inlagliale, c lucide, e polite, 
Daio di vagtieggiar Don gli e sull' Islio. 

a Tesco die uccide il cenlauro qual vedesl ndl' 
Acadernia dl Belle Aril dl Yenezia ; Pisa, <82fi. 

Chap. XIV. i 



Canova's chisel is exposed below the 
porphyry urn containing his hand, and 
formerly his heart also, but that is now 
deposited in the church dei Frari.' Ve- 
nice seems to multiply the traces and 
reminiscences of Canova, as if to supply 
that crowd of immortal artists who were 
once ber glory. 

The model rooms of this Academy, 
though not of more than thirty years' 
existence, are reckoned the finest in Eu- 
rope : there are preserved the models of 
the Parthenon and Egina marbles, the 
generous gifts ofCicognara, who received 
them from the kings of England and Ba- 
varia. The Academy also possesses the 
1 famous collection of original drawings 
i of the old schools, formed by the Cav. 
Bossi, among which may be remarked 
seventy by Leonardo Vinci, several by 
' Michael Angelo, and as many as a hun- 
dred by Raphael. 

The Academy of Fine Arts is the old 
Confraternity of Charity. The ceiling of 
the grand hall is connected with a sin- 
gular anecdote. The brother Cherubino 
Ottale, who had engaged to gild it at his 
own cxpence, being unable to obtain 
permission of the brotherhood to have 
an inscription stating that they were in- 
debted to him for that magnificence, 
ordered a little angel with eight wings 
to be placed in the middle of every 
square, so that the name of Cherubino 
Ottale is repeated a thousand times in 
that way : a Frenchman could not have 
imagined a better expedient than this 
device of Venetian vanity. 


Churches.— Clergy.— Saint Zacharlas.— Saint George 
of the Greeks.— Greek service.— Saint Francis of 
the Vine. — Saint Peter.-Suint John in Bragora. 

The number of churches was consi- 

tderable at Venice; the ecclesiastical po- 
pulation was in greater proportion there 
than in the first catholic states; 2 it is 
thence evident that, notwithstanding the 

1 This band, according lo a legally executed deed, 
Is to be remitted lo the archpriest of the temple of 
Posagno and placed with the rest of Canova's re- 
mains, in case the Venice Academy of Fine Arts 
should be suppressed or transferred to another city. 

1 According to the returns of the committee 
named by the Venetian government in 1708, for 
:be purpose of repressing the excessive wealth of 
!he clergy, which Daru has carefully copied, the 
number of ecclesiastics aruounled to forty-live thou- I 

quarrels of the government and clergy 
with the court of Rome, the devotion of 
the people was an insurmountable ob- 
stacle to a rupture. The clergy were 
wealthy and popular (the people elected 
the rectors), but excluded from the go- 
vernment and public offices of the re- 
public; another proof of the beneficial 
effects of maintaining a separation be- 
tween political and religious duties; and 
except in very few instances, the clergy 
always acted in unison with the civil 
power against the spiritual. 

The liberties of the Venetian church 
approach much nearer to the Greek 
schism, which is ever submissive to au- 
thority, than to the seditious spirit of 
reform. It is very singular that divorce 
was one of these privileges; it was 
equally permitted in Poland, by means 
of preconcerted pretexts of nullity . I have 
been told that the princess C***, now re- 
tired into a convent at Rome, at her 
daughter's marriage went up to the altar 
before the ceremony, and in the presence 
of the whole congregation gave her 
daughter two slaps, which she received 
with the utmost indifference; some per- 
sons but little acquainted with these cus- 
toms ran up to the princess greatly ex- 
cited, when she gave this simple expla- 
nation : "Those slaps are proofs which 
may aid in procuring my daughter's di- 
vorce in case she be unhappy with her 
husband; she Mill be able to say that I 
forced her." It is not easy to figure to 
one's self the countenance of the bride- 
groom during this strange scene of ma- 
ternal tenderness and foresight. 

The tolerance for which Venice has 
been commended, was doubtless owing 
to the exclusion of the clergy from the 
civil administration, but it seems to have 
diminished subsequently when the re- 
public was declining : the virtuous Maf- . 
fei was exiled for certain opinions in his 
book on usury, and the same penalty was 
inflicted on a patrician, who had visited 
Voltaire and Rousseau in his travels. 

sand seven hundred and seventy-three, which gives 
one person of the clergy for every fifty-four in- 
habitants, while in France the proportion was one 
to a hundred and Qfty, and in Spain one to seventy- 
three. Dy the statistical tables of the Venetian pro- 
vinces published by S. Quadri in 4827, the clergy 
are now no more than one to two hundred and 
sixteen; and in France, there is now only one to 
elgh! hundred and thirty-three. 




fBooK VI 

The churches of Venice possess the 
twofold interest of glorious reminiscences 
of distant periods, and wonders of art 
due to the great Venetian masters. 

The old church and monastery of Saint 
Zacharias dale from the beginning of the 
ninth century; they were founded by the 
emperor Leon, but the zealous Vene- 
tians ' pretend that, despite the imperial 
eagles he placed there, the Greeks never 
exercised authority over Venice. Saint 
Zacharias, until the latter da;s of the 
republic, was the. spot of one of the oldest 
and most pompous Venetian fetes. Pope 
Benedict III., after visiting the church 
and convent in 855, granted them a great 
number of relics and indulgences, and 
every year at Easter the doge attended 
the services and the procession. The 
abbess Morosini and the nuns of that 
rich monastery, flattered at receiving the 
chief of the stale, made him a present of 
a kind of republican diadem, called corno 
ducale, of inestimable value; it was of 
gold surrounded with twenty-four. large 
pearls ; on the top glittered a superb 
eight-faced diamond; a brilliant ruby of 
enormous size was in front; the cross, 
composed of precious stones and twenty- 
four emeralds, surpassed all the rest. 
It was decreed that such a costly present 
should be used at the coronation of the 
doges; but that the nuns to whom they 
were indebted for it might not be deprived 
of the sight of these wonderful jewels, 
it was determined that every year on the 
day of the procession to Saint Zacharias, 
il should be withdrawn from the public 
treasury, carried on a salver and shown 
to all the sisters of the convent by the 
doge himself. Some years after, in 868, 
a catastrophe contributed to render this 
ceremony still more majestic; it was 
decreed that the procession should go no 
more on foot to Saint Zacharias, but in 
gilded barks; for the doge Gradenigo, 
who, amid the frenzy of parties, had re- 
commended moderation and thereby set 
every body against him, was attacked 
and murdered on leaving the church. 

The choir of the church of Saint Za- 
charias is rich, elegant, and magnificent. 
Nostra Signora and some saints, St. 
Zacharias; the Virgin and some saints , 
a painting which has been retouched 
clumsily and too much; the demilunes 

1 See Count Tiepolo's Grst rectification of the 
History of Venice, p. W. 

representing the Martyrdom of St. 
Procul, the Descent into purgatory, 
and Christ washing the Apostles' feet; 
the Angel speaking to Zacharias ; the 
four small paintings at the high-altar, are 
by Palma; the Birth of John Baptist is 
by Tintoretto. In one chapel three 
altars of wood, ornamented wilh gilded, 
carvings, have some valuable and scarce 
paintings by Giovanni and Antonio Mu- 
ranesi, of the year 1U5; the Circumci- 
sion is by Giovanni Bellini; ihe Virgin, 
the Infant Jesus and four saints, by 
the same, a celebrated picture brought 
back from Paris, has been so renovated 
and spoiled, that it scarcely retains any 
original traits of that illustrious founder 
of the colouring of the Venetian school. 
The statue of Saint John Baptist is by 
Viltoria. He sculptured his own bust 
and monument: below, on the pavement, 
a black stone marks the burial place of 
this chaste and productive statuary, the 
cleverest of Sansovino's pupils and the 
last great artist of the sixteenth century. 

The elegant church of Saint George of 
the Greeks is of Sansovino's architecture. 
The Greek service which I attended had 
a singularly mysterious character : the 
priests are concealed in the sanctuary, 
only appearing at intervals for certain 
prayers, when the curtains are undrawn. 
The effect of this poutiffless temple was 
extraordinary, there being only two 
young clerks singing monotonous hymns 
in the choir. Women are not admitted 
into the sanctuary of the Greek churches, 
no.r are animals suffered to enter, except 
cats, which are necessarily tolerated for 
the purpose of destroying the mice. 

The high-altar of Saint Laurence, de- 
corated with niarbie, bronze, statues, and 
superb columns of Porto Venere, is a 
magnificent work of Campagna. The 
best painting is a Crucifixion by Bal- 
thazar d'Anna, a painter of the close of 
the sixteenth century, praised for morbi- 
dezza and strength of clare-obscure. 

The front of the Confraternity of Saint 
George of the Sclavonians is by Sanso- 
vino. An oratory has some good paint- 
ings by Carpaccio, representing certain 
incidents of the Life of Jesus Christ, of 
St. George, and St. Jerome, executed 
between 1502 and 1511. The three saints 
on a gilt ground, at the altar, are older, 
and seem of the fourteenth century, 

Saint Francis of the Vine is a fine 
church, the architecture by Sansovino 




and the front by I'alladi\ Two great 
bronze statues of Moses and Paul by 
Titian Aspetti, before the church, have 
been justly censured, and their vast pro- 
portions render the defects still more 
striking : in particular, the Hebrew legis- 
lator's two rays of fire, covered over with a 
kind of hood, are extremely singular. On 
the holy-water vases, the St. John Baptist 
and St. Francis a" Assise; on the altar of 
a chapel, St. Anthony, St. Roch, and 
St. Sebastian, are by Vittoria; the Sa- 
viour, the fir gin, and certain saints ; 
■ the Virgin in an aureola, Ihe Flagel- 
lation of Christ, by Palma ; the Virgin 
adoring the Infant Jesus, a good paint- 
ing of the beginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, is by Fra Antonio of Negroponto; 
the Virgin, the Infant Jesus, and some 
saints, by Giovanni Bellini ; the Saviour 
and the Eternal Father, by Geronimo 
Santa Croce, who flourished towards the 
close of the good century and adhered to 
its style ; Nostra Signora in the midst 
of angels, and another very beautiful in 
the midst of saints, are by Paolo Vero- 
nese. A copy of his Last Supper arbi- 
trarily given by the republic to Louis XIV. 
(who had requested it of the Servites but 

I met with a refusal ) has been well exe- 
cuted by Valentin Lefevre. The Giusti- 
niani or Prophets' chapel, covered with 
marble sculptures, is one of the most bril- 
I liant monuments of art of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, but its various authors are unknown. 
<• The altars of Saint Francis of the Vine 
< were loaded with those dolls, common 
| on the altars of Italy, which mask the 
view of so many chefs-d'oeuvre. 

The old spacious church of Saint Peter 
was the cathedral of Venice, from the 
first ages of the republic to the year 1807, 
when the patriarchal see passed to the 
basilic of Saint Mark. A very antique 
marble pulpit, in the form of a bench, is 
believed by Ihe common people to have 
been used by Saint Peter in the church 
of Antioch ; many learned persons are 
of opinion that it was once the seat of 
some African chief; it bears an inscrip- 
tion in Arabic characters, which have 
been supposed two verses of the Koran. 
Saint Peter contains some fine and cu- 
rious paintings : the Plague of the Ser- 
pents, by Liberi; St. Lorenzo Giusti- 
niani distributing alms, the masterpiece 
of Gregorio Lazzarini ; Nostra Signora 
and the souls in purgatory, one of Luca 

Giordano's best works ; a mosaic in the 
shape of a picture, a fine performance 
of Arminio Zuccato, from a design by 
Tintoretto ; St. Peter and St. Paul, by 
Paolo Veronese, and the Martyrdom of 
St. John the Evangelist, by Padovanino, 
too freely retouched by Michael Schia- 
vcne. The steeple, rebuilt in the fifteenth 
century, is magnificent. 

The church of Saint Joseph has only a 
small number of paintings and monu- 
ments, but they are by the greatest mas- 
ters .■ the Archangel St. Michael and 
the senator Michael Bruno is by Tin- 
toretto ; a Nativity, by Paolo Vero- 
nese ; the mausoleum of the senator Ge- 
ronimo Grimani, by Vittoria ; and the 
superb one of Doge Marino Grimani and 
his wife, the architecture by Scamozzi, is 
decorated with bronzes, statues, and other 
sculptures by Campagna. 

The church of Saint Martin is sup- 
posed to have been built by Sansovino. 
The elegant tabernacle of the grand 
chapel is embellished with paintings by 
Palma ; a little old painting in good style 
represents the Annunciation; Ihe bap- 
tismal fonts are a very delicate work of 
Tullius Lombardo ; a Last Supper, by 
Santa Croce, is of extraordinary merit. 

Saint John in Bragora has the Saint* 
Veronica, the Christ washing the Apos- 
tles' feet, and the Christ before Pilate, 
by Palma; the Saviour, of Titian's 
school ; the Virgin, St. Andrew, and 
St. John Baptist, on a gold ground ; a 
Resurrection of the year 1498, one of 
the best paintings of that era, by Barto- 
lommeo "Vivarini ; St. Andrew, St. Je- 
rome, St. Martin, perhaps the first 
attempts of Carpaccio; a Last Supper, 
by Paris Bordone ; Constantine and St. 
Helene supporting the cross, by Cone- 
gliano, and his superb Baptism of Jesus 
Christ, which has suffered from un- 
skilful retouching. 

The ceiling of the elegant church of 
Santa Maria delta Pietd is an excellent 
work of Tiepolo. 


Saint George Major. — Doraenico Micheli. — The 
Salute.— Revolutions of taste.— Sansovino's mau- 
soleum. — Saint Luke.— Arelino. 

Saint George Major is one of Palladio's 



[Boos VI. 

miracles, which would have been fault- 
less had he lived lo complete it. Beside 
the door are the four Evangelists in stucco 
by Vittoria. The chief paintings are : the 
Nativity, by Bassano; the Martyrdom 
of several saints, the Pirgin crowned, 
a Last Supper, the Manna in the De- 
sert, (he Resurrection, the Martyrdom 
of St. Stephen, by Tintoretto; the Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Lucy, by Leandro Bas- 
sano. One of the treasures of this church 
is a wooden crucifix given by Cosmo, the 
father of his country, when he fled for 
refuge lo Venice ; it is the work of Mi- 
chellozzo Michellozzi , his friend, and 
faithful companion in exile. He had 
employed this able artist to build him a 
library, which he filled with books, and 
left to the Benedictines of Saint George; 
such was Ihe dying gift of a Medici. L 

At the high altar, four bronze statues 
of the Evangelists, by Campagna, sup- 
port an enormous globe on which the 
Bedeemer stands, a beautiful harmo- 
nious composition, which nobly expresses 
the triumph of the Gospel — a master- 
piece of art compared lo the Jupiter 
Olympus of Phidias, and rightly placed 
over the pulpit of Saint Peter, by Ber- 
nini. On one of the pilasters is an in- 
"scription which seems to carry the doc- 
trine of indulgences to an indefinite 
extent, as it says that the absolute par- 
don of all his crimes is accorded to eve- 
ry personwho shall visit that church ; 2 
this eloquent inscription is of the period 
of the Saint Bartholomew massacre, and 
breathes but too strongly the pontifical 
spirit of that day. Beside the church, in 
a small corridor but little worthy of such 
a monument, is the tomb of Doge Dome- 
nico Micheli, both Ihe Saint Bernard 3 
and Godfrey of the Venetian crusades, 

1 The first book in manuscript of the History or 
Venice, begun in Latin by Paolo Paruta, said by 
Ginguene [Hist. lilt, d'llalie, viii. 320) to lie still 
in the library of Saint George, is no longer there. 
When Ihe convent was suppressed, this library 
was almost given up lo pillage : a part went to 
Padua, where it was dispersed, and the resl was 
sold by auction ; not a single work reached the li- 
brary of Saint Mark. 

2 Quisquis criminibus expiatis 

Slatas precans preces 


XII Kal. Aprilis 

£des hasce supplex 

the victor of Jaffa, the conqueror of Je- 
rusalem, Tyre, and Ascalon, who com- 
pelled the emperors of the East to res- 
pect the Hag of his country, transported 
from the Archipelago Ihe two granite 
columns of the Piazzetta, ravaged Ihe 
coast of Dalmatia, and had these words 
for his epilaph — Terror Grcecorumjacet 

The sumptuousness of the Salute, 
which is destitute of neither majesty nor 
grandeur, and the multitude of orna- 
ments with which this temple is over- 
loaded, announce the decline of Venetian 
architecture. The revolutions of taste 
are apparently the same in all the arts. 
San Micheli precedes Palladio, as Lucre- 
tius precedes Virgil; Corneille, Bacine; 
Bourdaloue , Massilion; energy comes 
before purity; bad taste, which deems 
itself good, succeeds, and produces Se- 
neca, Claudian, Marini, Longhena, the 
architect of the Salute. This church, 
notwithstanding its richness, is especially 
interesting for the paintings by Titian at 
various periods of his life, an artist 
always productive, always new. These 
are : the eight small ovals of the choir, 
where are represented the Evangelists 
and the Doctors, one of whom is a por- 
trait of Titian ; the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, painted in his fixty- fourth year; 
in the sacristy, the little St. Mark in the 
midst of four saints, one of the scarce 
works of his youth, remarkable for the 
softness of the light and the delicacy of 
the flesh of the St. Sebastian ; and (he 
Death of Abel, the Sacrifice of Abra- 
ham, David killing Goliath, the finest 
works in the Salute, admirable for the 
execution of (he naked parts, and truly 
prodigious when we recollect that the 
study of anatomy was not tolerated in 

I in iscrit 


Veniam scelerum 

Maximam consequuturum 

Se sciat 

Gregorius XIII. 

Pont. Max. 

Sacro cam diplomale 


3 The speech by which he persuaded tho Vene* 
tians to undertake another crusade has been pre- 
served by the historians and is given by Dani lu 
his History of Venice (liv. II. 40 ). 

Chap. XVI. ] 



Italy at that epoch. The three last chefs- 
d'oeuvre are stowed away near the ceil- 
ing of the sacristy in a bad light, and so 
high as to be lost. The Presentation, 
the Assumption, the Birth of the Vir- 
gin, arc estimable works of Luca Gior- 
dano, who has not here given way to 
his fatal expedition. Nostra Signora 
delta Salute is by Padovanino ; the Mar- 
riage of Cana, new and varied, is by 
Tintoretto; a Samson, by Falma ; Ve- 
nice before St. Anthony, by Liberi. 

The bronze chandelier of the high- 
i altar, the work of Andrea d'AIessandro, 
more than six feet in height, is, after that 
of Padua, 1 the finest in the Venetian 
state; but it is far inferior to the latter, 
notwithstanding the infinite grace of many 
portions, particularly of the upper part. 

The mausoleum of Sansovino, with his 
bust by Yittoria, the most eminent of his 
pupils, was originally at the church of 
Saint Geminian, but at the unhappy de- 
molition of the latter in 1807, it was first 
transferred to the church of Saint Mau- 
rice, and temporarily in 1822 into the 
chapel of the patriarchal seminary of the 
Salute, behind the deal benches of the 
scholars; it is to be taken back to Saint 
Maurice, a repetition or imitation of 
Sansovino's masterpiece, which can never 
equal its model. The ashes of this great 
artist, a wanderer while living and a fu- 
gitive from the sack of Rome, have had 
no settled resting-place for more than 
twenty years; and the builder of so many 
admirable churches, tombs, and monu- 
ments, the founder of a celebrated school, 
awaits their last asylum. 

The library of the seminary, a splen- 
did edifice, once the convent of the Sa- 
lute, contains about twenty thousand 
volumes; I saw a letter there signed by 
Charles V., and addressed to Pope Ju- 
lius II., on the reunion of the Greek and 
Latin churches. 

Saint Luke has at the high altar the 
Saint writing the Gospel, by Paolo 
Veronese. Aretino was interred at Saint 
Luke's : one is in a manner surprised 
at feeling disgust near a tomb. On the 
wall is his portrait, by Alviso dal Friso, 
nephew and pupil of Paolo Veronese; but 
there is no trace of his sepulture, which 
very probably disappeared when the 
church was renovated, at the close of the 
sixteenth century. The priests of the 

' See post, book vit. cU. iii, 

parish have transmitted from one to 
another that Aretino, when near his 
death, having received extreme unction, 
laughed as he pronounced this verse, 
which Italian buffoonery perhaps renders 
less impious than it appears : 

Guardatemi da' topi, or che son uuto. 

This priestly anecdote, perhaps no truer 
than some philosophical anecdotes on the 
end of celebrated men, would contradict 
the tradition which makes Aretino to die 
on the spot, after falling headlong out of 
his chair, in a fit of laughing at the recital 
of the tricks and adventures of his worthy 
sisters, Venetian courtesans. Whichever 
may be true, the end of the cobbler of 
Arezzo's bastard is sufficiently in keeping 
with his birth and the disorders of his life. 

The elegance of the church of Saint 
Lucy, by Palladio, is still more con- 
spicuous after one has contemplated the 
tasteless splendour of the neighbouring 
church of the Scalzi. The Saint going 
up to heaven; several actions of her 
life: St. Joachim; St. Anne and other 
saints; the Virgin beside the manger ; 
St. Thomas Aquinas and angels; some 
other paintings, one by Palma ; a St. Au- 
gustine is by Leandro Bassano, and the 
marble bust of Bernardo Mocenigo, by 

The church of Saint Andrew, atone 
extremity of Venice (too often shut), has 
a St. Augustine and angels, by Paris 
Bordone ; and, above all, the St. Jerome 
in the desert, thought to contain the 
finest specimens of the naked that Paul 
Veronese ever executed, but the damp 
has unfortunately injured it. 


The Redentore.— Italian plagues.— Titian's grave.— 
Monument to Canova. 

It would be difficult to express the 
deep sensation produced by the sight of 
the church of the Redentore, the chef- 
d'eeuvre of that immortal artist, Palla- 
dio, the Virgil, Racine, Fenelon, and 
Raphael of architecture. The elegance, 
lightness, and purity of the edifice are 
combined with solidity; and after more 
than two centuries, it stands immovable still young amid the waves. The 
light of the Redentore, due to its beau- 
tiful architecture, has a wonderful effect, 




[Book VI 

especially in the evening; and the prayer 
of the Capuchins, to whom this magni- 
ficent temple has been restored, is, at 
that hour, one of the most religious 
church scenes, as well as the most poetic 
and picturesque that can be imagined. 

The Redentore has some fine paint- 
ings : the Flagellation, the Ascension, 
by Tintoretto ; Nostra Signora and some 
saints; a Descent from the Cross, by 
Palma ; the Baptism of Jesus Christ, by 
Paolo Veronese. 

In a closet of the sacristy is a small 
painting by Giovanni Bellini, the Virgin 
with the Infant Jesus sleeping on her 
knees between two angels playing on 
the mandoline, a painting of astonishing 
grace and expression. Bellini, Titian's 
master, explains his pupil, as the paint- 
ings of Perugino in the Cambio of Peru- 
gia explain Raphael. This church is 
also indebted to this great primitive 
painter for the Virgin with St. John 
and St. Catherine, and an admirable 
Virgin with the Infant Jesus and two 
saints. Although the high altar, loaded 
with ornaments, proves the decline of 
taste, it is remarkable for its crucifix and 
two statues of St. Francis and St. Mark, 
beautifully executed in bronze by Cam- 

The Redentore, as well as the Salute, 
is a monument erected after the cessation 
of a plague : it is difficult to account for 
so much splendour after such ravages ; 
that mal qui repand la terreur seems 
at Venice and Florence to produce the 
most brilliant wonders of art. The 
plagues of Venice were caused by its ex- 
tensive dealings with the East, in the then 
flourishing slate of its commerce; those 
were the days of its glory. The other 
towns of Italy also celebrated the termi- 
nation of a plague by the erection of 
temples and chapels; and while our dread- 
ful cholera obscurely died away in the 
mendacious bulletins of the police, the 
men of those times of faith loved to show 
the evidence of their gratitude towards 
the Divinity by superb public monu- 
ments. It ought also to be remarked to 
the honour of Italian and Christian civi- 
lisation in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, although the princes and great 
men were so vicious and criminal, that 
none of the terrible plagues which then 
desolated Italy excited among the people 
those outrages and murders arising from 
fear or stupid credulity, of which our 

great cities in the nineteenth century, 
with all their improvements and pro- 
gress, were the theatre when the same 
cholera afflicted them. 

The church belonging to the hospital 
of Incurables, attributed to Sansovino, 
was cleverly constructed for the use (A 
an establishment intended for the teach- 
ing of music. St. Ursula and her com- 
panions is a fine painting by Tintoretto; 
a Crucifix is supposed to be by Paolo 
Veronese. The ceiling of the grand 
chapel is a good fresco by Angelo Ro'ssi ; 
on the church ceiling is the Parable of 
the wise virgins, an excellent work by 
Padovanino ; a Paradise, by S. Peranda 
and Maffei; and the Parable of the man 
without a wedding garment, by Cap- 

The church of Saints Gervase and 
Protase (San Trovaso) is rich, elegant, 
and ornamented ; it is like a Greek tem- 
ple consecrated to the Christian Orestes 
andPylades. asM, de Chateaubriand has 
surnamed them. The balustrade of an 
altar on the left, by an unknown artist, 
is a very highly finished work : the little 
angels are full of grace, but badly pla- 
ced. In the wall on the Gospel side, 
are two precious antique basso-relievos 
brought from Ravenna, enchased therein 
by the architect of the church, Pietro 
Lombardo, which some have even ven- 
ture to suppose the work of Praxiteles. 
An old painting on a gilt ground, by an 
unknown author, in the manner of the 
fourteenth century, represents St. Griso- 
gon on horseback. The Annunciation, 
the Birth of the Virgin, the Virgin, 
St. John Baptist, and other saints, are 
by Palma; St. John and Magdalen, a 
fine St. Anthony the abbot, the Last 
Supper by Tintoretto, to whom is also 
attributed the Christ washing the apos- 
tles' feet ; the Crucifix with the three 
Marys is by his nephew Domenico. 

The church of Saint Sebastian, finished 
in 15i8, from the plans of the clever 
Venetian architect Scarpagnino, saw 
the rise and growth of Paolo Veronese's 
glory. On his return from Rome, he 
was confined for some juvenile fault in 
the now almost demolished convent of 
Saint Sebastian; the superior foresaw 
his talents and employed the compulsory 
leisure of the captive. The first perform- 
ances which attracted notice were the 
ceilings of the sacristy and church : the 
latter, the History of Esther and Mor~ 

Chap. XVI.] 



decai, in three compartments, now much 
injured, excited such admiration that it 
procured him the most honourable orders 
from the senate. In order to preserve 
the work of Paolo Veronese, a decree of 
the council of Ten forbade those who 
might copy it to erect scaffolds, and 
ordered them to work on the ground. 
The great artist is interred in the church 
covered with his superb paintings, but 
which themselves are changed, nay, 
destroyed. The principal of these chefs - 
d'eeuvre are : two Martyrdoms of the 
saint ; the Martyrs Sts. Mark and 
Marcellin encouraged by St. Sebastian. 
There are two simple and precise in- 
scriptions to Paolo Veronese ; one beneath 
liis bust, the other on his tomb, 1 a mo- 
nument of the grief of his sons and 
brother, a family homage justified by the 
wrecks of the beautiful works before 
your eyes. The St. Nicholas is of the 
vigorous and productive old age of Titian, 
who executed it at the age of eighty-six; 
Vasari thought this painting life itself: 
the rochet was light, the gown flowing, 
but it is nearly destroyed by its barbarous 
restorers. The Virgin with St. John 
Baptist and St. Charles, is by Palma ; 
the Plague o [the serpents, by Tintoretto. 
The mausoleum of Livius Podacataro, 
archbishop of Cyprus, a great scholar, 
and the friend of Bembo, is a work full 
of simplicity, richness, majesty, and va- 
riety, by Sansovino. The statue of the 
Virgin with the Infant Jesus and St. 
John Baptist, by Tomaso Lombardo, 
his pupil, is superb ; St. Mark, St. An- 
thony, and the bust of Marcantonio 
Grimani, were sculptured by Vittoiia. 
At the church of Nostra Signora del 
Carmelitani is a precious painting cf the 
Presentation of the Infant Jesus to old 
Simeon, by Tintoretto, in Schiavonc's 
style, and which Yasari, by mistake, 
supposed to be by the latter master. 
Like Bossuet, * Tintoretto was careless, 
bold, and fiery, but, like him, could be 
mild and pleasing : the women of this 
painting are admirable for grace and 
delicatcness. An Annunciation, the 
Miracle of the loaves and fishes, the 
Virgin in a glory, are by Palma ; 
a Nostra Signora della Pietd, in the 

' Under the bust Is written : "Paulo Calintio 
Veronensi piclori, nalurae remulo, arlis miraculo, 

•,u|>erililL'salisfamavicturo;"tlieepilopli is: ''Paulo 
Caliai'io Yeron. plctoii celebcrrimo lilit, el fienedic. 

good Venetian style, is perhaps by Co- 
rona ; a superb and imposing painting of 
St. Liberal, magnanimously causing the 
deliverance of two men condemned to 
death, is by Padovanino ; a St. Nicholas 
surrounded with angels and saints, fan- 
tastic and original, by Lotto; St. Albert 
giving the benediction with the cross, 
St. Theresa, are by Liberi. The marble 
mausoleum of general Jacopo Foscarini, 
over the great door, is magnificent. 

The best paintings of Saint Barnabas 
are : the Saint in pontifical robes sur- 
rounded by other saints, a fine work by 
Darius Varottari (the father), Padova- 
nino's master, which would be sufficient 
for his glory ; a Holy Family, by Paolo 
Veronese ; St. James, St. Diego and St. 
Anthony the abbot, excellent paintings 
by the elder Palma. 

The church of Saint Pantaleon is 
adorned with fine paintings and good 
sculptures : St. Pantaleon healing an 
infant; St. Bernardin become a knight 
Hospitaller, are by Paolo Veronese; the 
latter is of his old age ; the Martyrdom 
of the saint, one of his miracles, are by 
Palma; the ceiling of the high altar, and 
especially that of the church representing 
the Life of the saint, are vigorous paint- 
ings by Fumiani, a Venetian artist of the 
seventeenth century, praised for his com- 
position and tasteful drawing. In the 
chapel of Nostra Signora diLoretto, the 
Croivning of the Virgin is the work of 
Vivarini, of the year UU. An Adul- 
terous woman is esteemed the best and 
most Giorgione-like work of Roch Mar- 
coni, a good pupil of Bellini, and the 
finely executed marble altar is of the 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

The church of the Tolentini is interest- 
ing with respect to art : the architecture 
is by Scamozzi ; the grandeur of the front, 
by Andrea Tirali, an artist of the seven- 
teenth century, has been impaired by 
some additions peculiar to the ill taste of 
that epoch. Among the paintings are : 
the model of the St. Mark, Tintoretto's 
chef-d'oeuvre, att he Academy of the Fine 
Arts; Saint Andrew Avellino, the Ado- 
ration of the Magi, St. Gaetan sur- 
rounded by the Virtues, by S. Perand;:, 
a pupil of Palma, whose poetic style he 

froler plenliss. et sibi, postetique. Deeessil XII 
Kalearl. Maii MDLXXXVIII." 

1 Sco ante, chap. n. 



[ Book VI. 

has adopted ; two paintings representing 
certain incidents in thelife of the saint, 
by Padovanino; a Beheading of John 
the Baptist, by Bonifazio ; the Virgin 
in a glory; another on the ceiling; the 
Redeemer, the Virgin and St. Peter ; 
St. Apollonia and St. Barbara; the 
Annunciation, the Visitation, by Pal- 
ma; St. Lorenzo Giustiniani distri- 
buting the valuables of the church 
among the poor; a One work by Cap- 
puccino, who has also a St. Anthony 
over the pulpit; the Martyrdom of St. 
Cecilia, by Procaccini ; an Annuncia- 
tion, by Luca Giordano. There is one 
monument singularly curious for its 
whimsicality, the grand marble mauso- 
leum ofthe patriarch FrancescoMorosini, 
by Filippo Parodi, a famous sculptor of 
the end ofthe seventeenth century, a too 
highly lauded pupil of Bernini. The 
figure of Time chained, the naked parts 
of the skeleton, the ensemble and the 
details of the composition, have some- 
thing of frenzy in (hem. 

Saint James dall' Orio has some splen- 
did paintings : St. Sebastian, St. Roch, 
and St. Laurence, by Marescalco; the 
ceiling, the St. Laurence and other 
saints , by Paolo Veronese ; the Mira- 
cle of the loaves and fishes; the Christ 
strengthened by an angel, excellent; the 
Christ in the sepulchre, the Christ as- 
cending mount Calvary, the ceiling and 
■walls of the sacristy, by Palma; the St. 
John Baptist preaching, a remarkable 
painting by Bassano ; the Four Evange- 
lists, by Padovanino ; the Beautiful 
Madonna and some saints, by Lorenzo 
Lotto; a Last Supper, a good work in 
the style of the older Palma. 

The church of Santa Maria Mater Do- 
mini, the architecture by the Lombard!, 
was finished by Sansovino. The statues 
of St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Andrew 
are remarkable; the Finding of the 
cross, by Tintoretto, is superb; the Last 
Supper, by the elder I'alma or Boni- 
fazio, very fine. 

One of the best executed basso-relievos 
in Venice is over one of the small doors 
ofthe Fran; it represents the Virgin, 
the Infant Jesus and two angels; the 
author of this masterpiece of taste, na- 

1 A subscription was first opened in 1794, and 
Canova gratuitously presented t tie plan of t lie 
monument ; the fall of Hie republic prevented t tie 
execution. This very pluu has since served, yvitu 

ture, and narmony, is unknown; per- 
haps it is by Nicholas of Pisa or some of 
his pupils. Amid the multitude of ele- 
gant, magnificent tombs adorning this 
superb temple ofthe Frari, an inscrip- 
tion of two lines on the pavement points 
out the spot where Titian reposes, but 
the fact is somewhat uncertain; for if 
Titian, though a victim of the plague, 
were buried at the Frari, the senate 
having excepted his body from being 
destroyed with the other infected dead 
(a singular funereal honour done to the 
remains of this great painter ), the place 
where he was buried is not positively 
known, and the inscription is long pos- 
terior to his death. For more than 
thirty years past, continual proposals 
have been made and much anxiety shown 
for the erection of a monumentto Titian, 
but hitherto without effect; it seems that 
the present would be a very seasonable 
opportunity to realise this desirable ob- 
ject, since the discovery and resurrection 
of his masterpiece, the Assumption. 1 

Above the door of the sacristy is the 
mausoleum of general Benedetto Pesaro, 
one of the most remarkable of this 
church : a statue of Mars, by Boccio da 
Montelupo, coldly executed, is cited for 
the skill displayed in its sculpture. The 
monument ofthe Orsini, by an unknown 
author, of the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, is remarkable for its elegant sim- 
plicity. A statue of St. Jerome, on the 
fourth altar, a striking performance, by 
Vittoria, is said to present the head of 
Tilian. The majestic choir of the Frari 
has some beautiful stalls in wood ofthe 
year 1 J-68, which are a perfect specimen 
of wainscolting and carving. The St. 
John Baptist, placed over the holy-water 
vase, is one ofSansovino's masterpieces; 
he executed it when more than seventy- 
five years of age, at the same time as his 
two colossuses of Mars and Neptune, on 
the Giant's stairs, to which this little 
figure is far preferable. Some paintings 
are remarkable: a Presentation ofthe 
Virgin in the temple, by Giuseppe Sal- 
viati; the painting in three compart- 
ments representing the Virgin and four 
saints, by Giovanni Bellini ; the same 
and some saints , St. Mark surrounded 

some trlfiing alterations, for the line mausoleum 
of the archduchess Maiia Christina; It Is also the 
model of the monument erected to Canova in Ihis 
same temple of the Frari. 

Chap. XVII. ] 



by saints, by B. Vivarini ; St. Francis 
before the pope, by Palma; St. Am- 
brose on horseback dispersing the 
Arians, by J. Contarini ; and especially 
the Virgin, St. Peter, other saints, and 
some personages of the Pesaro family, 
a fine work bv Titian, in which some 
negligences in'lhe drapery are cleverly 
managed so as togive effect to the figures. 
The monument sacred to Canova, a 
huge pyramid of Carrara marble contain- 
ing his heart, is completed. Never did 
i talent receive such exceeding homage : 
England supplied a fourth part of the 
j expense, amounting to 8000 sequins 
:, (4080Z.); France and Germany contribut- 
;! ed another quarter; America (South, not 
the industrious and mercantile North) 
subscribed 40 sequins; Italy, and prin- 
cipally the Venetian towns, made up the 
rest; notwithstanding the hyperbole 
common to monumental inscriptions, 
the words on this tomb, ex consolatione 
Europe universce, fall short of the truth; 
it was really erected at the expense of 
the whole world. 


Church and confraternity of Saint Roch.— Staircase. 
—Luxury of tlie confraternities— Saint Paul.— 
Carmagnola.— Saint John Chrysostom — Saint Sa- 
viour.— The Saints Sebastian.- Old age of Venetian 
artists. — Statues of writers or captains.— Saint 
Moses.— Law.— Venetian Athenaum.— Saint Ste- 
phen.— Jlorosini. 

The church and confraternity of Saint 
Roch are other wonders of art due to the 
plagues of Venice, as we are informed 
by an inscription placed over the rich 
and elegant high-altar of the former. 
The Annunciation, a grand painting of 
the Probatica piscina, St. Roch in the 
desert, and other incidents in the Life 
of St. Roch. in the greatchapel, remark- 
able paintings, St. Roch before the 
pope, are by Tintoretto ; a fresco of St. 
Sebastian, a fine painting in two parts 
representing St. Martin on horseback, 
and St. Christopher with the Infant 
Jesus, by Pordenone, The Eternal Fa- 
ther in the midst of the angels, a demi- 
lune, is by Andrea Schiavone. Above it 
is Titian's famous painting of Christ 

* See the next chapter. 
• a The character and incident of the Jew Shylock 
n the Merchant of Venice are borrowed from the 
irst novel [Mb day) of the Pecorone ; the harsh- 

dragged along by an executioner, which 
makes a profound impression by the ap- 
proximation and sublime coutrast of the 
two countenances. Vasari, though so 
prejudiced against Titian, avows that 
this Christ has produced more alms than 
the author gained in his whole life. A 
copy in basso-relievo is beside it, in 
which they have added a beard and 
mustachios to the executioner, without 
adding an iota to his formidable appear- 
ance. Just as in writing, high-sound- 
ing epithets, instead of strengthening the 
thought, enervate and weaken it. The 
statue of St. Roch, over the rich, elegant, 
and majestic high-altar, is a beautiful 
work of Maestro Buono, an excellent ar- 
tist of the fifteenth century, who was 
also the architect of the grand chapel and 
two small ones near it. St. Sebastian 
and St. Pantaleon stand one on each 
side of St. Roch, two excellent little 
statues by Giovanni Maria Mosca. 

The establishment of the Venetian 
confraternities and the splendour of their 
palaces,' especially of the confraternity of 
Saint Roch, one of the richest buildings 
of modern architecture, give a favour- 
able idea of the old government; as there 
can be no doubt of the easy circumstances 
and happiness of a people which spon- 
taneously erects such monuments at its 
own cost. The staircase of these mer- 
chants of Venice, of these Antonios,* a 
magnificent work completed by Scarpa- 
gnino, is superior to that of Versailles, 
and by a singular refinement, a strange 
excess of sumptuousness and profusion, 
the steps are sculptured on the under 
surface as well as the upper. On the 
landing halfway up the stairs are two 
paintings, the first Titian's Annuncia- 
tion, in which the flight of the angel 
is so light and rapid, and the wings, 
drapery, and hair extremely fine; the 
second, Tintoretto's Visitation. One of 
the first chefs-d'oeuvre of the latter, the 
immense, original, and sublime Cruci- 
fixion, is in the room called the Albergo, 
in which also, over the door, is his por- 
trait painted by himself, with the com- 
partments of the ceiling, representing 
the six great companies of Venice. The 
upper room is also entirely by him, and 
the worth of this great painter cannot be 

ness of Shylock, and bis hatred of the Christians, are 
not expressed with less en rgy by Ser Gli vanni of 
Florence than by the English poet. 



[Book VI. 

appreciated elsewhere than at Venice. 
Three statues, St. Rock (over the altar 
of th« lower room); St. John Baptist, 
and St. Sebastian, are by Campagna. 
Among the carvings in wood, an art 
now lost, which decorate this same room, 
are some by Michael Angelo, who 
seems to have sculptured all nature, 
wood, stone, marble, brass, and even 
snow, as is proved by the ephemeral sta- 
tues that he executed at the command of 
Pictro Medici, the unworthy successor 
of Lorenzo.' 

The steeple of* Saint Paul has sculp- 
tured on its base a singular monument 
of Venetian history, consisting of two 
lions, one of which is threatened with 
strangulation, from being entwined in 
the coils of a serpent, and the other has 
a man's head in his paws. The perform- 
ance, below mediocrity with respect to 
art, is little worthy of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Notwithstanding the incredulity 
of tome well-informed persons, I confess 
my inclination to discover in these fi- 
gures an allusion to the conspiracy of 
Philip Visconto, duke of Milan, whose 
arms were a snake, and of Count Car- 
magnola, who was condemned to be de- 
capitated for that crime. It is not un- 
reasonable to suppose that the sight of 
this coarse basso-relievo in the midst of 
the market of Saint Paul was one of the 
means employed by the government to 
excite the people against the conspirators. 
The doubtful guilt of Count Carmagnola 
is the subject of Manzoni's tragedy of 
that name, a bold and distinguished 
work, ranked by Goethe among the 
chefs-d'eeuvre of the modern drama, but 
in my opinion his Adelchi is before it. 

In the church, St. Peter receiving the 
keys, St. Peter in the midst of the 
apostles; at the high-altar, the Conver- 
sion of St. Paul, are by Palma ; the 
bronze statues ol'St. Anthony the abbot, 
and St. Paul, by Vitloria; the Assump- 
tion, the Last Supper, by Tintoretto ; 
and the Marriage of the Virgin, by 
Paolo Veronese. 

Saint Sylvester contains the Baptism 
of Jesus Christ, the Christ in the gar- 
den, by Tintoretto ; a grand Last Supper, 
by the elder Palma; the Adoration of 
the Magi, by Paolo Veronese, and a St. 

' " Sculpture," remarks M. Qualreniere de Quincy, 
"was Iheo far from conlining itself to the use of 
one substance only; it brought under contribution 

Thomas of Canterbury in the midst of 
several saints, a very fine work of Gero- 
nimo Santa Croce. 

Saint John the Almoner is of Scarpa 
gnino's architecture. The chief paint- 
ings are : the Miracle of the manna, of 
Corona's early years; the Martyrdom 
of St. Catherine, Constantine carrying 
the cross, by Palma; St. Catherine and 
other saints, by Pordenone ; and Titian v s 
celebrated St. John giving alms, a 
masterpiece lost in darkness, behind an 
enormous tabernacle, which only permits 
a glimpse of the saint's head. In this 
manner does Italy uselessly lavish and 
squander away her finest works without 
ever seeming impoverished. 

The church of Saint James of Rialto 
has some fine sculptures : a colossal St. 
Anthony abbot in bronze, by Campagna ; 
St. James, by Vitloria. 

The Cornaro chapel, a remnant of the 
old church of the Holy Apostles, is of 
rich, elegant architecture. Two mau- 
soleums of the Cornaro family are mag- 
nificent; the church has a Last Supper, 
a good work and the only one at Venice 
by Cesare of Conegliano ; the Miracle of 
the manna, by Paolo Veronese ; the 
Guardian angel, by Cappuccino. 

Saint. John Chrysostom, by the archi- 
tect Tullius Lombardo, has some good 
works both in painting and sculpture : 
St. Jerome, St. Charles, and St. Louis, 
by Giovanni Bellini; St. John Chrysos- 
tom and other saints, a superb painting 
by Sebastian del Piombo, that some have 
even thought by his master Giorgione, 
who probably assisted him in the inven- 
tion; St. John Chrysostom; four small 
paintings, attributed to the Vivarini, 
and the Apostles in the Ccenaculum, a 
very fine basso-relievo by Tullius Lom- 

The church of Saint Saviour encloses 
many noble tombs : such as the magni- 
ficent mausoleum of Andrea Dolfini and 
his wife, reputed to be by Giulio dal 
Moro, with two busts by Campagna; 
that of Doge Francesco Venieri, one of 
Sansovino's chefs-d'oeuvre, and that of 
Queen Cornaro, which has a basso-relievo 
representing her in the act of offering 
her crown to the Venetians, a vast, 
naked, inscriptionless mausoleum, that 

wood, marble, clay, bronze, and the different me- 
tals." Journal des Savants, Dec. 18IG 

Chap. XVII.] 


seems to speak of abdication. On one of 
the altars erected by Vittoria, are two of 
his statues, St. Roch and St. Sebastian ; 
the last very natural and graceful. By- 
the-by, I have been often singularly 
struck on calling to mind the multitude 
of Saints Sebastian that 1 saw in Italy, 
and with the merit and beauty of the 
greater number. It is probable that the 
contrast of the immobility and suffering 
of the body, with the ardour and sublime 
enthusiasm of the soul and its heavenly 
hope, is one of the most touching and 
poetical subjects that art can offer to the 
eye. Bernini himself could not escape 
its pathos, and his St. Sebastian, in the 
catacombs at Rome, is a very fine work. 
Despite its fatal retouching, the Annun- 
ciation shows the variety of Titian's ta- 
<ent : the angel stooping, with his arms 
crossed on his breast, differs totally from 
the aerial and almost haughty angel of 
St. Roch ; the work of the artist's old age 
being regarded by his enemies as beneath 
him and attributed to another, in his 
indignation he has written the word 
fecit twice over after his name. The 
Transfiguration, energetic and full of 
imagination, is also of Titian's old age; 
he painted it rapidly, and it is evident 
that only his sight was weakened. He 
executed" the famous Last Supper of the 
Escurial between the age of eighty and 
eighty-seven : one would say his "talent 
had neither slackness nor decrepitude. 
Sansovino was also an octogenarian when 
he sculptured with his own hand the 
two beautiful statues placed one on each 
side of Francesco Venieri's monument. 
The great artists of Venice, like her 
first captains, Bandolo, who took Con- 
stantinople, and Carlo Zeno, whodeliver- 
ed Cyprus, both at eighty years of age, 
seem to have vanquished lime, and Saint 
Saviour is, as it were, the theatre of this 
prodigious triumph. The celebrated 
organ of this church is the first to which 
a chromatic fingerboard was adopted, 
an important progress of modern music, 
due to Italy. 

On the front of the church of Saint 
Julian, the architecture of which is by 
Sansovino and Vittoria, is a much es- 

1 Ilangone bad composed, for Pope Julius ill., 
a whimsical treatise on the means of living to more 
loan one hundred and twenty years, from which 
circumstance it came to be reported that be died at 

that age. 

teemed bronze statue by Sansovino ; it re- 
presents the celebrated physician Thomas 
Rangona of Ravenna, surnamed the phi- 
lologue, for his erudition ; he settled at 
Venice, and died there when above 
eighty,' after devoting a part of his im- 
mense wealth to the judicious recon- 
struction of the church. The monu- 
ments of Venice, like those of Florence, 
are chiefly sacred to writers and military 
chiefs; it is evident that the glorious days 
of these republics were an era of war 
and literature : this population of statues 
is composed of neither emperors nor 
kings, as at Rome or in the great states 
of modern times; they are all persons 
ennobled by their own deeds, and made 
famous by their books or their battles. 
The life of literary men of that age, often 
unsettled and necessitous, is not without 
a species of honour, importance, and 
lustre, which they no longer possess amid 
the popularity, ease, and prosperity they 
now enjoy. 

Saint Julian has many paintings by 
Palma : the Assumption of the Virgin, 
St. John the Evangelist arid other 
saints, Jesus Christ in the garden, the 
Apotheosis of the saint; Jesus Christ 
strengthened by the angels, a Last 
Supper, are by Paolo Veronese ; several 
statues, basso-relievos, and excellent or- 
naments by Vittoria. A marble group 
of the Dead Christ supported by angels, 
by Campagna, has a soft natural expres- 
sion, and is beautifully executed. 

The churches of Venice unite the ex- 
tremes of good and bad taste in architec- 
ture. The chasteness of the Redentore 
is a most perfect contrast with the exces- 
sive refinement of the front of Saint 
Closes. The paintings are : the Virgin 
with the Infant Jesus, and Christ wash- 
ing the apostles' feet, by Tintoretto; the 
Invention of the cross, by Liberi; the 
Last Supper, by Palma. At the entrance 
of the church a small stone points out the 
place where Law is interred; his body 
was transported thither from Saint Ge- 
minian, in 1808, by a brave and loyal 
French general, his great nephew, born 
in India, who then commanded at Ve- 
nice, 2 a circumstance that seems to add 

a General Law de Laurlston, afterwards a peer, 
minister, and marshal of Trance. 



[Book VI. 

to the adventurous destiny of the Scottish 
minister. Montesquieu met with Law 
at Venice. " He was," says he, " the same 
man ; his mind always occupied with 
schemes, and his head full of calculations 
and values real or representative. He 
played often, and tolerably high, though 
his fortune was very small." It is a pity 
that we have no other guarantee for the 
following anecdote and high eulogium it 
passes on our parliaments, than d'Alem- 
bert and his copiers. Montesquieu hav- 
ing asked Law why he did not attempt 
to corrupt the parliament of Paris, as the 
English minister had that of London : 
" That's a very different case," replied 
Law; " the English senate m.skes liberty 
consist in doing what it pleases ; the 
French in doing its duty : interest may, 
therefore, induce the one to wish what 
it ought not to do; but it is seldom that 
it impels the other to do what it ought 
not to wish." One of the advantages cf 
publicity and constitutional government 
is that of rendering impossible the return 
of the system and the vast changes of 
fortune that it produced. 

The elegant and simple church of Saint 
Fanlin is of the Lombardi school; the 
choir by Sansovino. The paintings are : 
the Dead Christ, by Palma ; a Virgin 
with the Infant Jesus, by Giovanni 
Bellini ; the Crucifixion, reckoned one of 
Corona's be'st works. 

The ancient Confraternity of Saint 
Jerome is converted into the Venetian 
Athenseum, a literary society distinguish- 
ed by the science and labours of its 
members. ThisediGce, built by Vittoria, 
offers some beautiful and curious works: 
Apollonius and Nicholas Massa, busts 
by Vittoria ; on the first floor, the ceiling 
in thirteen compartments, painted by 
Palma, as also the eight compartments 
of the ceiling on the second floor, repre- 
senting divers incidents in the life of Saint 
Jerome, beginning with his election as 
cardinal. St. Jerome receiving the of- 
ferings is by Tintoretto ; the Triumph 
of the Virgin, by Palma; with the por- 
traits of the author, Titian, and other 
famous artists. 

The high altar of Saint Stephen, the 
chandeliers and statues that adorn it, are 
magnificent; the small statue of Charity, 
over the holy-water vase, by Giovanni 
Maria Mosca, is of extraordinary ele- 
gance; the statues of St. Jerome and St. 
Paul are by Pietro Lombardo; a bronze 

basso-relievo, the Virgin and Infant 
Jesus, and some figures, by an unknown 
author, is very fine ; the mausoleum of 
the physician Jacopo Luriani, a work of 
theshteenth century, isof excellent taste; 
the two small chandeliers of the grand 
chapel (especially that of the year 1577) 
are of the best "in Venice. But I was 
still more struck with the tomb of Moro- 
sini, a large stone placed in the centre 
of the church, embellished with simple 
bronze ornaments, presenting the ducal 
cap and the trophies of his victories over 
the Ottomans, with this inscription alone : 
Francisci Mauroceni Peloponesiaci Ve- 
netiarum Principis ossa, 169i. Not- 
withstanding the victories of this great 
captain and his death from fatigue and 
exhaustion at Napoli di Romania, like 
Lord Byron, I could not forget that he 
blew up the Parthenon, and my profane 
regret was for the Greek temple and the 
statue of Minerva. 

At the church of Saint Vidal, the 
Saint on horseback is a superb work by 

Santa Maria Zobenigo with its pre- 
posterous front, another monument of 
that Venetian bad taste already alluded 
to, which came after the good, and, as 
usual, was worse than the bad taste pre- 
ceding it; this church has a Visitation, 
by Palma ; the busts ofGiulio and Giiisti- 
niani Contarini, by Vittoria ; the Saviour, 
the Conversion of St. Paul, by Tinto- 
retto; four small paintings by Vivarini ; 
a Last Supper, by Giulio dal Moro, who 
also sculptured the statue of the Redeemer 
in the sacristy. 


Santa Maria Formosa.— Venetian marriages.— Fes- 
tival delle Marie— Santa Maria dei Miracoli.— 
Saint John and Pau!.— Tombs of Venice.— Bra- 
gadino.— Vcndramini and Valieri mausoleums.— 
'1 Mian's Martyrdom of Saint Peter. --Ancient li- 
brary of Saint John and Paul.— Colleoni monu- 
ment.— Confraternity of Saint Mark; -of Mercy.— 
Santa Maria dell' Orto. — Marietta. 

The first Venetians, like the Romans, 
attached great political importance to the 
married state. Every year, on the least 
of the Purification, nearly all the mar- 
riages of the city were celebrated together 
in the same church, that on the small is- 
land of Olivolo, now Santa Maria For- 
mosa. When the constitution was set- 
tled, the dogeship instituted, and po- 

Chap. XVIII.] 


pulation and wealth had increased, it 
was decreed that twelve young maidens, 
selected from the most virtuous and 
beautiful, should be portioned at the 
public expense and conducted to the 
altar by the doge in his state robes and 
followed by his retinue; the government 
carried their delicate attentions so far as 
to adorn them with gold, pearls, and 
diamonds, that the self-love of these 
rosUres might not be wounded by the 
rich attire of the brides; but after the 
ceremony they laid aside this bor- 
rowed splendour and retained only the 

A catastrophe that happened in Qil 
gave still greater solemnity to this 
fiete in after years. During the pre- 
vious night, certain pirates of Trieste 
succeeded in placing an ambuscade un- 
perceived behind the island of Olivolo, 
and in (he morning, hastily crossing 
the canal, they leaped ashore sword in 
hand, rushed into the church at the 
moment of the nuptial benediction, 
seized the intended brides in their bril- 
liant dresses and carrying their arcellas, 1 
dragged Ihem to the boats, leaped on 
board with them, and fled with all speed. 
This rape, however, did not turn out 
like that of the Sabines, and the piratical 
Romulus of the Adriatic had not the 
same success as the founder of the Eternal 
City. The ravishers being pursued to the 
lagoons of Caorlo by the Venetian bride- 
grooms with the doge at their head, were 
attacked while in the act of sharing the 
women and the booty, totally defeated, 
and all thrown into the sea. The small 
port on the coast of Friuli where this 
action was fought immediately took the 
name of Porto delle Donzelle (port of 
the Maids) which it still retains. The 
f^te delle Marie, - to which the return 

1 Tlie portion of each bride, which she carried 
» ilh her in a small box called arcella. 

- The origin of the name delle Marie is un- 
known : it may probably be derived, as Siguora 
', Siichiel conjectures, from the greater part of girls 
carried away being called Maria, a name still very 
common in Venice, but more so formerly ; or, in- 
deed, from their deliverance taking place on the 
day of the Purification of the Virgin and being ce- 
lebrated at Santa Maria Formosa. 

3 The origin of these presents is an interesting 
incident of the middle ages : when the affianced 
lamsels were carried off. the corporation of ca- 
iQllari (carpenters), who formed the principal po- 

of the betrothed and their eventful mar- 
riage gave rise, was celebrated annually 
at Santa Maria Formosa until the latter 
days of the republic, but the weddings 
were discontinued : the doge merely went 
to the church accompanied by the nobles : 
the priest met them and presented them 
in the name of his parishioners, with 
gilded :-traw hats, flasks of malmsey, and 
oranges. 3 

The twelve cuirasses of gold mount- 
ed with pearls, formerly worn by the 
dowered brides, are no longer in exis- 
tence ; they were sold in 1797, to meet 
the urgent necessities of that epoch ; the 
pearls, carefully preserved in the treasury 
during the French administration, have 
since defrayed the expenses attendant on 
the repairs and conservation of Saint 
Mark. With these jewels disappeared 
the last traces of the national and poe- 
tic fe^te delle Marie, which, as well 
as the event that gave rise to it, would 
have been a subject worthy of the pencil 
of the great Venetian masters; such 
a painting would be very properly pla- 
ced at Santa Maria Formosa, and I 
should have preferred finding it there 
instead of the St. Barbara, though a 
very fine work, and the chef-d'oeuvre of 
the elder Palma. The saint is the por- 
trait of his daughter Violante, whom Ti- 
tian passionately loved, and whose like- 
ness he inserted in many of his works, 
where it is known by the appellation of 
Titian's mistress. 

The Virgin dei Setti dolori is also 
by Palma : and he supplied the designs 
of the Mosaics on one of the chapel 

Santa Maria dei Miracoli is truly 
worthy of its name for the purity, ele- 
gance, and grace of its architecture, by 
Pietro Lombardo, and its charming 

pulation of the parish of Santa Maria Formosa, 
having furnished the greatest number of boats, and 
especially contributed to the success of the pursuit, 
these brave men were offered any recompense they 
might desire. They only solicited the honour of 
receiving the dogeintheirparish churchou the day 
of the festival just instituted. The doge, struck at 
such disinterestedness, and wishing to afford them 
an opportunity of asking more, pretended to raiso 
some difficulties with respect to the possibility of 
his visit, and said to them : — " If it should rain?" 
— " We will give you hats to shelter you."—" And if 
I were thirsty ? "— " We would give you something 
to drink." 




Bouk VI. 

arabesques. The marble statue of the 
Virgin, over the principal door, seem* 
scarcely worthy of the clever Venetian 
sculptor of the fifteenth century to whom 
it is attributed, who adopted the antique 
name of Pyrgoteles, a celebrated artist 
ol Alexander's time. It appears from 
Morelli's researches, that Pyrgoteles was 
of Greek extraction, and of the Lascari 
family of Venice. In the church are the 
statues of St. Clair and St- Francis, 
by Gampagna. 

Saint John and Paul is one of the vast 
basilics of the middle ages, with win- 
dows, at once brilliant and sombre, a 
national monument full of the magnifi- 
cent mausoleums of doges, generals, and 
great men of Venice, and the Saint 
Denis of a republican aristocracy. The 
immense size of these tombs almost 
startles one; it seems almost presumption 
for man to occupy so much space in the 
house of the Lord. The rival vanities 
of the patrician families explain the ex- 
travagance of such sepulchres, which is 
not, however, the useless profusion of 
the world of fashion, but has power- 
fully promoted the developement and 
splendour of art. 

The Mocenigo family, which has given 
as many as seven doges to the republic, 
three of whom repose in Saint John and 
Paul, stands in the highest rank of these 
illustrious patricians. 

The mausoleums of the doges Pietro 
and Giovanni are among the best works 
of Pietro Lombardo and his sons ; Gio- 
vanni Mocenigo's has some statues, 
which from their grace and majesty 
seem imitations of the antique. One 
of the tombs in this church, that of 
Marcantonio Bragadino, who was flayed 
alive by the Turks, after his glorious de- 
fence of Famagosta, contains only his 
skin, which was purchased by his fa- 
mily of ttie vile pacha, his murderer 
rather than conqueror. 1 The end of 
Bragadino, like that of many other Ve- 
netian generals who fell into the power 
of the infidels, seems a kind of martyr- 
dom ; it is deeply moving to contemplate 
the martial relic of the Venetian hero, 
the inscription showing his horrible fate. 

• The defence ol' Famagosta cost the Turks fifty 
thousand men (more than seventy-fire thousand, 
according to the abbe Mariti. in his Voyage to 

Among many superb mausoleums col- 
lected in Saint John and Paul since the 
destruction of several churches, that of 
Doge Andrea Vendramini, a work of the 
Leopardi school, stands pre-eminent; it 
is the finest in Venice and one of the 
most considerable structures of its kind. 
The election of Andrea Vendramini to 
the dogeship was a species of revolution •• 
Vendramini was a new man ; he was Ihe 
descendant of a banker elevated to Ihe 
patriciate, after the war of Chiozza 
in 1381, as one of Ihe thirty citizens 
who had shown the greatest devotion 
to the republic when surrounded with 
dangers : as Daru rightly says, this is Ihe 
purest source from which nobility can 

The grand mausoleum of Valiero by 
Longhena, exhibits, by its tasteless splen- 
dour, a perfect contrast with the Ven- 
dramini mausoleum; the doge's caps are 
profusely scattered about it, and oddly 
surmount the two escutcheons; this aris- 
tocratic cap (corno ducale) bears how- 
ever a pretty close resemblance to the cap 
of liberty on a man's head. 

Another remarkable mausoleum is 
that of Alviso Micheli, a celebrated 
orator, who died in 1589 while ad- 
dressing the senate, as the inscription 

The painting at Saint John and Paul 
is not inferior to the statuary. The Vir- 
gin, the Infant Jesus and saints was 
one of Ihe fine works of Giovanni Eel- 
lini, but it is spoiled, almost destroyed 
by the restorers. 

The painting in nine compartments 
representing the Dead Christ, the An- 
nunciation, St. Christopher, is a fa- 
mous production of Ludovico or Barto- 
lommeo Vivarini ; the St. Augustin 
seated is a good painting by the latter, 
and his best in oil. Jesus Christ on 
the Cross, the Magdalen and St. Tho- 
mas, is in Liberi's first style. St. John 
the Baptist, the Manna falling from 
heaven, are by Lazzarini; one of the 
chapel ceilings in five compartments, 
the Virgin crowned in Paradise, very 
fine; the Crucifix and some saints; the 
Resurrection of Jesus Chust, by Palma; 

Cyprus). See, in Dam's History of Venice, a re- 
lation of Bragadino's sufferings, and the perfidy of 
Mustapha, book xxvii. IV. 




(he Saviour in the midst of the apostles, 
excellent, is by Roch Marconi. The 
great Crucifixion, by Tintoretto, is su- 
perb ; his Virgin receiving the homage 
of Venetian senators, is nobly expres- 
sive. There are also of his another Cru- 
cifixion and the Virgin giving crowns 
to Sts. Dominick and Catherine. A 
Holg Alliance of the princes of that 
epoch, by his nephew Domenico, a beau- 
tiful composition, contains Pope Pius V., 
Philip II., Doge Alviso Mocenigo, and 
behind, their respective generals Marc- 
antonio Colonna, John of Austria, and 
Sebastiano Venicri. The Holy Trinity, 
the Virgin and some saints, the Pope 
Honorius III. confirming the Domi- 
nican order, are distinguished works by 
Leandro Bassano, who also painted the 
Virgin and St. Francis, the immense 
Exhumation of a corpse, and an Annun- 
ciation. Vittorio Capello kneeling be- 
fore St. Helen, esteemed, is by Den- 
tone; St. Dominick calming a tempest, 
by Padovanino. The sacristy ceiling by 
Marco Vecellio is very remarkable, and 
a Nativity by Paolo Veronese. But the 
masterpiece surpassing all these paint- 
ings is Titian's Martyrdom of St. Peter 
the Dominican, a composition full of 
poetry, expression, and pathos; a scene 
of murder by a robber, in a lonely 
wood, but neither ghastly nor bloody ; 
the trees have even a touch of ideal 
beauty. The contrast between the terror 
of Saint Peter's companion, and the 
heavenly hope which illumines the coun- 
tenance of the latter, is admirable. In 
such a work there is a kind of intrinsic 
power which attains the object of the art 
without an effort; that is not the kind of 
painting that may be learned, rather cor- 
rectand regular than vigorousand grand ; 
Titian seems to create paintings, while 
others make them. A decree of the se- 
nate forbade the Dominicans of Saint 
John and Paul, under pain of death, to 
sell this marvellous painting ; its sur- 
passing excellence justifies and explains 
such an attack on the rights of property. 
This painting was among the works of 
art made booty of by our triumphant 
armies; at Paris it was transferred from 
the wood to canvas, and is the greatest 
operation of this clever new invention, 

' See ante, cli. xvi. 

i Ilist. litt. dllalie, t. m., 159. The De Viris 
itlu&tribus was printed In Venire, In 1547, under 

which has in a manner restored Its co- 
lour and life. 

A mong the other pictures of Saint John 
and Paul, there is one by Giambatlista dal 
Moro, which represents St. Mark assist- 
ing at the maritime levy of Venice with 
the three inquisitors of state : the Vene- 
tians made a recruiting officer of Saint 
Mark, as the conscription law has since 
become an article of faith in the cate- 
chism of the Empire and that of Aus- 

At the entrance of the sacristy are the 
busts of Titian, the elder Palma, and the 
younger, whose tomb is near. This 
little bust, over a sacristy door, is the 
only monument erected to Titian; ' it is 
due to his pupil the younger Palma, who 
bad purposed consecrating a magnificent 
mausoleum to his memory in Saint John 
and Paul; and is at least fitly placed 
among the great men of Venice. 

The chapel of the Rosary, notwith- 
standing its rich ornaments, shows the 
decline of taste; Voltaire's verses on the 
chapel of Versailles might, very well be 
applied to its showy defects and their 
admirers. The four fine statues placed 
at the corners of the altar, Sts. Justine 
and Dominick, by Vittoria; Sts. Rose 
and Thomas, by Campagna, form a real 
contrast with the bad style of the sculp- 
ture of the succeeding age. 

There has been no library at Saint 
John and Paul since the suppression of 
the monastery ; whoever wishes to see 
the manuscript of the De Viris illustri- 
bus by Guglielmo Pastrengo, must go 
to Saint Mark, where it now is, as Gin- 
guene" informs us.* The author, a great 
jurisconsult, and a dear friend of Pe- 
trarch's, to whom he lent many a ma- 
nuscript out of his rich library, may be 
regarded as the father of those innume- 
rable biographies which have so prodi- 
giously multiplied since, and, as long as 
the world and the love of that nothing 
called fame shall endure, will not cease 
to appear with their everlasting inevit- 
able errors. 

The Colleoni monument, on one side of 
Saint John and Paul, was erected with 
the money bequeathed for that purpose 
by that general. The ordering of his 
own statue does not appear very noble 

(he false title of De originibut rerum. 
is scarce. 

This book 



[Book VI. 

on the part of such an aide captain, who 
might have merited it by his talents and 
services.' The inscription however dis- 
sembles this origin, as it simply states 
that the statue was erected ob militare 
imperium optime gestum. The Corin- 
thian pedestal of this monument, the 
work of Leopardo, is the first in exis- 
tence for the elegance and good taste of 
the ornaments; the statues of princes are 
inferior in this point to that of this con- 
dottiere. It is the work of Andrea da 
Yerrocchio, a Florentine, one of the first 
artists of his time, a painter, sculptor, 
and architect, the master of Perugino 
and Leonardo Vinci. The history of 
his statue, related by Vasari, portrays 
the passion, jealousy, and self-love, the 
independence and activity of the artists 
of that epoch : when Verrocchio had 
finished the horse, he learned that the ex- 
ecution of the figure was about to be 
conceded through favour to Vellano of 
Padua, who was patronised by certain 
patricians. In his indignation he broke 
the head and legs of the horse, and pri- 
vately fled to Florence. The Venetian 
senate immediately let him know, that 
if he ever dared to show himself there 
again, it would be at the peril of his 
head ; he replied that he would take 
good care of that, since the Signoria 
could not replace his head if once cut off, 
so easily as he could repair that of the 
horse he had broken. This answer was 
favourably received, and Verrocchioob- 
tained permission to return; he recom- 
menced his work with such ardour that 
he was seized with an inflammation of 
the lungs, of which he died, andLeopardo 
was charged with the clearing and cast- 
ing of the statue. 

The rich front of the Confraternity of 
Saint Mark is worth notice : the archi- 
tecture is by Pietro Lombardo; two 
lions, divers incidents of the Saint's life, 
excellent basso-relievos, are by Tullius; 
and the statues placed above the pedes- 
tals, the columns and the arch of the great 
door, by Maestro Bartolommeo, the 
author of the Delia Carta door in the 
Ducal palace, are curious and expressive 
works of the fourteenth century. 

Over the door of the ancient confra- 
ternity of Mercy, an edifice devoted to 

1 Lord Byron, In the preface lo Faliero, speaks of 
Hip stalue now In the square of Saini John and 
Paul as that of a forgotten warrior, without even 
giving his name; Colleoul, one of the founders of 

the military service, of which Sansovino 
is the reputed architect, is a grand and 
noble figure of the Virgin welcoming the 
faithful, who are praying at her feet, a 
chef-d'eeuvre of this same Maestro Bar- 

The Jesuit's church is splendid. The 
principal paintings are : St. Francis 
Xavier 'preaching, by Liberi; the In- 
vention of the cross, the Virgin, in- 
fant Jesus and some saints, the ceiling, 
by Palma; the Circumcision, the As- 
sumption, by Tintoretto; the Martyr- 
dom of St. Laurence, by Titian, returned 
from Paris, admirable for the triple ef- 
fect of the light ; the mausoleum of Doge 
Pascale Cicogna, by Campagna; and over 
the principal door, that of Giovanni, 
Priamo, and Andrea Lezze, which is 

The old and oft-renovated church of 
Saint Catherine has some good and cu- 
rious paintings : the Angel and Tobias, 
perhaps by Titian, or his clever pupil 
Santo Zago ; the six paintings of the 
grand chapel by Tintoretto ; the Espou- 
sals of St. Catherine, a charming work 
by Paolo Veronese ; the Virgin in 
childbed, in the first manner of the Ve- 
netian school ; the. Miracle wrought by 
St. Anthony on a miser ; the Body of 
the saint being carried to heaven, the 
Saint before the Virgin, by Palma. 

In the church of the Abbazia are : a 
St. Christina crowned, St. Peter and 
St. Paul, by Damiano Mazza, a great 
pupil of Titian's, who died in the flower 
of his age; his works are energetic and 
brilliant, but not very numerous; the 
Angel Raphael, Tobias, St. James, St. 
Nicholas, anexcellent painting by Cone- 

The spacious old church of Santa Ma- 
riadelV Orto is now almost in ruins; ihe 
grass begins to grow on the pavement, 
the damp has effaced the paintings, the 
ceiling is destroyed; to add to all these 
disasters, in 1828, the steeple, an elegant 
construction of the fifteenth century in 
the Oriental style, was struck by light- 
ning, and broke down the roof in its fall. 
But what grandeur and magnificence 
survive amid these ravages ! Over the 
middle door is an enormous block of 
porphyry; in a corner of the church, 

the art of war In Europe, did not merit either the 
pool's neglect or contempt. See booh v. cb. i. and 
above, eh. It. 

Chap. XIX. 


there hangs against the wall, without a 
frame, the celebrated Presentation of 
the Virgin, one of Tintoretto's principal 
chefs-d'oeuvre : two immense paintings 
of his youth, the Prodigies that will 
precede the last Judgment, and the 
Worshipping of the golden calf, cover 
the sidewalls of the grand chapel, works 
distinguished by force, fire, and daring, 
though the first has been severely criti- 
cised by Vasari for exaggeration and 
picturesque extravagances. Beside this 
powerful painting, the wings of the 
angels in St. Peter contemplating the 
cross arc admirable for lightness and 
transparency: and the St. Agnes rais- 
ing the son of Sempronius the Roman 
prefect, another excellent painting by 
the same great master, which has been 
taken from our Gallery of the Louvre to 
be reinstalled in these ruins. It is in 
the chapel of the ancient and illustrious 
family of the Contarini, beside the busts 
of several of these noble personages; 
thus we find in this secluded church 
and almost under its wreck, signal ves- 
tiges of artistic glory and of the by-gone 
splendour of Venice. 

I regretted not finding at Santa Maria 
dell' Orto any traces of the tombs of Tin- 
toretto and his daughter and pupil Ma- 
rietta Robusti, whom he had the misfor- 
tune to lose at an early age. Marietta 
was a great portrait painter, and more- 
over remarkable for her personal attrac- 
tions and her accomplishments in music 
and singing, which she owed to the les- 
sons of the Neapolitan Giulio Zacchino, 
the Cimarosa of bis time. Marielta was' 
invited to the courts of Philip II, the em- 
peror Maximilian, and the archduke 
Ferdinand, but her father could never 
consent to part with a daughter whom 
he idolized; he married her to a Venetian 
jeweller, a sensible disinterested man, 
who preferred his wife's painting the 
portraits of his fellow-tradesmen and 
friends rather than of the rich and great. 
The death of Marietta was a public 
loss at Yenice, and Tintoretto wished 
her to repose at Santa Maria dell' Orto 
amid his own chefs-d'oeuvre, which he 
seemed in a manner to consecrate to her 

Beside the grand and beautiful works 
of Tintoretto, there are also many re- 
markable paintings : the Saint John 
Baptist and some saints, by Cone- 
gliano, which it is not easy to quit, in spite 

of some harshness, so much truth is there 
in the attitude of the heads, the colour- 
ing, and the perspective ; St. Vincent, 
St. Helen and other saints, by the elder 
Palma, very much damaged ; and the 
Virgin with the Infant Jesus, a va- 
luable painting by Giovanni Bellini. 

At the church of Saint Martial are : 
the Saint wilhother saints by Tintoretto; 
and Titian s celebrated painting of To- 
bias guided by the angel, the first work 
really worthy of him, which he did when 
about thirty ; for his talent, which was, 
as we have seen, to endure for so long a 
period, does not seem, like that of many 
great masters, to have been very preco- 
cious. Some writers fancied the figure 
in the back ground praying in a wood to 
be John the Baptist, and they did not 
fail to animadvert on the anachronism; 
the abbe Moschini, like a zealous Vene- 
tian, defended his compatriot, and recog- 
nised therein young Tobias's father. 

The church of Saint Felix, in the style 
of the Lombardi, with gales elegantly 
adorned with marble ornaments, has the 
St. Demetrius, by Tintoretto; the Sa- 
viour, St. Felix, and some portraits, 
by Passignano.and two allegorical statues 
of Giulio dal Moro. 


Archives.— Council of Ten. — Inquisitors of State.— 
Autograph consultations by Fra Paolo. — Statistics 
originated at Venice.— Yillelaid's correspondence. 

Amid the partial destruction of Yenice, 
asylums have been opened for its various 
monuments: such was the Academy of 
Fine Arts for a great number of its paint- 
ings, the archives, which are established 
in the old convent of the Frari and ap- 
parently confided to very good hands for 
classification, will also be a refuge for 
the deeds and documents of its history. 
These archives, consisting of eight mil- 
lions six hundred sixty-four thousand 
seven hundred and nine volumes or port- 
folios, distributed into two hundred and 
ninety-eight rooms and corridors, may 
be regarded as the most voluminous hi 
the world, and are assuredly one of the 
most enormous piles of written paper 
which have been hitherto collected. 

A part of the archives of the Council of 
Ten was consumed in the fire of 1508 ; 
copies of the judgments exist, but the 1 
depositions were joined to the originals 



[Book VI. 

only. I remarked a sentence of 1419, 
pronounced against four Minorite monks 
who had run naked through Venice, 
followed by ihe populace ; they were 
merely requested to be more modest for 
the future. The fragments of the ar- 
chives of the Inquisitors of state are very 
few in number. One part was destroyed 
long since through state policy, another 
when the republic fell ; the rest nearly 
all disappeared in the confusion ; this 
section of the archives has now a nominal 
rather than an actual existence. 

The duty on salt, a subject so warmly 
discussed by economists, was appro- 
priated at Venice to the payment of ar- 
tists. In this part of the archives might 
be found some curious particulars respect- 
ing the price of the chefs-d'oeuvre of the 
great Venetian masters. To prosecute 
this kind of research is not now very easy, 
and it is necessary to procure a previous 
permission from Vienna. 

The autograph registers of Fra Paolo's 
consultations as theologian of the com- 
monwealth, have but few erasures. This 
monk displays an almost parliamentary 
tact in his discussions with the court of 
Rome. But Fra Paolo, notwithstanding 
his information and piety, did not escape 
the spirit of the age in which he lived, 
and his policy sometimes too closely re- 
sembles (hat of Machiavel.' 

The science of statistics appears to have 
originated in Venice, and at an early pe- 
riod. The speech of Doge Tomaso Moce- 
nigo on the situation of the republic, 
pronounced in 14'20, during the war with 
the duke of Milan, is regarded as a model 
by a very able modern writer on statis- 
tics, S. Quadri, of Venice. The expo- 
sitions of the situation of the Empire 
under Napoleon were a good custom 
which might be advantageously conti- 
nued. A passage of the historian Sanuto, 
quoted by Daru, proves that there existed 
at Venice from the year 1425 a kind of 

1 In particular, remarks Daru, when be says in 
his book entitled Opinione in qual modo debba 
governarsi la republica veneziana, "that poison 
ougnt lo do the hangman's duly." hist, of 
Venice, xxix. 14. 

1 Sloria delta stalislica, e prospello statislico 
delleProvincie Venete. Venice, I824H826, two vol. 

3 See the Histories of Daru and Delta, where this 
loiter is inserted verbatim. Vl.'lelard, a cousin of 
the ancient senator of that name, has composed 
several tragedies since his fatal mission, among 
which Is one entitled Constant/ n et la primitive 

domesday-book, and that the invention 
could not be attributed to the Florentines, 
as Sismondi supposed, who placed it 
in 1429. I saw in the archives a statis- 
tical account of the Venetian slate for the 
year 1780, it was extensive, and the ar- 
rangement good. It is probable that such 
works were not as well executed at that 
epoch in other countries. Thegenius<of 
statistics is not extinct at Venice; the 
Statistics of the Venetian Provinces, 
and the seventy-two synoptical tables ac- 
companying it, by S. Quadri, are esteem- 
ed, and S. Adrian Balbi, one of the 
learned Europeans who have followed 
this kind of research with most zeal and 
success, is a Venetian. 

I perused the correspondence of the 
French secretary of legation, named Vil- 
letard, who in 1797 was charged with 
effecting the change of government ; an 
ingenuous negocialor and sincere friend 
of liberty, who hoped to serve her cause 
by his manoeuvres, the candid Villelard 
said, in one of his despatches to the mu- 
nicipality of Venice : " The general will 
never yield on the ■ democratisation , " 
and it was to him that Bonaparte soon 
after addressed that terrible letter, an 
unheard-of compound of egotism, con- 
tempt, banter, and fury,— the death- 
warrant of Venice. 3 


Arsenal.— Ltous of Athens.— Bucentaur.-Armour 
of Henry IV.— Emo. 

The arsenal of Venice was one of its 
tfonders ; 4 and its most glorious and 
useful monument; the fleets which it 
constructed, in combatting and repelling 
the continual invasions of the Turks, 
preserved the civilisation of Italy and the 
south' of Europe. His, at this day, only 
a magnificent testimony of the decline of 
Venice. How it differs in its solitude 

eglise, on le Fanatisme politique, a very scarce 
piece, of which, through caprice, only two copies 
are s-ald lo have been printed. He died at the age 
of Hfty-flve on Ihe "lb July, 1825, at Charenton : 
during his whole life he had only passed from one 
kind of madness to another. 

4 Begun iu 4304. Andrea of Pisa was not the 
sole architect, as Is afllrmed In Ihe Enriictopidie, 
I. I. p. 'i'i ; he at most but participated in it, as is 
proved by ihe learned authors nclte fahbricche pin 
cospicue di Tenexia, 

Chap. XX. 



from that arsenal so admirably painted 
by Dante, who in his description has in- 
troduced the naval technicalities and 
rendered them harmonious, poetic, and 
imitative ; so great were the descriptive 
powers of this prodigious genius ! 

Quale nell' Arzaua tie' Veneziani 
Bolle 1' inverno la tenaoe pece 
A rimpalmar li legni lor non sani 

Che navicar non ponno ; e 'n qnella vece, 
Chi fa suo legno nuoro, e chi ristoppa 
Le cosle a quel che piu viaggi fece; 

Chi ribattc da proda, e chi da poppa, 
Allri fa rami, ed altri yolge sarte, 
Chi Serzeruolo ed arlimon rintoppa. 

ThG population of the arsenal, which 
was once sixteen thousand workmen, did 
not amount in the seventeenth century, 
as appears from the voyage of the prince 
of Tuscany, afterwards Cosmo III., to 
more than Ihree thousand ; and towards 
the end of the republic but two thousand 
five hundred, reinforced on extraordi- 
nary occasions by the artisans and fac- 
chini of the town. 

At the entry are the two colossal marble 
lions, brought from Athens by Morosini; 
they are of Greek workmanship, praised 
by the learned, who cannot however de- 
termine Iheir epoch. One of the lions 
is in a rampant posture, and has two 
serpentine inscriptions on his mane, ap- 
parently Runic, which, according to the 
Cav. Mustoxidi, were placed by the Va- 
ranghi, a mixture of the northern tri- 
bes, who, about the tenth century, 
formed the guard of the Byzantian em- 

The statue of St. Justina, by Cam- 
pagna, is over (he superb gate, a kind of 
triumphal arch ornamented with sculp- 
ture by some pupils of Sansovino Above 
the interior gate of the vestibule is a 
small statue of the Virgin by this great 

Many different mementos of Venice 
arc to be found in the arsenal : there 
is the pretended leathern helmet of 
Attila, and the sort of clumsy harness 
for his horse ; the veritable helmets of 

1 Neither of the two swords of Henry IV. which 
ire in the cabinet of medals of the royal library 
;an bo this sword; they were deposited there8/Zo- 
re"al, yearV (April 25, 1797), and the entry of the 
French into Venice was on the 16th of May in the 

Venetian crusaders, the companions of 
Dandolo; the arms, and flowing stan- 
dards of brilliant colour, taken from 
the Turks at the battle of LepantO; 
and some frightful instruments of tor- 
ture employed by the Inquisition. In 
one of the rooms was a small unfi- 
nished model of the Bucentaur, a kind 
of cabinet curiosity, exposed to the dust, 
or destined to be placed under glass, 
which was never intended to ride pom- 
pously on the sea covered with flowers 
like a recent bride, amid the roar of 
cannon, the flourishing of music, and 
the hymeneal hymn of the Adriatic, an 
ancient Venetian song, which ended in 
being understood by no one, though its 
fantastical sounds were religiously pre- 
served. It is thus that the superstitious 
patriotism of Rome respected the verses 
of the Salians, which in the days of Ho- 
race had become unintelligible. In spite 
of its ornaments and gilding, the Bucen- 
taur was but an indifferent vessel, since 
it had never witnessed a storm; and the 
commander of the arsenal, who was by 
right of office its captain, swore that the 
waves should be calm during the cere- 
mony of which it was the inert and os- 
tentatious theatre. 

But there is one monument which to 
a Frenchman is worth all the monu- 
ments of Venice, thearmour of Henry IV., 
given by him to the republic ; the sword 
unhappily is wanting, that sword, said he 
in his letter to the senate, which he had 
carried at the battle of Ivry ; it disap- 
peared in 1797, at the fall of the republic, 
when the armour passed from the Ducal 
palace to the arsenal. Notwithstanding 
my persevering inquiries among persons 
the best acquainted with the contempo- 
rary history of Venice, it was impossible 
for me to discover any trace of this noble 
sword. 1 The plain and solid armour 
of Henry IV. forcibly recalls the beau- 
tiful verse of the Henriade upon the 
arms of his soldiers. 

Leur fer et leurs mousquets compasaient leurs 

same year ; they belonged to the ancient garde- 
meuble de la couronne : the first is a dress sword 
with cameos ; the other, described as a battle sword, 
is perhaps in reality but a hunting knife. 



Boor VI, 

Opposite the armour of Henry IV. is 
the cenotaph erected by the senate of 
Venice to the high-admiral Angelo Emo, 
who died at Malta in 1792, one of the 
fust and best executed works of Ca- 
nova. i In the midst of the universal de- 
generacy of Venetian morals, Emo proved 
himself a citizen. It was he who, after 
the dispersion of his fleet by a tempest at 
Eleos, and the loss of two vessels, a dis 
aster in which Kmo, having fallen inlo 
the sea, narrowly escaped drowning, came 
to Ihe senate and said, " Allow my pro- 
perly to be employed in repairing the 
losses the republic has just experienced.'' 
This great man might probably have 
prevented the ignominy of the last mo- 
ments of his country ; courage and ho- 
nour, extinct in the councils of the re- 
public, still survived in the arsenal ; and, 
as if the element which first afforded re- 
fuge to the founders of Venice, was ever 
to animate, excite, and reinvigorate their 
descendants, the last of the" Venetians 
was a sailor. 


Theatres — Saint Benedict. — La Fenice.— S. Peruc- 
cbinl ;— Bnratti.— Carnival. 

The theatres of Venice are neither des- 
titute of charms nor splendour. I saw 
represented, in 1828, at the old St. Be- 
nedict theatre, a national and very lively 
comedy of the advocate Sografi, le Donne 
avvocate. A young man paid his ad- 
dresses to three Italian girls, and pro- 
mised to marry them : in order to support 
their claims, they went before the judge ; 
the Venetian gained the cause, and es- 
poused her lover, after having pleaded 
with eloquence and in the Venetian dia- 

1 Canova, always disinterested when there was 
question of patriotic monuments, put do price on 
his work. The senate decreed him an annuity of 
one hundred ducats ; besides which he received a 
gold medal of the value of one hundred sequins, 
presenting the mausoleum of Emo, and on the re- 
verse an inscription very honourable to the artist. 
The payment of the pension having experienced 
some interruption in 1797, at the fall of the republic, 
Bonaparte, who was by chance informed of it, w rote 

lect. The piece was played with spirit 
and to nature. 

La Fenice is one or the first theatres 
of Italy and the largest; it holds about 
three thousand persons. By means of a 
drawbridge thrown over an adjoining 
court, the scene can be considerably 
lengthened, and on certain occasions a 
jet d'euu shoots up, raising its crest to 
the ceiling. I have not been present at 
this kind of prodigy, which must be more 
fantastic than effective. La Fenice, burnt 
down in 1836, is already tastefully rebuilt. 
Of the four grand operas which are re- 
presented here during the theatrical sea- 
son ( from the 26lh of December to the 
20th of March ), two are generally new 
and composed by Ihe best masters. Ope- 
ras are occasionally performed in the 
spring and in autumn, and our most 
celebrated dancers have appeared upon 
this stage. It was at La Fenice that 
S. Locatelli made the first essays of his 
astro-lamp, and there this theatrical lu- 
minary arose for the first lime. The 
experiment tried since at our Grand 
Opira obtained some credit for the in- 
ventor, but it is probable that this mode 
of lighting will never be practised there. 
The new system throws a brighter light 
upon the scenery and the decorations, 
but leaves the audience in comparative 
darkness : the worthy S. Locatelli, ac- 
customed to the negligence, the freedom 
the absence of vanity in Italian women, 
did not doubt in his own mind that the 
ladies of Paris would resign themselves 
to the obscurity into which he plunged 
their beauty and their attire. 

It is impossible to speak of the music 
of Venice wilhout recalling to mind the 
Venetian airs of Perucchini, so lively, 
natural, and graceful, which accompany 
so well the poetry of Pietro Buratti, a 
popular Anacreon, author of more than 
seventy thousand verses, a poet admirable 
for fire and originality. These little pieces 
are truly chefs-d'oeuvre. 2 

to Canova expressing his interest for him and as- 
suring him of his protection. After the cession of 
Venice to Austria, the pension was restored to 
him when at Vienna, but under the strange con- 
dition of choosing that city for his residence : he 
nevertheless obtained a dispensation from it, hav- 
ing offered to direct gratuitously, while at Rome, 
his favorite abode, some of the imperial pupils. 
- Buralli, deceased Oct. 20, 1832, aged somewhat 
less than sixty years, had also translated i "enai 

Chap. XX111. 1 



The carnival of Venice, though still 
the longest in Italy ( the amusements 
commence the day after Christmas, and 
Ihe masked balls on twelfth-day), is barely 
the shadow of what it was formerly ; this 
kind of institution misses the ancient 
rigorous government of Venice, which it 
seemed to mitigate. At the present day 
this brilliant carnival is only composed 
of the people, the higher class scarcely 
joining in it, and there are not six hundred 
masqueraders wandering in gondolas, or 
in the square of St. Mark and Ihe Piaz- 



The celebrated beauties, noticed by 
Montaigne and Rousseau, philosophers 
of the same school, which it is not sur- 
prising to find there, are one of the by- 
gone peculiarities of Venice. The French 
police had already extinguished the two 
lights that formerly shone at Ihe windows 
of these courtesans, who were entirely 
suppressed by Austria in 1815, at the 
very moment of the restitulion of ihe four 
famous bronze horses, and when they 
remounted their original place. The an- 
cient courtesans of Venice formed an in- 
stitution which really served the cause of 
liberty, either by detecting sometimes 
important secrets, or ruining men whose 
fortunes might have rendered them dan- 
gerous. Therefore, Ihe senate, who 
towards the end of the last century had 
endeavoured to disperse them, was obliged 
to recall them by a decree; they des- 
cribed them in this document under the 
name of noslre benemerile meretrici .• 
they were inviolate and sacred, and had 
their indemnity and endowment. * The 

f senate, in order to divert the young men 
also from politics, and to maintain its 

i'lto ihe Venetian dialect. This smart passage from 
one of his letters, cited by his biographer S. Para- 
via. frankly explains the style that he had chosen : 
Alieno della cosi delta bella societa per quelle 
noie mortali che non ue vanno mai scompaguate, 
io viveva con tali uomini che non davan luogo a' 
»ersi che fra i bicchieri. et li volevan conditi di sali 
corrispondentl all' ottuso loro palato. Bisoguava 
dunque di necessita rinforzar la dose per essere in- 
leso e gnstato. Ecco il vero motivo del genere 
prftscelto a quello che piu si confaceva alia tempra 
della mia anima, capacissima per interval]! delle 

power, took on itself the care of sup- 
plying the houses of the courtesans with 
the most beautiful women, whom it re- 
cruited in Epirus and the islands of ihe 
Archipelago. "At Venice," says Mon- 
tesquieu, " the laws force the nobles to 
be moderate. So accustomed are Ihey 
to parsimony, that none but the courte- 
sans can make them part with their mo- 
ney. Advantage is taken of this medium 
for the support of industry ; the moit 
contemptible women expend without dan- 
ger, whilst their tributaries lead a life 
of Ihe greatest obscurity." The most 
eunning Venetian courtesans would, I 
believe, have had some trouble to extract 
any thing from the new masters of Ve- 
nice, who are much more niggardly than 
the ancient Venetian nobles. 


Environs.— Islands— Isle of Hurano.— Saint Michael. 
—Exhumation of Fra Paolo.— The monk Euse- 
bius. — Morelli. — Emiliana chapel.— Saint Peter 
and Paul.— Dome.— Looking-glasses, crystal, and 
pearls of Venice. 

I visited, in September 1828 , the 
church of St. Michael in Murano, where 
I expected to find the body of Fra Paolo, 
which was to have been transferred Ihere. 
It had been discovered in the month of 
July, in the demolition of an altar of ihe 
ancient church of the Servites. At the 
death of Fra Paolo, the senate, owing to 
the threats of Urban VIII., had not dared 
to erect the monument which had been 
decreed, on account of his immense popu- 
larity, to this extraordinary man, theo- 
logian, historian, mathematician, and 
anatomist, 2 and the marble was with- 
drawn from the studio of the sculptor. 
Grosley, in 176i, was struck with the 
nudity of this tomb, without epitaph or 
any kind of inscription ; we see by this 

piu dolci emozioui. Che s' ella mi domauda la 
spiegazione di questo fenomeno, io non saprei da 
altro ripeterlo che dalP infinita debolezza del mio 
caraltere che prendeva in gioventu le abitudiui di 
chi mi attorniava." 

1 Funds were assigned them ; ever since the 
year 1400, the courtesans have inhabited the calle 
called C'd Rarnpana, from the neighbouring palace 
of the illustrious family of that name, from whence 
proceeds the injurious denomination of caram- 
| 2 see post, book vn. chap. ii. 



[Book VI 

how it came to be forgotten. The exist- 
ing monument was erected at the expense 
of the city, by no means a rare occur- 
rence.' The sort of resurrection of Fra 
Paolo may be likened to the exhumation 
of other celebrated dead of whom we 
have previously spoken : * in default of 
men, our age produces at Jeast some 
illustrious remains. 

The inscription on the sepulchre of 
the monk Eusebius, by Aldus Manulius. 
encrusted on a slab of marble ornamented 
by pretty sculptures, is curious and cha- 
racteristic. 3 Such is the merit of the 
arabesques and ornaments which deco- 
rate the front, the doors, the choir of 
Saint Michael in Murano and the grand 
chapel, that the Venice Drawing Aca- 
demy has not judged them less fit than 
theantiqueto form the taste of its pupils, 
and has consequently taken a great 
number of models. 

A simple stone, upon the pavement, in- 
dicates the spot where reposes Morelli, 
the late learned librarian of Saint Mark. 
The epitaph, composed by his pupil, his 
friend and worthy successor, the abbe 
Betlio, simply recapitulates the labours, 
the services, the renown, the dignities of 
this great bibliographer, and that readi- 
ness to oblige, the duty and first quality 
of men placed at the head of great lite- 
rary treasures. 

The Emiliana chapel adjoining the 
church, is a small temple of the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth century, 
abounding with taste and elegance. 

The church of Saint Peter and Paul 
offers some remarkable paintings : St. 
Blase seated, surrounded by saints, by 
Palma; a fine Annunciation, by Porde- 
none ; St. Jerome in the Desert, by 
Paolo Veronese ; a Descent from the 
Cross, of a character at once grand, ex- 
pressive, and original, by Giuseppe Sal- 
viati ; the Virgin upon her throne, 
With the infant Jesus and saints, a cu- 
rious work of the Vivaiini; the Virgin, 

' The body of Fra Paolo is now at Saint Michael 
in Murano; upon the siab cf while marble bor- 
dered with bardigtio (sky-coloured marble of Car- 
rural, is this inscription, by S. Emmanuel Cigogna : 


Pauli Sarpil 

Tbeol. Keip. venetae 

Ex aede Servorum 

buc translata 


Decreto publico. 

two angels, ana the doge Barbariqo 
kneeling, a large celebrated painting by 
Giovanni Bellini ; St. Agatha in prison, 
visited by St. Peter, a correct and sub- 
lime composition, by Benedetto Caliari, 
the brother, the assistant and the friend 
of Paolo Veronese : the Martyrdom of 
St. Stephen, by Leandro Bassano; an 
Assumption, by Marco Basaili, a bril- 
liant artist, of Greek origin, of the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth century ; the 
Virgin, some saints, and the senator 
Lorenzo Pasqualigo, by the elder Palma; 
and the Baptism of Jesus Christ, by 

The ceiling of the church of the An- 
gels, by Pennachi, enjoys some reputa- 
tion : in the centre is the Crowning of 
the Virgin ; around, thirty-four com- 
partments present figures of apostles, 
prophets, and angels ; the colouring of 
this ceiling is much better than the 

The church of Saint Donatus, called 
the Duomo of Murano, is of a Greco- 
Arabian architecture of the twelfth cen- 
tury : the pavement of the temple is in- 
laid with elegant mosaic-work of the 
same epoch, and ten columns of Greek 
marble support the nave. The pair-tings 
are interesting: a demilune representing 
the Virgin with the infant Jesus, and 
some figures, is a good performance by 
Lazaro Sebastiani, of the year 1484 ; the 
ancon of carved wood painted, of 1310, 
representing Bishop St. Donatus, with 
the two small figures of the podesta 
Memmo and bis wife, is curious for 
the costumes. A mosaic of the Virgin 
appears to be nearly as ancient as the 
temple. The Descent of the Holy Ghost 
in the Cenaculum, by Marco Vecellio, 
is fine. 

The island of Murano still contains the 
manufactures of looking-glass, crystal, 
and pearls, for which Venetian industry 
was formerly renowned; but the two 
first cannot, at the present day, compete 

' See ante, book v. chap. xxi. 

3 Lector, parumper sisle, rem miram leges 
Hie Eusebl hlspanl monaehi corpus situiu esl, 
Vir uudecumquc qui fuit doclisslmus, 
Nostraeque vitas exemplar admirabile. 
Morbo laborans sexdecim tolos dies, 
Edens, bibens nil prorsus et usque suos maaens 
Deum adllt. Hoc scires volebam. Abi et vale. 
Ann. D. MD1X. feb. tetat. suae LI sacrae militias iYli. 

:uap. xxv. 



} jfith the fabrics of France and England. 
; jThe Venetians learnt the art of glass- 
naking from the Greeks, who were very 
; J ealous of their secret, which they had pre- 
' lervedfrom antique tradition. The sand 
j |<f Tyre, which gave the transparency to 
' I he glass of the ancients, might also have 
i Teen employed by the Venetians when 
lhey made the conquest of the same 
''■bores. The manufactories of large 

■ I arnished pearls, to the number of three, 
; j ave closely preserved the secret of this 

heap and showy fabrication, which 

■ [llows to the moderately rich the splen- 
| our and luxury of the wealthy. But 
1 bis frivolous industry, like that of works 

: ] f fashion, cannot prove a sure resource 
nr a state, since it does not provide for 
jea! and durable wants. The exporla- 

• lions of these articles are trifling, and 
I ncertain ; nor has the trade been suffi- 

: lent to prevent the ruin of Venetian 


Isle of Torcello —Saint Fosca.— Lido. 

The charming isle of Torcello is still 
emarkable for its monuments. The 
)uomo bears the impress of the East and 
f the middle ages : the front, the roof, 
nd the pavement are inlaid with precious 
losaics representing symbols and cir- 
umstances of sacred history j marble 
olumns support the nave; the holy 
/ater vaseappears to have been aheaihcn 
Itar, and a marble pulpit rises behind 
ie choir, in the midst of semi-circular 
teps. The magnificence of this temple, 
)unded in the year 1008, by bishop 
>rso Orseolo, bears testimony to the an- 
ient wealth of Venice and the splendour 
fits monuments even before the achieve- 
tent of its superb old basilic. 

1 The churches of Saint Geminian and of Saint 
jhn the Almoner, by Sansovlno and Scarpagniuo, 
ere, according to the opinion of Cicognara, only 
Dilations of the small temple of Saint Fosca. The 
seful aDd curious work published in 1825 by Mr. 
obert, superintendent of the Saint-Genevieve li- 
rary, under the title of Fables inedites des sue, 
nt e el xiv s siecles, el Fables de La Fontaine, rap- 
rochees de celles de tous les auleurs qui avaienl, 
vani lui, traite les mimes sujels, w ithoul diminisb- 
ig the glory of La Fontaine, indicates the obscure 
)odels of the Fables clioisies,mises en vers, as he has 
imself entitled his immortal collection. The pretty 
iece of Brueys is only a feeble imitation of the an- 
ent popular farce of Patetin, by Pierre Blancliet. 

The neighbouring small temple of 
Saint Fosca, a work of the ninth century, 
whose materials were taken from the 
ruins of Roman edifices, is one of those 
primitive monuments of barbarous times, 
imitated, renovated, and restored with 
elegance, like certain literary master- 
pieces of the epochs of civilisation." At 
Saint Fosca is interred the skilful painter 
Cappuccino, who, having escaped from 
his convent, found an asylum at Venice 
against the pursuits of his order. The 
tomb has for inscription these words : 
Bernardus Strozzius, pictorum splen- 
dor, Liguriw decus, a flattering eulo- 
gium in the vicinity of the great Vene- 
tian masters. 

A writer of a lively imagination has 
given a poetical description of the Lido* 
it would be hazardous to risk another 
defcription after his, that all the world 
has read. It is, however, to be regretted 
that it contains nothing on the castle of 
Saint Andrew, a masterpiece of military 
architecture, by San Micheli, monument 
of a victory, which, in its desolation, 
breathes still the strength and ancient 
warlike magnificence of Venice. 3 

It was upon the firm and solitary bank 
of the Lido, that Byron look his daily 
ride. Had he died at Venice, it was his 
wish to have reposed there near a certain 
stone, the limit of some field, not far 
from the little fort, so as to escape, by a 
wild caprice, his native land, too heavy 
for his bones, and the abhorred funeral 
obsequies of his relatives. 


The isle of Saint Lpzaro.— Armenian Convent.— 
Mechitar.— Mover. — Moonlight at Venice. 

The little island of St. Lazaro, the 
most graceful of those that rise out of 

~ M. Charles Nodier, Jean Sboijar. 

3 The most remarkable monument of San Ml- 
cheli's science, says M. Quatremeie de Quincy, Is 
the fortress of Lido. It had been reckoned impos 
sible for htm to give a firm foundation to such an 
enormous mass in a marshy, soil, continually as- 
sailed by the naves of the sea and the ebb and flow. 
He effected his purpose, however, and with great 
success. In constructing it, he made use of the 
stone of Istria, so well adapted to resist the weather. 
The mass is so well fixed that it might be takeu for 
a hewn rock. Hisluire de la vie et des outrages 
des plus citebres architectes, t. 1. 16). 



Book VI 

the bosom of the lagoon, is inhabited by 
the Armenian monks, an affable and la- 
borious sect, who publish, in the Arme- 
nian tongue, good editions of the most 
useful and esteemed books, and devote 
Ihemselves to the education of their 
youthful compatriots.' With its convent, 
lyceum, and printing-office, this house 
might reclaim the most passionate enemy 
of monastic institutions. The abbot-ge- 
neral and archbishop, Placidus Sukias 
Somcl, of Constantinople, is an accom- 
plished prelate whose manners possess a 
kind of oriental dignity not destitute of 
grace or mildness. The library, to which 
has been added a cabinet of natural phi- 
losophy, counts about ten thousand vo- 
lumes and four hundred oriental manu- 
scripts, principally Armenian ; like every 
thing else, it is in perfect order. Lord 
Byron, during the winter, went there 
for some hours every morning, in order 
to take Armenian lessons of Dom Pas- 
quale the librarian ; Byron, dissatisfied, 
tired of the world, and satiated with 
most things of this life, sought to pene- 
trate the difficulties of an Eastern idiom ; 
he found no interest but in difficulties, 
and this impetuous poet studied a grave, 
cold, and historical literature of transla- 
tions and polemics.* 

The Armenian monks called Mechita- 
rists take this name from their founder, 
the abbot Mechitar of Pelro, born at Se- 
bastcin Armenia, who, in the year 1700, 
assembled at Constantinople several 
monks his compatriots, after which he 
established himself at Modon, whence he 
passed with his congregation to Venice 
after the loss of the Morea by the repub- 
lic, which generously accorded to him 

1 Two first-rate edilions of the Chronicle of Eu- 
sobius have been given after the Armenian manu- 
script io the library of the convent of the isle of 
Saint Lazaro; one at Milan, in 1818, a quarto vo- 
lume, by S. Mai, and P. Zohrab, an Armenian who 
treacherously separated himself from Ihe other 
monks : ihe edition printed Ihe same year at Ihe 
convcu 1 . two volumes folio, and published by P. 
J. B. Aucher, Is infinitely preferable; the monks 
hud sent one of their body as far as Constantinople, 
In order to compare afresh their Eusebius with 
the manuscript of which it was a copy. The Ar- 
menian monks have also conceived the project of 
giving a complete collection and critical editions of 
the writers of their nation from the fourth cen- 
tury, the most brilliant epoch and Augustan age of 
Armenian literature, to Ibe fifteenth century since 
this time there appears to have been no original 
productions. These monks have already prepared 
lor the press all that remains of the authors w ho 

for ever the isle of St. Lazaro for a re- 

In the sacristy is the tomb of Coun 
Stephen Aconz Kover, a noble Hunga 
rian, archbishop of Sinnia, and the third 
abbot-general, who resided sixty-seven 
years at the monastery and died in 182i, 
after having enlarged and perfected the 
Armenian institution, at this day a tri- 
bunal of language. This illustrious 
abbot, poet, and scholar, author of a good 
universal geography of which eleven vo- 
lumes have appeared, the two others 
having perished in a fire at Constanti- 
nople, taught his dialect to the French 
orientalist Lourdet, who died in 1785, 
whilst on his return from Venice to Paris 
where Kover was also called, and where 
he w ould have professed but for the trou- 
bles of the revolution. 

It is through error that an esteemed 
historian and a celebrated traveller 3 have 
regarded the Armenian monks as here- 
tics ; they have always been good catho- 
lics, and only deviated from the Roman 
"church in a small number of rites. Des- 
pite its religious liberties and its com- 
mercial spirit, Venice never admitted to- 
leration, and Comines had already re- 
marked and praised, the reverence which 
the Venetians bore to the service of the 

The return to Venice at night, by 
moonlight, is one of ihe finest scenes ol 
Italy. The silence cf the city and the 
oriental aspect of Saint Mark and ttte 
Ducal palace, have atthis hour something 
enchanting and mysterious, and the 
pale splendour reflected on the sra and 
ihe marble palaces contrast with the 
black gondola gliding solitarily over the 

have written from the fourth century to the com- 
mencement of the eleventh. Hut such an under- 
taking still requires much time, labour, research, 
and outlay, which do not permit the hope thai 
the publication will soon take place. Three vo- 
lumes of a small portable collection of Ibo selected 
works, executed with much care, appeared in (820, 
1827, and 1828, as if to yive, remarked M. Saint- 
Martln {Journal des Suvants, July I82tl), a fore- 
taste of the grand collection. P. Ciakciak has re- 
cently published a second edition of his Armeiiian 
ant Italian Dictionary, which has been bi^lii> 
spoken of by orientalists. 

3 For want, said he, or something llinly In break 
his thoughts against, he tortured himself with \ - 
meuian. Byron laboured at the English pat l of an 
English-Armenian grammar published at the ion- 
venl of Saint Lazara. Stem., vol 111. cu -p wit 
and ix, and vol. IV., chap. vn. 

3 M. Darn, Lady Morgan. 

Chap. XXVI. 1 



waters. These palaces are no longer 
brilliantly illumined, as heretofore, in 
the days of pleasure, sports, and dissipa- 
tions of this brilliant city, and the moon, 
called by artists the sun of ruins, is parti- 
cularly suited to the grand ruin of Ve- 


Isle of Sainl Clement.— Malamocco.— Republican 
halreds.-Murazzi.— Chioggia.— Origin and end of 

It requires a day to see the Murazzi, 
situated about eighteen miles from Ve- 
nice. At the isle of St. Clement there 
was formerly a convent of Camaldules, 
whose small detached houses, with a 
garden, are yet to be seen. These pious 
men, surrounded by the waves, were 
doubly anchorets. A Madonna, with 
her lighted lamp, as in the cross-road of 
a town, was fixed upon one of the posts 
that marked the route across tne canals, 
and her pious glimmering light almost 
touched the sea, in the midst of which 
it w as thrown. We pass before the isle of 
Malamocco, that illustrious shore which 
witnessed the heroic efforts of the Vene- 
tians in the war ofChiozza, when, in one 
of those fits of hatred peculiar to repub- 
lics, more implacable and more violent 
than the enmity of kings, as being the 
mutual abhorrence of one people for an- 
other, Genoa thought it possible to anni- 
hilate her rival. Venice, like Rome 
when Hannibal was at its gates, displayed 
that aristocratic patriotism, the most 
constant and firmest of all, which will 
never suffer a country to be degraded by 
shameful treaties, and whose proud bear- 
ing is noble and glorious, as it isdisplayed 
in the midst of dangers and sacrifices. 

The Murazzi are not a simple military 
causeway, like the jelly of Alexander or 
ofRicheiieu, much more celebrated, as 
are the works of conquerors or of despots ; 
they form the rampart of a great city, 
for centuries theseatoffreedom. Neither 
is this marble bank the polders, of wood, 
fascines, and clay, of Holland, which must 
rather resemble the palisade of beavers, 
than the magnificent work of the Vene- 
tians. The so much admired inscription 
ausuromano, wreveneto, did not appear 
to me deserving its reputation ; indepen- 
dently of the vicious mixture of the plain 
and the figurative, this vain-glorious allu- i 

sion to money, like thai of the Simplon,' is 
not very noble. After all, the famous in- 
scription was perhaps only proposed, for 
it is impossible to discover it. The most 
ancient of the thirty-eight inscriptions in- 
dicating the epoch when the different 
parts w ere successively executed, though 
simple, is not the less imposing, since it 
proves the fourteen centuries of free ex- 
istence enjoyed by the republic : Vt sacra 
ckituariaurbis etlibertatis sedes perpe- 
tuum conserventur colosseas moles ex 
solido marmore contra mare posuere 
curatoresaquarum. An. Sal. MJJCCLI. 
ab urbe con. MCCCXXX. The Mu- 
razzi, formed of enormous blocks and 
supported on piles, rise ten feet above 
high-watermark, for the length of 5,267 
metres; the construction occupied thirty- 
nine years.and the outlay was 6,952,440 fr. 
In some places the marble,polished, worn, 
and wasted by the waves, becomes some- 
what spongy, and its brilliant whiteness 
gives it the appearance of petrified froth. 
Never was there an example of restraint 
more striking for meditation : on this 
side of the Murazzi is a tranquil lake; 
on the other, is the sea, whose long rei- 
terated billows roll up and break them- 
selves against the foot of iheir steps. The 
Murazzi are only of Ihe middle and end 
of the last century ; il is difficult to be- 
lieve that a State capable of such gigantic 
works could so soon be annihilated : it is 
easier to curb the fury of the waves 
than to arrest the machinations of the 

The smiling coast of Chioggia de- 
serves to be visited for the character of 
its lively, original, laborious, and nume- 
rous population, whence Titian derived 
his expressive but not too ideal heads ; 
Goldoni, the sallies of the w rangling and 
noisy personages of his Gare chiozzotte; 
and the unfortunate Leopold Robert, the 
melancholy scene of his Fishermen of the 

When I returned from the Murazzi to 
Venice, in the autumn of 1827, there 
was not a single vessel in quarantine at 
the lazaretto. This vast deserted enclo- 
sure, no longer animated by commerce 
or war as in the time of the republic, 
recalled the menaces of the prophets 
against Tyre: "How art thou destroyed 
that wast inhabited of sea-faring men, 
the renowned city, which was strong in 

1 See boob i., chap. xxt. 




Book VII. 

'he sea?.... The isles that are in the sea 
shall be troubled at thy departure."' 
Venice began with Attila and ended 
with Bonaparte ; this queen of the Adri- 
atic, whose empire flourished fourteen 

centuries, was born and expired in the 
midst of storms more violent than thqse 
of the sea which encompassed her, and the 
terror of the two conquerors respectively 
produced her origin and her fall. » 




Banks of the Brenta.— Foscarl palace.— I'adua — 
lis extension. 

I will confess that the banks of the 
Brenta, before reaching Padua, seemed 
to me far from deserving tbe praise 
lavished on them. Near the viceroy's pa- 
lace they are disfigured by a long em- 
bankment or towing path supported by a 
great wall of brick; in other parts the 
gardens which border them, with their 
yoke -elm hedges, well-trimmed trees, 
and symmetrical alleys, are real parson- 
age gardens. It is true that many fine 
palaces have already disappeared, and 
the destruction now prevailing at Venice, 
began long since on the borders of the 
Brenta. In their actual stato, I think 
them altogether inferior to the hanks of 
the Seine near Surcsne, or on the Saint- 
Germain road. 

The Foscari palace, near the little in- 
salubrious village of Malcontenta, has 
hitherto escaped the ravages of time and 
man; it is one of Palladio's most elegant 

Padua appeared to me a great, long, 
melancholy-luoking town, although I 
arrived first there in June, during Ihe 
celebration of a kind of Olympic games 
in honour of Saint Anthony, and even 
met the bronzed triumphal car of the 
victorious jockey, who was parading the 
streets amid the shouts of all the raga- 

1 Kzoliiel, cap. jexvi., n, 18. 

■ The free port, decreed ihe 20th of February, 
1829. and opened ihe 1st of February, (830, has 
somewhat reanimated ihe languishing remains of 
Venetian commerce, which attained its greatest 
developement In the fourteenth t ».d fifteenth cen- 

muflins that surrounded him. This town, 
however, is every day gaining what Ve- 
nice loses; the population amounts to 
forty-four thousand; but, with ihe single 
exception of the Pedrocchi coffeehouse, ^ 
its prosperity is plain and without display- 


University.— Vertebra of Galileo.— Library.— ampler 
library.— Botanical garden.— Academy of Scieures, 
Letters, and Arts.— Ladies of ibe Academy. 

The organisation of the university of 
Padua is the same as that of the univer- 
sity of Pavia ( except that the latter has 
no faculty of theology ), and the profes- 
sorships are : theology for the use of 
parish priests {pastorale)', ecclesiastical 
history; moial theology; biblical archeo- 
logy; introduction to the books of the 
Old Testament ; Hebrew exegesis and 
language, and oriental tongues : biblical 
hermeneutics; introduction to the books 
of the New Testament; Greek language; 
exegesis of (he New Testament ; doctrinal 
theology. This ancient university, which 
arose in the beginning of the thirteenth 
century, and had as many as six thousand 
students in the sixteenth and seventeenth, 
numbered no more than fourteen hun- 
dred and thirty-seven in 1832 ; it is still 
•distinguished, however, by able profes- 
sors. For instance, Rachctti, professor 
of law ; Santini (like Michael Angelo, 
born at Capresa, a village, near Arezzo,, 

turles, and began to decline nilb the seventeenth; 
this free port, vtiihout arresting the destiny of Ve- 
nice, has nevertheless bad Hie advantage ol pre- 
serving to the people of the lagoons their ancient 
maritime and manufacturing character. 
3 See pott, chap. 'II. 

Chap. II.] 



professor of astronomy, and his very able 
deputy Conti ; Calullo, professor of na- 
tural history. Under the marble peristyle, 
now dreadfully damaged, are the armo- 
rial bearings of many professors and 
students ; this elegant peristyle has been 
included in Palladio's unpublished works, 
but incorrectly; it may more safely be 
attributed to Sansovino; to judge from 
the exterior, Ibis university would appear 
the most aristocratic in the world. In 
the vesiibule is a good marble statue of 
the celebrated Helena Lucrczia Cornaro- 
Piscopia, who died in 1681 aged thirty- 
eight; an illustrious lady learned in the 
Spanish, French, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, 
and Arabic languages, who sang her own 
verses with an accompaniment by herself, 
lectured on theology, astronomy, mathe- 
matics, and received the degree of doctor 
in philosophy from the university. He- 
lena Piscopia was very handsome ; she 
wore the habit of the Benedictine order, 
the severe rules of which she always 
followed, although her parents had, 
without her knowledge, procured a dis- 
pensation from a vow of virginity which 
she had rashly made at the age of eleven, 
and notwithstanding the offers of mar- 
riage from several of the highest nobles. 
In the cabinet of natural history is a 
vertebra of Galileo enclosed in a mean- 
looking little pedestal of varnished wood, 
executed at the expense of the abbe" Me- 
neghelli, under whose rectorship its 
installation took place ;• in the account 
published concerning it by the worthy 
rector, he ingenuously flatters himself 
with not having been able to find a better 
model for his pedestal, surmounted with 
the bust of the immortal astronomer, 
than that on which the divine Canova 
placed the lyre of Terpsichore. The ver- 
tebra is the fifth lumbar ; it was purloined 
by the Florentine physician Cocchi, who 
in 1737 was charged with the translation 
of Galileo's bones to the church of Santa 
Croce in Florence ; after becoming by 
inheritance the property of Cocchi's son, 
it belonged to the patrician Angelo Qui- 

1 The reclors of the university, chosen from 
among the professors, are only appointed for a 
jear. This custom was established during the re- 
public, niul has never been interrupted. 

* Ilist. of Venice, book xi. Dam, who hod ap- 
plied bimself during the last year of his life to 
laborious researches respecting Galileo and his con- 
demnation, states In a note to his poem entitled 
Astronomy (the 14th of canto it.| that the Jesuits, 

rini, the mathematician Vivorio of Vi- 
cenza, and lastly to doctor Thiene, his 
physician, who presented it to the uni- 
versity of Padua. The finger of Galileo, 
obtained in a similar fraudulent manner, 
is exhibited at the Laurentian. — How 
singular was the destiny of this great 
man's body! imprisoned by envy while 
living, and torn in pieces through admi- 
ration when dead. The Italians from 
enthusiasm practise a kind of burglary 
towards the remains of the illustrious; 
and at Arqua, near Padua, the place of 
Petrarch's burial, may still be seen the 
rent in his tomb made by the Florentine 
who succeeded in tearing off one arm. 
The vertebra of Galileo is not however 
ill placed at the university of Padua. 
For eighteen years he held the profes- 
sorship of philosophy there, and to retain 
his services the Venetian senate had 
tripled his salary ; it was in presence of 
the doge and the chiefs of the state that, 
in 1609, he made his first experiments 
with the telescope and pendulum. How 
much, rightly remarks Mr. Daru,musthe 
not have regretted that hospitable land 
where the inquisition would not have 
extorted a disavowal of the new truths of 
which he was the declared advocate ! a 

The theatre of anatomy was erected in 
1594, when Fabricius d'Acquapendente 
occupied that chair. The first idea of it 
seems to belong to the celebrated Fra 
Paolo, who was both architect and anato- 
mist, and made the important discovery 
of the venal valvules. In the vestibule is 
the bust of Morgagni, consecrated to him 
while living by the German nation. 
There is a collection of extraordinary 
foetus, which were prepared and classed 
by this great anatomist. 

The cabinet of natural history is a fine 
creation of great utility due to the French 

Among the presents made to this ca- 
binet by the learned Acerbi, formerly 
Austrian consul in Egypt, is a fine mum- 
my unwrapped, with a hieroglyphical 
inscription, proceeding from the necro- 

who were great sticklers for the doctrine of Aris- 
totle and the Peripatetics, were opposed to Galileo 
at the university of Padua, respecting the spots is 
the sun; "so that," he adds, ''to the shame of 
feeble humanity, it is not impo.-sible that a philoso- 
phical party spirit might contribute as much as 
religious intolerance to the persecution the philo- 
sopher experienced at their hands," see book x. 


I Book VII. 

polis of Thebes; il is supposed to be. four 
thousand years old ; the skull presents a 
remarkable prolongation beyond the oc- 
capital cavity, which is much deeper than 
in the skulls previously seen. I am in- 
debted for the following conjecture to 
my ingenious friend Doctor Edwards, of 
the Institute, known by his important 
work on the physiological characters of 
the various races of man as connected 
with history : " This great prolongation 
of the hinder part of the head is not 
found in the races of Europe, eastern 
Asia, or those of America in general, nor 
even in the negro race, in which however 
this part is more developed : the Carib- 
bean race, nevertheless, exhibits it in a 
high degree. This shape is tbe farthest 
removed from the ordinary form, except 
that of some heads found in the Cordil- 
lera mountains. It may then be regarded 
as of the lowest order. It would be very 
interesting to discover such heads in the 
tombs of Egypt ; such a fact would prove 
that this shape indicates an epoch when 
civilisation had hut just commenced." 

In the room of the medical section are 
three good paintings, the Marys at the 
sepulchre, by Darius Varotari ; a well 
preserved fresco ; the Virgin and infant 
Jesus; the two latter by unknown au- 
thors of the sixteenth century. 

Tbe observatory, supplied with good 
instrumcnts.hasobtained renown through 
Galileo's discoveries; it is erected on the 
lop of a high lower, wbich, in the days 
cf the brave and cruel tyran Eceelino, 
was a dreadful prison. A Latin distich, 
over the door, felicitously expresses this 
fact and itsnew scientific appropriation. ' 

The University library contains seventy 
thousand volumes; and, as it is solely 
devoted to educational purposes, the 
manuscripts have been sent to Saint 
Mark. The library is placed in the very 
spacious ancient hall of the Giants and 
Emperors; the walls are covered with 
portraits of great Romans from Romulus 
to Caesar, who is immediately followed 
by Charlemagne. It is said that some of 
these bad figures were executed on Ti- 
tian's designs, a part of the art in which 
he did not excel. Above Ihese extremely 
well preserved figures, are the principal 
exploits of the personages, fine paintings 


0.U8B quondam infernas lurris ducebat ad umbras, 
Nunc Venelum aasplcils pandit nd asira viom. 

by Domenico Campagnola, a pupil of 
Titian, who, with Tintoretto, Paris Bor- 
done, and others of his clever disciples, 
had the honour of making him jealous ; 
by his assiduous companion Gualtieri, 
StefanodeH'Arzere, a good fresco painter 
of Padua in the sixteenth century, and 
perhaps even by Titian, to whom is at- 
tributed the portrait of Cardinal Zaba-' 
rella, among the illustrious Paduans. A 
full length fresco portrait of Petrarch, of 
the same epoch, is more suitably placed 
in a library, as this great poet was cer- 
tainly one of the first and most intrepid 
readers known, and even died sitting in 
his library with his head bent over a book. 

A small miniature of the Virgin, full 
of grace and elegance, is preserved in 
this library : it was painted by the abbot 
of Latran, Felice Ramelli, and is greatly 
extolled by Delia Vale, Vasari's com- 

A copy, without either frontispiece or 
preface, of the scarce Quadragesimale of 
(he famous Fra Paolo, printed at Milan 
in 1479, has furnished S. Federici, the 
under-librarian, with various readings 
which hud till then escaped the numerous 
commentators of Dante. It is seen by 
these sermons of Fra Paolo that the Di- 
vina Commedia was quoted in the pulpit, 
and that its verses were at times piously 
parodied lo amalgamate with the sermon. 

The chapter library has only about 
four thousand volumes, but it contains 
some tine old manuscripts and scarce 
editions of the fifteenth century, The 
most ancient manuscript is a Sacramen~ 
tarium of the eleventh century, in good 
preservation, and the most ancient print- 
ed book is the Rationale, by Guillaume 
Durand (Mayence, 1459). The manu- 
scripts of Petrarch's library, who was a 
canon of the chapter, were the beginning 
of this library, which was increased by 
the books of Sperone Speroni. In an 
adjoining room, six paintings, two of 
them, a Madonna, and a trinity, and 
the other four certain incidents of the 
Life of St. Sebastian, are remarkable 
specimens of ancient painting; they 
were executed in 1367 by the Venetian 
Nicaletto Semitecolo; the proportions of 
the figures are elegant, the naked is well 
executed ; the style is different from 
Giotto's, and if the drawing be inferior, 
the colouring is equal to him. 

The Botanical garden of Padua, found- 
ed by the Venetian senate in 1545, is 

Chap. III.]' 



probably the oldest in Europe. 1 It still 
occupies the same spot; and an old 
Eastern planetree with a knotted trunk 
and short but still verdant boughs,, has 
stood there ever since its creation. I 
could not contemplate it without a sort 
of veneration ; I fancied there was some- 
thing learned in this contemporary of so 
many illustrious professors, whose stone 
statues were only a few paces distant, 
whom it had received under its shade, 
and it seemed to me a kind of patriarch 
among the scientific trees of botanical 
gardens. The garden of Padua, without 
having the splendour of our fashionable 
greenhouses, is sufficient for the pur- 
poses of instruction; I was informed 
in 1827 that it contained from five to six 
thousand species, and the number is in- 
creasing every year. The warmth of 
Italy begins at Padua to show itself in a 
very perceptible way : the magnolias 
have no occasion for shelter nor mats 
during winter; they seem to flourish as 
well there as those I have sinee seen in 
the open air in the English garden of 
Caserte, and many were as high as great 

The pursuit of the sciences, letters, and 
arts was always eagerly followed at 
Padua. Its celebrated old academy of 
the Ricovrati vecened women, a custom 
which the French Academy has been 
often inclined to imitate : under Louis 
XIV. Charpentier supported the admis- 
sion ofmesdames Scudery, Beshoulieres, 
and Dacier; in the last century, the 
candidates of d'AIembert f were, it is 
said, mesdames Necker, d"Epinay, and 
de Genlis ; in our days, the same propo- 
sition would be nothing strange, and the 
poetical talents of certain ladies would 
make them very worthy and agreeable 

I had the honour of attending the 

1 Doctor Smith is mistaken ia making it begin 
In 1533 [Doctor Smitlt's In trod. Diicowse to the 
transactions of the Linn, soc, p. 8.); he probably 
confounded its foundation with that of a bo- 
tanical professorship at the university, which took 
place precisely in the year 1533. See also Book xi., 
chap. xiii. on the date of the foundation of the bo- 
tanical garden at Pisa. 

2 The Academy of Sciences, tetters, and Arls of 
Padua, formed in 1779 by the junction of the Rico- 
vrali academy and an Academy of agriculture, pub- 
lishes certain Memoirs or notices, the collection of 
which, from 1788 to 1825, forms seven quarto vo- 
lumes, and contains many excellent papers : such 
are the Medico-chirurgical memoirs of teopoldo 

yearly meeting of the Academy of Padua 
in 1826, I observed in the immediate 
vicinity of its members several amiable 
ladies, some of whom in other times 
might have joined the academy of the 
Ricovrati, and some young people. A 
very well written report, perhaps rather 
too long, was made by the secretary re- 
specting the labours of the academicians, 
who do not seem idle; » in short, except 
the competition, the prizes for virtue and 
works beneficial to morals, it was almost 
the Institute. 


Cathedral.— Charles Guy Patin.-^Sperone Speronl. 
— Manuscripts. — Baptistry. — D'Hancarville. — • 
Santo.— Dogs.— Chandelier. — Cesarotti.— Trea~ 
sury. — Messone. — Cloister.— Scvola. — Statue of 
Gattamelata.— Condottiei i. 

The different churches of Padua are 
its first and most interesting monuments. 
The Duomo, finished last century, is of 
indifferent architecture. The primitive 
plan was sent by Michael Angelo; but 
during the two centuries occupied in 
the building, it must have been strangely 
altered by the divers generations of ar-r 
chitects. On the right of the entrance 
stands the tomb of Charles Palin, a 
French physician, who, being suspected 
or having dispersed a scandalous paper, 
and being obliged to fly on account of 
his bad notions, went to Padua and pro- 
fessed surgery there ; he was the last son 
of the witty and impassioned Guy Patin, 
whose correspondence is such a gay, 
amusing, and true commentary on Mo- 
liere. Charles maintained the honour 
of his medical name by his science and 
talents. Sperone Speroni is also in- 
terred in this church ; he was a great 
orator, philosopher, and poet in his day, 

Caldani, Ludovico Brera, Fanzago, Gallint, and 
Monlesanto; those or Marco Carburi on Chemistry ; 
a Memoir on the Metaphysics of equations by 
Pietro Cossali, on the Vibrations of the drum by 
Jordano Riccati ; the Memoirs of Simon Stratico on 
the course of rivers, on the diffraction of light ; 
one by Assemani on Arab coins; by Cesarotti on 
academical duties, by lppolito Pindemonte, on 
English gardens, and by Geronlmo Polcastro, on 
extempore poetry. The volumes of the Memoirs 
of the Academy of Sciences, Letters, and Arts, have 
not iiilherlo appeared at any determined Interval ; 
but after 1830 a volume was to appear every two 



the friend of Ronsard and master of 
Tasso, and was honoured with a statue 
at his death ; his masterpiece, however, 
the tragedy of Canace, once so applauded 
and admired, is barely readable now. 
The inscription on Speroni's tomb was 
composed by himself; it is remarkable 
for a certain mixture of complacency, 
self-love, and vanity, pretty characte- 
ristic of his kind of glory and the man- 
ners of the age. He speaks therein very 
plainly of his three daughters and the 
generations they gave him, although I be- 
lieve he was never married. The mo- 
nument was erected by one of them, 
GiuliaSperona, who is buried near him.' 

There is an elegant monument, of the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, which 
was erected by (he Venetian senate in 
honour of Pietro Barrochi, bishop of 
Padua. It is in such good taste that it 
seems by Tullius Lombardo. 

The bust of Petrarch, as canon of the 
cathedral, placed opposite one of the side 
doors, is very fine, though not by Ca- 
nova, as some have pretended, but by his 
pupil Rinaldo Rinaldi of Padua. 

The sacristy of ihe canons presents some 
fine and curious paintings; a half figure 
of the Saviour with Aaron and Mel- 
chizedech beside him; the Four protec- 
tors of Padua, and Cherubim, in two 
triangles, by the clever Domenico Cam- 
pagnola ; a very fine Virgin with the 
infant Jesus on her knees, an excellent 
copy of Titian by Padovanino, if it be 
not original ; St. Jerome and St. Fran- 
cis, by Palma ; the Journey into Egypt, 
the Adoration of the Magi, by Fran- 
cesco Bassano, so perfect as to have been 
thought worthy of his father; the Christ 
carrying his cross, by Padovanino ; a 
Virgin, charming, by Sassoferrato, the 
painter of the little Madonnas [madon- 
nvne); a St. Anthony, lifelike, by Fo- 

Sperone Speroni 


nel MP di XII d' aprile 


nel MDLXXXVIll dl II di Glugno. 

Vivendo si feee 1' iufrascrillo epilafio : 

A Messere Spnrone Speroni dulli Alvarotli, tilosofo 
et cavalier padovano, il quale, amando con ognl 
cura, che dopo se del suo mime fusse mernorla, die 
blmen neili nniml de' virlni, so non pi u ollre, cor- 
le.'emenle per ftlcun tempo si conservasse, in vul- 
gar nostro idioma con v;irio slile siuo all' oslrcmo 
parld, et scrisse non uilgarmente sue proprie cose, 
tit era letlo ed tidito. 


rabosco ; the large Cavalcade of a pope, 
attributed to Domenico Brusasorci ; a 
Group of Angels, by Liberi, and a very 
remarkable old portrait of Petrarch. 
The gilt silver vase of the sacristy, used 
in the ceremony of confirmation, is co- 
vered with figures in rather profane alti- 
tudes; it has been explained by Lanzi, 
as also theGreek inscription, from which 
it appears to be one of the vases in which 
artists' colours were prepared and kept. 
This sacristy possesses two antique ma- 
nuscripts very well preserved; one is a 
book of the Gospels of 1170, the other 
of the Epistles of 1259. The Missal on 
vellum paper, printed at Venice, in 1491, 
with rich miniatures, is also a very fine 

The little church under the choir has 
the tomb of St. Daniel, remarkable for 
its beautiful bronze basso-relievos by 
Titian Aspetti. 

The baptistry, a structure of the twelfth 
century, near but not joining the cathe- 
dral, is much more curious and charac- 
teristic. It was built by Fina Buzza- 
carina, wife of Francesco Carrara the 
elder, and contains some admirable 
paintings by Giotto's pupils, worthy of 
himself, and skilfully retouched ; they re- 
present various subjects out of the Old 
and New Testaments, with some histo- 
rical portraits, such as that of the pious 
founder praying to the Virgin, several 
of the Carrara family and of Petrarch. 
Near the door is an excellent bronze 
basso-relievo of the Beheading of John 
the Baptist, by Guido Lizzaro, a clever 
founder of the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. The old diptych of the altar, 
of the fourteenth century, representing 
several incidents of the saint's life, is a 
beautiful and curious monument of its 

The episcopal palace, near the Duomo, 

Vivetle anni I.XXXI1X, mese I, giorni XIII. Mori 
podre dl una Hgliola, die li rimase di Ire cho 
n' liebbe, et per lei avo di assai uepoti ; ma avo, 
proavo, et atlavo a descendenti delle altre duo, tuttl 
nobili, et bene stanli femlne et maschi, utile lor 
patrie honorate. 

The following Inscription, formerly on tbe pave- 
ment of the church, is now on the base of the mo- 
nument : 

Al gran Sperone Speroni 

suo pudre 

Giulia Sperona de' Contl 


Chap. HI.] 



is interesting with respect to art : the 

very elegant frescos of the old chapel are 
by Jacopo Montagnana, an excellent 
Paduan artist, supposed to have been a 
pupil of Giovanni Bellini; his altar-piece 
in three compartments is admirable. 
The prelate's apartments evince the libe- 
rality of his taste: his library is rich ; 
there are many paintings by the great 
masters of various epochs. Over the 
library door is a portrait of Petrarch 
praying to the Virgin, reckoned the most 
authentic likeness of this great poet ; for 
if the various portraits of Dante resem- 
ble each other, his are all different. 
This portrait was painted on the wall of 
the poet's house at Padua, which was 
pulled down in 1581 when the cathedral 
was enlarged ; the Cav. Giambattisla 
Selvalico, professor of canon law at the 
university, had it cut out of the wall and 
carried to his house, to insure its pre- 
servation; in 1810 it was put up in the 
archbishop's palace by the marquis 
Pietro Selvatico, under the advice of his 
friend Giovanni de Lazara. This por- 
trait has been engraved and is prefixed 
to Marsand's edition of the Rime, which 
we have already mentioned several times. 
The Virgin on a throne, holding the 
infant Jesus by the hand, and two 
angels, by Gregorio Schiavone, a good 
pupil of Squarcione,' has been praised 
by Lanzi. The great painting of the 
Plague of 1631, a masterpiece of Luca 
of Reggio, which recalls the sweetness 
of his master Guido, is less animated 
and pathetic than the description of the 
author of ihe PromessiSposi. The Christ 
appearing to St. Margaret, by Da- 
mini, is touching. A good painting re- 
presents the young Napoleone, cardinal 
Stefano's nephew, killed by falling off 
his horse and resuscitated by St. Domi- 
nick. A gold patine, on which is an 
engraving of Christ in the midst of the 
Apostles, is an exquisite work by Va- 
lerio Belli, a very clever artist of Vicenza 
in the sixteenth century. 

At Saint Nicholas, a small parochial 
church near the Duomo, is the tomb of 
d'Hancarville, the author of the Recher- 
ches respecting the origin, spirit, and 
progress of the arts of Greece, and also 
respecting the Hamilton vases, a French- 
man of great parts and systematical eru- 
dition, who died at Padua on the 9th Oc- 

See po»t. 

tober 1805, and not at Rome in 1799 or 
1800, as stated in several historical dic- 
tionaries. The epoch of his birth is pro- 
bably given with equal inaccuracy. The 
parish register of deaths, of the lOlli Oc- 
tober 1805, imports that theburon d'Han- 
carville died on the previous day, of a 
fever, at one o'clock in the morning, 
after an illness of two months, and having 
received all the sacraments, at the age 
of about (circa) eighty-six years; his 
birth must consequently have occurred 
in 1719, instead of 1729 as the dictiona- 
ries assert. There are some persons of 
Padua, intimate friends of d'Hancarville, 
who affirm that so far back did his me- 
mory extend that he must have attained 
that advanced age. Cicognara has given 
fragments of his unpublished disserta- 
tions on Raphael's paintings at the end 
of chapter II. , book vn. of his History of 
Sculpture. The titles of several others 
of these same unpublished dissertations 
are enumerated in the notes of the Ita- 
lian translation already mentioned of 
Quatremere de Quincy's History of the 
life and works of Raphael, by Francesco 
Longhena. I cannot here pass over un- 
noticed a charming portrait of d'Hancar- 
ville by Signora Albrizzi in her Ritratti. 

Saint Anthony, il Santo, as from his 
popularity this thaumalurgus has been 
surnamed for six centuries, is the chief 
and most ancient wonder of Padua. The 
architecture, by Niccolo Pisano, has some- 
thing imposing. Over the principal door 
are, one on each side of the name of 
Jesus, the two fine and celebrated figures 
ofSt. Rernardin and St. Anthony, painted 
by Mantegna, as he himself informs us 
in an inscription.' 

The guardianship of the interior of 
this temple has been for some years past 
somewhat singularly entrusted to some 
Dalmatian dogs, of the shepherd species, 
which have well fulfilled their charge 
against all but the despoilers of 1797. 
The two present guardians of the Santo, 
some years ago, surprised a domestic of 
the Sografi family who had remained at 
bis devotions one night after the doors 
were closed ; they took up their positions 
one on each side, ready to seize him if he 
made the least movement, and kept him 
thus in custody till the morning. 

The chapel of the saint, one of the 
richest in the world, by the architects 

a Andreas Mantegna optumo favente numiue per- 
fect), mcccclij. xi Kal. sextil. 



[ Book VII. 

Jacopo Sansovino and Giovanni Maria 
Falconetto, is ornamented with pleasing 
arabesques by Matteo Allio and Gero- 
nimo Pironi, and with eiquisite basso- 
relievos by Campagna, Tullius and An- 
tonio Lombardo, and Sansovino. Among 
the last is a very fine one of a republican 
subject, which seems rather strangely 
placed on the tomb and among the divers 
incidents of Saint Anthony's life : it is 
Mutius Scaevola haughtily burning his 
hand for having missed Porsenna.' A 
different and less noble subject, but still 
better executed, is the miracle of the 
young girl who fell into a slough and was 
resuscitated by Saint Anthony, a basso- 
relievo by Sansovino. The stucco orna- 
ments of the ceiling are extremely ele- 
gant, by the clever artist, Titian Alinio, 
of Padua, who was also the author of the 
Redeemer and the twelve Apostles; the 
majestic altar, the doors, the four angels 
holding the chandeliers, and the superb 
statues of St. Bonaventure, St. Louis, 
and St. Anthony, are by Titian As- 
pelti, who must not be confounded with 
the preceding artist. One of the three 
lamps of massive gold melted down 
in 1797 to pay the war assessment, was a 
present from the Grand Turk to Saint 

In the chapel of the Holy Sacrament, 
the basso-relievos and the four angels 
sculptured by Donatello are valuable 
works. A Crucifixion, of extraordinary 
beauty and in perfect keeping, is by Da- 
roini. The frescos of the chapel of Saint 
Felix, by Jacopo Avanzi and Aldighieri, 
great painters of the fourteenth century, 
but almost unknown, and five antique 
statues of the altar, are verj remarkable. 
The Martyrdom of St. Agatha, by 
Tiepolo, in one of the chapels, has been 
praised by Algarotti for its fine spirited 
expression, although the drawing be not 
irreproachable. 'J he St. Louis giving 
alms, in another chapel, by Rotari, is 
harmonious and pleasing. 1 observed in 
the chapel of Saint Prosdocimus, the se- 
pulture of the Capodilista family, a noble 
and pleasing chivalrous motto in French, 
Leal Desir. This ancient Paduan fa- 
mily derives lustre from Gabriele Capo- 

1 This act of.Mulius Scaevola seems to have suited 
the tasie of Italian artists of the sixteenth century : 
it may be teen on the triumphal arch erected at 
Rome on occasion of the coronation of Leo X.; it is 
Dear the pope's arms and a sacrifice offered by 
Shepherds. See the Chronicle of the Florentine 

dilisla, a pilgrim tolhe Holy Land in 1458, 
who also wrote his Itinerary, now a 
scarce book. The Beheading of John 
the Baptist, in his chapel, by Piazzetta,a 
bold imitator of Guercino, "extolled for 
the effect of light and shade, is horrible 
to behold, as also the Flaying of St. 
Bartholomew, at the next chapel, by 
Pitloni, one of the octogenarian painters' 
of the Venetian school.* At the Orsato 
chapel is Liberi's St. Francis receiving 
the stigmata, the very expressive head 
of which is said to have been done in one 
night. The antique chapel of the Ma- 
donna Mora is curious : the marble fi- 
gure is a Greek work, but its beauties 
cannot be perceived on account of the 
enormous vestments in which it is muf- 
fled. Some other paintings and sculp- 
tures of Saint Anthony are worthy ol 
remark : the Descent from the Cross, by 
Luca of Reggio, is natural and of good 
colouring. The Redeemer, a fresco ol 
AJantegua's school, under a glass, is in 
pretty good condition. Another fresco 
of the Virgin and the infant Jesus, 
larger than nature, with St. Jerome ana 
St. John Baptist, a work of the begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century, recalls 
Giotto's manner. The Virgin on a pe- 
destal, and below Sts. Peter, Paul, Ber- 
nardin, and Anthony, is a fine composi- 
tion by Antonio Boselli, an able Berga- 
mese painter of the sixteenth century. 
The Crucifix surrounded by prophets, 
and Sts. Sebastian, Gregory, Bona- 
venture and Ursula, by llontagnana, is 
elegant and true. A saint in marble, 
over the holy-water vase, is by Pyrgo- 
teles. The Burial of Christ, on a door 
of the chapel of Relics, by Donatello, a 
famous basso-relievo of clay gilt, which 
was worthy of being cast in bronze, not- 
withstanding its beauties, is somewhat 

The choir and the high-altar are an 
assemblage of chefs-d'oeuvre of the great- 
est masters. The great bronze chandelier, 
by Andrea Riccio, the Venetian Lysip- 
pus, is the most beautiful in the world. 
It cost the artist ten years' labour; and 
every part will bear a comparison w itu 
theantique chandeliers, but the ensemble 

physician Giovanni Jacopo Penui, quoted In the ap- 
pendix to the Life and Pontificate of Leo X., by 
Unscoe, chap. vil. See posJ, another painting on 
the same subject at Saint Laurence of Cremona, 
book ix.. chap, xiiv 
* See post, book vi., chap, xvll. 

Chap. UK] 



is inferior ; the richness and multiplicity 
of so many elegant particulars are inju- 
rious to the real beauty of the work. 
The four statues of the protectors of Pa- 
dua, the Virgin and the infant Jesus, 
and'lhe great bronze crucifix, are admi- 
rable works of Donatello, and the stone 
statues are by Campagna. . 

II Santo contains some illustrious 
mausoleums of patricians, generals, dis- 
tinguished foreigners, and professors. 
The monument consecrated by the pa- 
trician Querini to Bembo is associated 
with the first names in letters and the 
arts. The bust of Danese Cataneo ob- 
tained the elogium of Aretino ; it is pre- 
tended that Titian and Sansovino contri- 
buted to its perfection by favouring the 
artist with their counsels ; the architec- 
ture of the monument, by San Micheli, 
has a noble simplicity ; the inscription is 
by Paolo Giovio. The marble mausoleum 
of Alessandro Contarini, procurator of 
Saint Mark, executed under the direction 
of San Micheli, is full of grandeur; the 
figures of the chained slaves, by Vittoria, 
placed as cariatides and excellently dis- 
posed, are vigorous; and the little wing- 
ed figure on the top of the monument, by 
the same great artist, extremely graceful. 
Another splendid tomb is that of the 
professor of elocution Octavio Ferrari , a 
copious and fluent rhetorician , whose 
digressions were said to be more es- 
teemed than the subject of his lectures ; 
and such was the amenity of his manners 
and speech as to procure him the fine 
title of peace-maker. We are informed 
by the inscription that this professor of 
Padua had a pension from Kouis XIV., 
and was a knight of the equestrian order 
of Christina; the more illustrious Cesa- 
rotti , who was pensioned and knighted 
by JNapoleon , has for his monument only 
a small red stone with the half-effaced 
inscription ; — Ossa Melchioris Cesarotti 

1 At last a monument was erected in 1833 to Gas- 
pardo Gozzi through the exertions of Professor 
Meneghelli ; the sculptor, S. Giuseppe Petrelli, has 
represented the. genius of literature overwhelmed 
with sorrow, seated before the bust of Gozzi, with 
this inscription beneath : — 


Gaspari. Gozzii. Viri. Litteratissimi 

Cujus. Ciuercs. In. Hoc. Sacello 

Patavini anno 1808. Notwithstanding 
the poetical talent of Cesarotti, his trans- 
lation of the Iliad is inferior to Monti's 
and impregnated with the false taste and 
frivolity peculiar to the French and Vol- 
tairian imitation of the Italian authors of 
the last century; the simplicity and an- 
tique colouring are still farther departed 
from than in Pope's translation : for in- 
stance, he fancied he was making the 
girdle of Venus more agreeable and be- 
coming by transforming it into a neck- 
lace. The translation of Ossian , Cesa- 
rotti's best work , is very superior to his 
Iliad ; as a critic, Cesarotti has been justly 
praised ; but it is surprising that a lover of 
truth, like Sismondi , could proclaim him 
the first poet of his time. Another cele- 
brated Italian writer, philosopher, poet, 
and critic, Count Gaspardo Gozzi , eldest 
brother of the eccentric and merry Carlo 
Gozzi, is interred at Saint Anthony : neg- 
lecled by the declining government of 
Venice, he died indigent, and has not even 
an inscription. It is difficult to explain 
such literary indifference in a town like 
Padua , and beside the sumptuousness of 
some of its mausoleums. * 

The treasury of Saint Anthony, an im- 
mense heap of relics, was despoiled of 
a portion of its riches at the time of the 
French invasion in 1797. There are ex- 
hibited the saint's tongue still unchanged 
in colour, which , though less eloquent , 
has moved more men than that of the 
Roman orator ; and the collection of his 
sermons corrected by himself, written in 
a legible and even elegant hand. 

The ceiling of the sacristy, represent- 
ing St. Anthony's entry into heaven, 
is a fine fresco by Liberi , unfortunately 
too distant ; the wood work of the cup- 
boards is by the brothers Cristoforo and 
Lorenzo Cauozzi ; the latter both painter 
and sculptor, a fellow disciple and rival 
of Mantegna, famous for this kind of 

Antonivs. Meneghelhs 

Voti. Pvblici. Interpres 

M. P. 


Gozzi died in the house of Count Leopoldo Ferrn, 
in the faubourg of the Vignali: S. Meneghelli ob- 
tained permission from the present proprietor to 
place on the outside wall another inscription, allud- 
ing So the residence and end of Gozzi. 


work ; a Crucifix , and other ornaments 
in steel wrought with singular ingenuity 
by an artisan of Padua , were superin- 
tended by the painter Antonio Pelle- 

Among the numerous tombs of the 
cloister of Saint Anthony , I remarked 
lhat of a great nephew of Ariosto , a boy 
of thirteen years , illustrious , says the 
inscription , by the name of his ancestor 
(Adolescentulo nomine avito claro); 
that of a Frenchman , Arminius d'Orbe- 
san , baron of La Bastide, a young war- 
rior deceased in 1595 , at the age of 
twenty : after a touching Latin inscrip- 
tion * , comes this quatrain , which is 
destitute of neither harmony nor poe- 
try : 

N'arrcse de tes pleurs ma sepulcrale ceudre, 
Puisque un jour eternel d'un plus beau ray me luit, 
Mais benis le cercneil, oil tu as a descendrc ; 
Mr il n'est si beau jour qui ne meine sa nuit. 

In the cloister of the Presidenee is at 
great sarcophagus surmounted oy me 
recumbent statue of a warrior, with a 
fine Latin inscription composed by Pe- 
trarch a . 

The Scuola del Santo (the confrater- 
nity of Saint Anthony) , near the church , 
presents, on the first floor, some fine and 
curious frescos by Titian, or of his school ; 
the subjects are taken from the history 
of the saint , and these are esteemed the 
best preserved works of lhat great pain- 
ter. Two, especially, are admirable ; 
they equally remind us of the jealous 
violence of husbands at lhat period , and 
Saint Anthony's singular compassion for 
their wives : one represents a woman 
poniarded by her husband and brought 
to life again by the saint ; in the other, a 
wife very much suspected by her husband 
has her honour vindicated by the child 
to which she has just given birth recognis- 
ing its true father, who is greatly moved 

1 Gallus eram, Patavi morior, spes unaparentutu, 
Flcelere ludus, equos, armaque cura fuit . 
Nee quarto in lustro mihi prsevia Parca pepercit. 
Hie tumulus , sors haec , pax sit utriquo : vale. 
Miles eram magnus factis, et nomine Mannus, 
Uonatos, quos fama vocat, celebratque velusti 
Sanguinis aiutores habui; manus inclyta bello 
Dexterltasqne loiuienia fuit , uec gratia clar» 


thereby, a miracle for which he returns 
thanks to Saint Anthony. Two frescos 
by an unknown author also exhibit him, 
the first , fearlessly remonstrating with 
the tyrant Eccelino, who falls at his feet, 
swears that he will retire, and imme- 
diately quits Padua, which he did not 
venture to revisit till after the saint's 
death : in the second he appears to the 
blessed Lucas Belludi, lo whom he an- 
nounces the delivery of his country from 
the same Eccelino : as the protector of 
women and the redoubled enemy of a 
tyrant, Saint Anthony is set off to the 
best advantage in this Scuola. 

Some other paintings, many of which 
represent the saint's odd miracles, are to 
be remarked : the Saint setting the fool 
of a young man, by Titian ; ' 

Saint Anthony dead and recogniseda 
saint by the joyful shouts of children; 

The Miracle of the glass thrown on 
the pavement from a window without 
breaking , which converted the heretic 
Aleard j 

^be Child thrown into a copper of 
boiling water and resuscitated by the 
saint ; 

The Bashful child not daring to ash 
for cakes, of Titian's school ; 

The Opening of the saint's tomb , 
which offers near the body the portraits of 
Jacopo Carrara and his wife Costanza , a 
good painting by Contarini; 

St Francis and St. Anthony in clare- 
obscure , one on each side the altar ; 

The Child brought to life by the 
saint , very fine , by Doraenico Campa- 

A painter of the last century, named 
Antonio Buttafogo , has not feared to re- 
present the Death of the saint beside 
such works; the painting is of 1777; but 
the temerarious artist might have spared 
himself the trouble of dating it. 

In the small under-ground chapel, the 
Virgin, the Infant Jesus, St. Benedict 

Defuerat fotmae, dubiique peritia Martis ; 
Dum pia justitiaj fervens amor induit arma, 
Nil metuens multis late victricia campis 
Signa tali , mtiltos potui meiuisse triumphos: 
Florenlina mihi generosse stirpis origo, 
Cara domus Patavum, sedesque novissima busti 
Conttglt exiguo fessutn sub rnarmore corpus, 
Reddita mens coelo, nomen servate sequent*. 

Our. IV. 



and St. Jerome, a work in Titian's style, 
by Padovanino, has been clumsily re- 
touched and is lost through neglect. 

The fine bronze equestrian statue, by 
Donatello, representing the Condottiere 
Gattamelata, in the square before the 
church of Saint Anthony, is the first 
founded in Italy and by the moderns. 
However able this general may have 
shown himself, the chief of a mercenary 
band of soldiers does not seem to deserve 
the honour of such a monument. With 
combatants of his description war loses a 
portion of its heroism, and is only another 
species of speculation and traffic. These 
Condottieri, in the pay of different slates, 
are well known to have taken care of 
themselves and prolonged the hostilities ; 
their manoeuvres on the field of battle 
were very often only simple evolutions, 
and their campaigns grand parades. The 
fact related by Machiavel, respecting the 
battle of Anghieri, which was won by 
the bands in the Florentine service over 
those in the pay of Milan, • although 
denied by Scipio Ammirato and other 
writers, docs not destroy the reasoning 
of the Florentine publicist on the infe- 
riority of such troops and their inability 
to defend their country. The French 
soldiers, who knew nothing of this kind 
of exercise and arrangement, could easily 
outdo such enemies and conquer Jtaly 
col gesso.-' Perhaps the origin of the 
phrase faria francese ought to be as- 
cribed to the terrible surprise that they 
excited among such prudent men? Is it 
not singular that these stormy republics, 
so jealous of their liberties, Athens, Car- 
thage, Venice, and Florence, ended by 
entrusting foreigners and barbarians to 
defend them! to such an extent is that 
sort of social egotism, produced by false 
civilisation and the craving after plea- 
sure, fatal to true patriotism ! So much 
are wealthy, commercial, reasoning na- 
tions less capable of great sacriGces than 
those which are poor and insulated, reli- 
gious, and of primitive manners. 

' 1st. fiorent. lib. v. After four hours of close 
combat, (here was only one man killed, and be lost 
Ms lire through falling from his horse and being 
trod underfoot by the horses of theprelcnded an- 


The Annunziata.— Hermits.— Servl. — Ruzzante.— 
Saint Francis.— Squarcione. — Saint Benedict.— 
The countess of Rosemberg. — Carmelites. — 

The church of Saint Gaetan, of noble 
and simple architecture, by Scamozzi, 
injured by the affectation of certain or- 
naments of the last century, has three 
paintings by Palma, the Annunciation, 
the Purification, the Resurrection of 
Christ, and an admirable figure of the 
Virgin addolorata, attributed to Titian, 
and worthily. 

The church of Saint Andrew contains 
the tomb of a learned scholar of the last 
century, Domenico Lazzarini da Murro; 
the Greek inscription is affecting : — 
"Here reposes Domenico da Murro, 
Alas! how far is he from Ancona, his 
country!" At the high-altar, the Virgin, 
the Infant Jesus, St. Andrew, St. Tho- 
mas de Villeneuve, and other figures, is 
by Possenti, a clever Bolognese painter 
ofthe middle ofthe seventeenth century, 
a pupil of Ludovico Carracci, who died 
at Padua of a musket shot fired by a 
rival lover. In the sacristy are three 
remarkable paintings : the Holy Trinity, 
St. James, and St. Jerome, by Santa 
Croce ; IheVirgin. the Infant Jesus, and 
the Apostles, by Giuseppe Salviati, and 
a very good Resurrection of Christ, by 
an unknown author. 

The architecture of the church of Saint 
Lucy is simple and well-conceived, alto- 
gether free from the bad taste of the last 
century. A little painting of the Virgin, 
half-length, is a precious work by an 
unknown author; it is placed over a 
wooden crucifix, by Bonazza, a Paduan 
artist of the last century, clever in that 
kind of work; in the sacristy, Ike St. 
Joseph holding the infant Jesus in his 
arms, who is turned with an affectionate 
air towards St. Anthony of Padua and 
St. Francis d'Assise, is by Nicholas Re- 
nieri, a Flemish painter, of the earlier 
half of the sixteenth century, who settled 
at Venice ; his style is at once soft and 
vigorous, and unites the manner of his 
country with that of Italy. 

a Willi chalk : the words used by Alexander VI. to 
express the rapidity ofthe invasion of Charles VIII., 
who seemed to have only to mark his lodgings like 
a quartermaster. 



[Book VII. 

The little church of the Annunziata 
nell' Arena,' of the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, is singularly charac- 
teristic. Beside it stood the old palace 
of the Foscari, which was demolished 
between my visit of the year 1827 and 
that of 1828, and a mean looking house 
was being built on its site. This so- 
litary spot consequently combined, on 
my first visit, the ruins of antiquity, the 
middle ages, and the revival. The walls 
of the Annunziata are covered with 
vast frescos, consisting of the strange 
figures of the Virtues and Vices by 
Giotto.* and particularly the celebrated 
Last Judgment, which is said to have 
been executed from the inspirations of 
Dante, his friend. 3 Though oppressed by 
five centuries, this grand composition is 
perhaps the best preserved of his works, 
and the upper part has some details full 
oftaste, gracefulness, elegance, and truth. 
The paintings of the choir representing 
the Life of the Virgin, by Taddeo Bar- 
tolo, one of Giotto's pupils, much praised 
by Vasari, prove, notwithstanding their 
inferiority, that he was not unworthy 
his illustrious master. 

The magnificent marble tomb of Enrico 
Scrovigno, founder of the Annunziata, 
with his statue recumbent, is behind the 
altar ; his statue erect stands near the 
sacristy ; beneath is this inscription : 
Propria figura domini Henrici Scro- 

1 Notwithstanding tbe jealous pretence of Maffei 
that Padua bad not an amphitheatre, it seems cer- 
tain that It possessed one (and even two, if wu may 
believe Count Stralico, the editor of Vitruvius, who 
discovered another in Hie Prato delta valle) and 
that its ruins are still usible in front of tbe An- 
nunziata. D'nancarville had composed a Disser- 
tation on this subject. which remained unpublished, 
as also a considerable number of his resenrcbes 
now in the hands of an Englishman, Mr. Wolsteri- 
holme Purr, who purposed publishing them in 
Luglaud, but who was still at Padua in 1830. 

[ D'Hancarville had commenced a Dissertation 
nn these figures which was left a mere sketch at 
bis death; his ingenious explanation of the Pru- 
dence was unpublished until given by Cicognara, 
book in., chap. vii. of his History of Sculpture. 

1 Benvenuto d' Iniola, an early commentator of 
Dante, relates a witty reply made by Giollo to Danle, 
who was his guest at Padua, very much like that of 
the Roman painter Malllus, told by Macrobllis : 
Dante, when examining the frescos of the Annun- 
ziata, asked Giotto why bis children, who closely 
resembled himself in being ill-favoured, were so 
link' «ikc bis paintings, tbe latter beiug beautiful, 
the former ugly : Quia piiujo de die, sed fingo de 
noete, replied Giotto. The bad looks of Giotto are 
the subject of one of Boccaccio's novels (Gjoih. vi., 

i vigni militis de Harena. Scrovigno 
was a wealthy citizen of Padua who had 
been admitted into the Venetian nobi- 
lity in 1301, two years previous to his 
founding the Annunziata. Vanity would 
be beneficial and almost worthy of re- 
spect, if it always produced such monu- 

The church of the Hermits is one of the' 
most curious in Padua. The plan was by 
a monk of that order, Fra Giovanni, a 
great architect of the thirteenth century, 
public engineer of Padua. It presents 
two elegant antique lombs of princes of 
the Carrara family, the ancient sove- 
reigns of Padua, with an inscription by 
Petrarch ; 4 another tomb near them is 
that of the learned professor of law Be- 
navides, inferior in neither grandeur nor 
magnificence, which, in his passion for 
monuments, this Paduan Mecaenas had 
erected during his life, by the Florentine 
sculptor Ammanato ; 5 some great frescos 
by Mantegna or of his school, half des- 
troyed; a well preserved fresco, one of 
his masterpieces; bis Martyrdom of St. 
Christopher, full of life and expression, 
in which he has painted himself and his 
master Francesco Squarcione, under the 
guise of two soldiers standing near the 
saint; other singular frescos by Gua- 
riento, a celebrated painter of the four- 
teenth century, clumsily retouehed,which 
cover the choir, and are said to repre- 

now.S),ln which be is thus magnificently eulogised: 
" Kbbe uno ingegno dl lanta eccellenzia, cbe niuna 
cosa dalla natura, madre di tulte Ie cose, e opera- 
trice col cominuo girar de' cleli, fu cbe egli con lo 
stile, e con la peuna, ocol pennello non riipignesse 
si simile a quella, cbe non simile, anzi plu tosto 
dessa paresse, in tanlo, cbe molte voile nelle cose 
da lui fatte si truova, cbe il visivo senso degli 
uomini vl prese errore.'' lie moreover says that 
Giotto was a fine talker (bellisimo favellatnre). 
The novels of Sacbeili justify this last qualification: 
lilt y contain several anecdotes and repartees of 
Giotto, which show his satirical, independent 
temper, and even the singular licence of bis opi- 
nions. See A'«r. lxiii. and ixxv. 

4 ]t is inserted in Scardeone"s work, De antuiui- 
tuleurl/is fatavii, Basil., 1560, folio, p. US? ; but, 
instead of cum (orel horrendus hoslibui itle sut's, 
there is the egregious blunder of cum floret. 

5 Such was Benavides' love for the arts and 
sciences and their professors, that on the reverse 
of a mediil to bis honour, which lie had ordered 
tbe noted Cavino to engrave, he put tbe portrait or 
the latter and that of Alessandro Bassauo, a cele- 
brated antiquarian, his accomplice in tbe fabrica- 
tion of antique medals, of such exact imitation, that 
tbey were long tbe despair of other antiquarians, 
and procured Cavino the title of Trincc uf forger i. 

Chap. IV.] 



sent ihe planets, among which Mercury 
is seen dressed as a monk, and holding 
a book in his hand, as the god of elo- 
quence ; St. Peter, St. Paul, Moses, and 
Joshua, in fresco, larger than life, reck- 
oned the best works of the vigorous 
pencil of Stefano dell' Arzere; on the 
altar of the chapel painted by Mantegna, 
seven figures of burnt clay, full of grace, 
nature, and simplicity, surmounted by 
an elegant frieze, by Giovanni of Pisa, 
or perhaps his master and companion 
Donatello ; the Virgin on an elevated 
throne, with the infant Jesus in her 
arms, and at her feet St. James, St. Au- 
gustine, St. Philip, and the doge Grilli 
holding the city of Padua in his hand, a 
grand composition, excellent in design 
and colouring, by Fiumicelli ; the St. 
John Baptist in the desert, by Guido, 
full of the noble expression peculiar to 
him ; Jesus Christ showing his wound 
to St. Thomas, one of Padovanino's 
chefs-d'oeuvre. In the sacristy, is one 
of Canova's funerary cippi, so much dis- 
tinguished for elegance and variety, that 
of Prince William George Frederick of 
Orange, remarkable for the pathos of the 
figure and the merit of the drapery. 

There is a small cemetery belonging to 
the church of the Hermits; it contains 
the marble tombs of a German lady, the 
baroness Louisa Deede, by Canova, and 
of another person of the reformed faith; 
these proteslant tombs are perhaps nearer 
a church than any other, and the latter, 
through a laudable toleration, is built in 
the very wall of the Hermits, and I be- 
lieve has a front in the church. 

At Saint Canziano, the Miracle of the 
miser by St. Anthony, a work of Da- 
mini, contains the portraits of the famous 
anatomist Geronimo Fabricius d'Acqua- 
pendente and that of the author. The 
Death of the Redeemer and the Marys 
weeping, excellent figures in clay, by 
Andrea Riecio, have, most unluckily been 
coloured : one feels, on seeing them, to 
what an extent reality is inferior to the 

The church of the Servi of Santa Maria 
' is as old as the fourteenth century ; it 
was founded by Fina Buzzacarina, wife 
of Francesco Carrara the Elder, on the 
site of the demolished house of the con- 
spirator Nicolao Carrara, who wanted to 
betray Padua to Can delta Scala. Many 
of its paintings and mausoleums are re- 
markable ; the Virgin in the midst of 

angels, and at her feet St Jerome, St, 
Christopher and ot er saints, is a natural 
and sublime composition of the fifteenth 
century, author unknown. It is uncer- 
tain on what grounds the miraculous 
statue of the Virgin has been attributed 
to Donatello. In the sacristy, the paint- 
ing of the Virgin holding the dead 
Christ, is by Andrea Mantova, a noble 
and clever amateur, pupil of Luca of 
Reggio. The Virgin, St. Paul, St. Au- 
gustine, St. Mary Magdalen, St. Ca- 
therine, is a good work by Stefano 
dall' Azzere ; the Virgin appearing to 
the founder of the Servi order; the 
Ardingo Bishop of Florence invest- 
ing him with the black gown, are 
by Luca of Reggio. The bronze basso- 
relievos of the mausoleum of Paolo of 
Castro and his son Angelo, jurisconsults 
and professors, are perhaps by Vellano, 
a pupil little worthy of Donatello and 
much too highly spoken of by Vasari. 
In one place an angel is seen taking a 
book to these doctors, to whom the in- 
scription gives the ridiculously lofty title 
of monarches sapientia. The tomb of 
Heraclius Campolongo, a celebrated 
physician in his day, who died in 1606, 
is at once grand and elegant. 

The small church of Saint Daniel is of 
the eleventh century, but it has been 
modernised. It is a matter of regret 
that no traces remain of the tomb and 
honorary inscription decreed to Angelo 
Ruzzante surnamed Beolco, from his 
taste for agriculture and the rearing of 
cattle. Beolco, celebrated for his come- 
dies in the rustic dialect of Padua, played 
them with such talent as to be compared 
to Roscius by Sperone Speroni. Not- 
withstanding his success, Beolco was 
poor when he died, in 1542, at the age 
of forty, and was honoured with a mag- 
nificent funeral at Saint Daniel at which 
his admirer, the canon Scardeoae, the 
historian of the illustrious Paduans, seems 
to have assisted. If the monument of 
the Paduau poet and actor still existed, 
it would do credit to Italy, for having 
granted honours to Beolco and a burial, 
which were refused to Moliere's ashes in 
France more than two centuries after 

The spacious church of Saint Francis 
is not destitute of interest with respect 
to art and literary associations. The 
tomb of the illustrious Florentine scholar, 
orator, politician, and warrior, Barto- 
lommeo Cavalcanti, who went into vo- 




[Book VII. 

luntary exile after the loss of his coun- 
try's liberty, and died at Padua in 156-2^ 
is in excellent taste, aid the sarcophagus 
recalls the boldness of Michael Angelo. 
The mausoleum of Pictro Roccabonella, 
a celebrated Venetian professor and phy- 
sician, surmounted by a bronze statue 
of him writing, is by Vellano, completed 
by Andrea Riccio. Over the elegant 
altar of (he chapel della Crociera, is the 
Ascension, by Paolo Veronese ; the 
apostles are by Damini, and were painted 
in 1625, those by Paolo Veronese having 
been cut out and stolen, as we are in- 
formed by an inscription commemorat- 
ing that strange robbery. An admirable 
St. Francis receiving (he stigmata, is 
by Luca of Reggio. In the chapel of 
Saint Gregory, the Saint interceding 
for some souls in purgatory, a fine 
painting by Palma, is unfortunately con- 
cealed by an image of the Virgin, an 
object of popular veneration. The basso- 
relievos of the altar, erected at the ex- 
pense of the archpriest Rartolommeo 
Sanvito, with his statue kneeling, are 
good works of the sixteenth century. 
The Virgin on a throne, with St. Peter 
and St. Francis beside her, a valuable 
basso-relievo in bronze, is a work ofYel- 
lano, finished by Riccio. The portico of 
Saint Francis was formerly famous for its 
paintings in clare-obscurc representing 
the Lifeof 'the Saint, by Francesco Squar- 
cione; being faded, they were white- 
washed over in the last century, and Alga- 
rotti has even humorously pretended in 
one of his letters that this was subsequent 
to a chapter held on the subject by the 
monks. A lay-brother of the convent, 
of good education and a lover of the arts, 
discovered the continuation of these 
paintings in a small cloister adjoining, 
then used as a woodhouse. 1 hey are 
now nearly lost; but the compartment 
least injured, representing St. Francis 
kneeling before the pope on his throne, 
surrounded by a crowd of cardinals, 
still bears witness to the skill of the old 
Venetian master, chief of a celebrated 
school at Padua, which numbered as 
many as one hundred and thirty-seven 
pupils, among whom it had the honour 
of forming Mantegna; a strict master as 
to the principles, and who already treated 
the school of Giovanni Bellini as corrupt. 
Saint Clement has one of Luca of 
Reggio's best works : the pope of that 
name surrounded by angels. The Christ 

giving the keys to Peter in presence of 
the angels, by Damini, suggests the imi- 
tation of Padovanino. 

The grand church of Saint Benedict 
the Elder has some fine paintings: St, 
Benedict and some monks, by Darnini ; 
the Christ in the air, St Peter dic- 
taling the gospel to St. Mark, St. Je- 
rome, St. Dominick and St. Thecles,, 
by Domenico Tintoretto ; the grand paint- 
ing of Moses striking the rock; the 
Blessed Giordano Forzate tracing the 
plan of the neighbouring monastery 
with his stick, by Padovanino; Nostra 
Signora di Loretto, the Empress Helen 
and Ludovico Gonzaga, by Luca of Reg- 
gio. Saint Benedict contains the tomb 
of a literary Englishwoman of some cele- 
brity in the last century, Justine Wynne, 
countess of Ursins and of Rosenberg, a 
monumental tribute of affection from her 
brother Richard Wynne. who consecrated 
it to her on the win of September 1791, 
the year of her death. The countess of 
Rosenberg has written a description in 
French of the senator Angelo Quirini's 
villa of Allichiero, then rich in statues 
and antiquities, and the very scarce book 
entitled les Morlaques, a picture in 
poetical prose of the almost unknown 
manners of those inhabitants ofDalmalia. 
The frivolous count Benincasa has been 
often mentioned as the t einturier of this 
erudite lady, an impossible partnership 
which M. Nodier has very well refuted. 

The vast church of the Carmelites 
possesses a charming painting by Pado- 
vanino, the Mother of Sts. James and 
John praying to the Saviour ; some good 
paintings by his father Darius Varotari, 
near the organ and high-altar ; St. 
Prosdocimus, St. Daniel and St. An- 
thony of Padua, a Virgin in fresco by 
Stefano dali' Arzere; a little elegant 
picture by Bissoni, a Paduan painter of 
the seventeenth century; the Virgin, 
the infant Jesus, and the blessed Si- 
meon Stoch, and another great and good 
painting, by the same, the Virgin pre- 
senting the Carmelite habit to the 
founder of the order. The Scuola del 
Carmine, near the church, has sonn 
frescos by Domenico Campaguola, the 
Adoration of the Shepherds, of the 
Magi, the Circumcision, which are of 
this artist's best ; an admirable St. Joseph 
visiting St. Anne, by Titian, and a small 
painting of the Virgin with the infant 
Jesus, by him or the elder Palma. 

Ciup. V.] 



Santa Croce has some esteemed paint- 
ings and two pretty good figures of 
angels, by Antonio Bonazza, a tolerable 
sculptor of the last century ; this derives 
an especial interest from being the burial- 
place of P. Jacopo Slellini, a monkof im- 
mense information and capacity ; poet, 
orator, geometrician, theologian, phy- 
sician, chemist, scholar, and especially 
philosopher, who, to use Algarolti's ex- 
pression, could have undertaken to give 
instruction during-the same day in all 
human sciences ; he was a kind of Paduan 
Socrates, but his opinions are now nearly 
forgotten in Italy, a fact which proves that 
the creations of thought and reason will 
always have a more limited existence 
than the works of art or poesy. 

The little church of the Dimesse, of 
elegant and harmonious architecture, is 
reputed to be from the plans of Alga- 
rotti. The Magdalen, St. Anthony, 
St. John Baptist and St. Prosdocimus, 
is a fine painting in Liberi's first, style. 


Saint Jusllne.— San Giovanni dl Verdara.— Buona- 
mico.— Professors of the sixleenlli century.— 
Morgagnl.— Seminary.— Forcelllni. 

Saint Justine, with its eight open-work 
cupolas, the highest of which is sur- 
mounted by the saint's statue, is a su- 
perb monument ; though more than three 
centuries have passed since its erection, 
this church still appears quite new. The 
architect was a Benedictine, Geronimo 
of Brescia. In the principal chapel is an 
excellent painting by Paolo Veronese, 
the Martyrdom of St. Justine; but Jesus 
Christ, the Virgin, St. John and the 
angels above have much less the appear- 
ance of descending from heaven than 
falling down heavily : a fault of this kind, 
so opposed to the aerial manner of that 
great painter, cannot certainly be attri- 
buted to him ; it must be thrown on the 
prior of the convent, who had the pre- 
sumption to correct the drawing of Paolo 
Veronese and teach him perspective. 1 

The various chapels have also some 

1 This prior of Saint Justine was 1'. Giulinno de 
Careol, ofPlacenlia; Algarotti, in his Letters, gives 
a humorous imaginary dialogue between liim and 
the artist on the subject of this correction. Jt has 
however been since ascertained that the change of 
the colours into a deeper shade has much increased 
the fault of perspective. 

fine paintings: the Conversion of St. 
Paul, the Martyrdom of James the Less, 
superb compositions by the heirs of Paolo 
Veronese; 3 an agreeable and touching 
Ecstasy of St. Gertrude, by Libert; a 
vigorous Martyrdom of St. Gherardo 
Lagredo, by Loth ; the Death of St. 
Scholastica, perhaps too graceful ; the 
Martyrdom of St. Placidus, noble and 
elegant, by Luca Giordano; St. Bene- 
dict receiving St. Placidus and St. 
Maur at the gate of his monastery, 
one of Palma's best works; the same 
saint showing his rules to several prin- 
ces and princesses, by Claudio Ridolfl, 
highly spoken of, and with justice as 
regards its invention, grace, richness, 
and careful execution ; St. Cosmo and 
St. Damian withdrawn from the sea; 
their Martyrdom, good works by Ba- 
lestra ; a grand and pathetic painting of 
the Mission of Ihe Apostles, by Bissoni; 
the Miracle of the holy Innocents, very 
elegant, by Damini ; the Martyrdom of 
St. Daniel, by Antonio Zanchi, a con- 
temporary of the two last painters; it is 
one of his best performances, and re- 
markable for the composition, drawing, 
and truth of the flesh. The statue of 
Rachel with one son in her arms and 
another dead at her feet, by Giuseppe 
Comino, is held in considerable estima- 
tion; the figures, larger than life, of the 
Dead Christ, the Virgin, and St. John, 
by Filippo Parodi, notwithstanding their 
cleverness and pathos, announce the 
pupil of Bernini. The figures and sym- 
bols taken from the New Testament 
which adorn the stalls of the choir are 
the excellent work of a Frenchman of 
Rouen, Richard Taut iguy, who also did 
the fine stalls of the choir in the Duomo 
of Milan, an extraordinary character, 
whose life at Padua was a continued 
scene of strife and madness ; of the abbe* 
Euihichius Cordes of A ntwerp, one of the 
fathers of the council of Trent, a theolo- 
gian and friend of the arts, who directed 
the labours of our fiery countryman; 
and of Andrea Campagnola, a good sculp- 
tor, but little known, who has executed 
burnt clay models of these fine wood re- 

2 Many paintings executed by his relations after 
his death are signed the heirs of Paolo Veronese; 
who were his son Carlelto and his brothers Bene- 
detto and Gabriele. The whole family occasionally 
worked together at the same painting. 



[Boob VII. 

iicvos. At Saint Jusiine is the tomb of 
I he learned Piseopia Cornaro, who has 
a statue at the University, 1 a bust at 
Saint Anthony, and appears like the muse 
of Padua. 

The celebrated old library of Saint 
Jusiine is no longer in existence; in 1810 
it was sold and frittered away by the 
administration, and is now dispersed; 
the chief part of the more precious arti- 
cles has passed from the library of S. 
Melzi into England; its shining shelves 
of wood from Norway and India are at 
the University library, and the cloister 
is converted into a fine large hospital for 
invalids. Our writers of literary history 
must in consequence henceforth re- 
nounce their continual references to the 
manuscripts in the library ol Saint Jus- 

The church delle Grazie has a fine 
expressive painting by Damini, St. Do- 
minick bringing to life a drowned girl ; 
the Dominican convent, to which this 
church formerly belonged, is now 7 an 
asylum for orphans and mendicants. 

The church of Saint Sophia, which has 
been supposed the ancient cathedral, 
encloses various remains of antiquity : 
such as the fantastical figures painted on 
the great door, and especially the apsis, 
anterior to 1000, constructed of materials 
proceeding from Roman edifices. The 
Christ put in the tomb is one of the best 
paintings of Stefano dall' Arzere ; a Ma- 
donna, in fresco, of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, is a curious work; the old seats 
which were formerly used by the priests 
during the service merit the attention of 
the learned. Saint Sophia contains the 
tomb of one distinguished man, theCav. 
Mabil, a native of Paris, professor for 
nearly thirty years at the university 
of Padua, translator of Titus Livius, all 
Cicero's Letters, Scipio's Dream, the Life 
ofAgricola, Horace, Phaedrus, and ol' 
Quillet's strange poem oflheCallipe'die, 
in blank verse, with learned notes. In 
conversation Mabil was excellent and 
lull of wit; he was the friend of Foscolo 
and Cardinal Maury ; he held office under 
the French administration, and died 
more than octogenarian on the 2oth Fe- 

i See above, cliap. [I. 

1 I'etnis Aloy. Mabil Eqv. Cor. Ferreae Orlglne 
Guilds SexeonU llaliam Parenlib. Deduetus lblq. 
Sede Apud Venetos FauMis Ominib. Firmata Post 
\8rlo> Hernia Cn«is Fain ModoPurente vodo Ti.c- [ 

bruary 183(5 ; his epitaph, composed by 
himself, happily paints his active and 
agitated life. 1 

The Ognissanti church, of a naked ar- 
chitecture, has an Assumption by Palma ; 
the ancon in three compartments at the 
entrance of the sacristy, representing the 
Virgin, the Infant Jesus, and beside 
him St. Sebastian and another saint," 
is a precious wreck of painting in 
Squarcione's style. 5 A painting full of 
life and expression, the most remarkable 
in the church, is the Virgin in a glory, 
with St. Maur and St. Agnes below : 
Morelli attributes it to Bassano, but it 
seems rather by his pupil Bonifazio. 
The follow ing epitaph, a sort of political 
epigram on a tomb, probably by one of 
oui refugee compatriots, is not void of ori- 
ginality : Cajetanus Molinus X. V. olim 
aristocraticus, nunc realista, unquam 
democraticus, civis semper optimus, 
obiit tertio Id. Dec. MDCCXC VII. 

SaintThomas.orthe Philippines, is re- 
markable for its paintings: the Virgin in 
the midst of the Magi, in w hich the child 
leans gracefully towards St. Joseph, St. 
Anthony of Padua and the little St. John; 
St. Philip oflS'eri and St. Charles Bor- 
romeo, in a demilune near the organ; 
the Visit of St. Elizabeth, the Birth of 
Jesus Christ, the Presentation at the 
Temple, the Crowning with tJiorns, the 
Ascension, the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, and the Assumption of the Vir- 
gin, are fine works by Luca of Reggio, 
rather difficult to discover on the ceiling. 
A Piety, by the priest Stroifi, bears a 
happy resemblance to the manner of 
Cappuccino, his master. Saint Theresa, 
St. Justine, are by Francesco Minorello, 
the ablest pupil of Luca of Reggio, and 
almost his rival; St. Prosdocimus, St. 
Daniel, St. Agnes, a Nun; the Virgin 
appearing to St. Philip; the same saint 
carried to heaven by angels, in the re- 
fectory, by Liberi. In the adjoining 
oratory, the Virgin on a throne with 
the infant Jesus, is a good painting by 
an author unknown. 

San Giovanni di Verdara contains 
some tombs of artists and celebrated 
writers, with some fine paintings. The 

henle Tandem Sub Extremo Vilas Limine .Non per 
Ignayiam Transacts Coudltorlum Hnece Mini Mu- 
rituro Parandura Curavl Anno MDCCCXXXVI. 
Stalls Mea? I.YXX1V. 
1 Seethe preceding chapter. 

CHAP. V.] 



mausoleum of Andrea Riccio, who made 
the famous chandelier ofthe Santo, was 
surmounted by his portrait in bronze, 
said to have been lifelike, but it was 
barbarously lorn away : bronze, a metal 
which that artist had so cleverly wrought, 
was a fitting and sacred ornament on 
his tomb. Another great artist, Luca 
of Reggio, one of Guido's best pupils, a 
noble, graceful, and expressive painter, 
who passed the greater part of his life at 
Padua, is interred in this church.' An 
elegant monument, though only an in- 
ferior imitation of Bembo's mausoleum 
at the Santo, has been consecrated to 
Lazzaro Buonamico, one of those great 
professors of the sixteenth century, one 
of those renowned and influential men 
that were eagerly sought after and court- 
ed by princes and cities, whose life, 
widely differing from the peaceful exis- 
tence of their successors in Fiance and 
Germany, was full of adventures and 
catastrophes,;* and who by their lessons 
more than their works contributed so 
much to the glory of modern letters. 
The monument erected in 15ii to the 
professor of law Antonio Rossi is of ca- 
pricious taste; but the bust, by an un- 
known author, is a precious work. The 
paintings are : a very graceful Nativity, 
by Rotari; the Virgin, the Infant Jesus, 
St. Anthony and St. Bernardin; a great 
and noble Crucifixion, by Stefano dell' 
Arzere; the two former with St. John 
Baptist and St. Augustine in an agree- 
able landscapejin the sacristy aMadonna, 
very fine, in a smiling rural scene, with 
St. John Baptist and St. Anne, by Don 
Pietro Bagnara, a canon of Saint John 
de Latran, a feeble but graceful imitator 
of his master Raphael. On the last paint- 
ing the pious artist has inscribed these 
words, which are also found on several of 
his works : Orate Deum pro anima 
hujus pic tor is. Saint Augustine giv- 
ing the book of his Constitutions to 
the monks of his order, is by Luca of 
Reggio. , 

In the small church of Saint Maximus 
there are only three paintings, byTiepolo, 
which are excellent; the recumbent 
statue of Giuseppe Pino, who died in the 
flowerofhisage, in 1560, isa workworthy 

• The Inscription, which says that he died in i652 
at the age of forty-nine years, is erroneous ; his 
will, lodged in the archives of Padua, was made at 
Borghosehiavino in the presence of Francesco Mi- 
uoiello. his pupil, and Is dated February 5, 1654. 

of that epoch. Saint Maximus has on? 
illustrious tomb, that of Morgagni, a 
pious and learned man, who, in an 
ecstasy of admiration for the author of 
nature, one day, while dissecting, threw 
down his knife and cried out : " Oh ! 
that I could but love God as I know 
him! " 

The small church of Saint Matthew is 
justly proud of two chefs-d'oeuvre of 
Padovanino : the Saint stabbed by a 
Gentile and an Annunciation. 

Saint Joseph has preserved some cu- 
rious frescos, executed in 1397, as we 
are informed by an inscription in Latin 
verse, by Jacopo of Verona, a great 
artist ofthe fourteenth century : the Ado- 
ration ofthe Magi presents the portraits 
of several princes of Carrara; some men 
of greater fame in the present day are 
represented among the spectators of the 
Funeral of the Virgin, known by the 
names of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio; 
there too is seen the celebrated physician, 
philosopher, and heretic, Pietro d'Abano, 
called in his time the Great Lombard, 
and perhaps the figure holding a cap in 
his hand may be the painter himself. 

In Saint Fermo is the great and superb 
Crucifix of wood, by an unknown artist, 
highly spoken of by Padre della Valle, 
Vasari's commentator, as one ofthe finest 
things in Padua, but the violent agony 
of Christ as there represented seems 
rather the suffering of a man than a God, 
The picture of the Virgin with John 
the Evangelist, St. Francis d'Assise 
and Giovanni Bagnara, called the 
Long, who built the elegant altar where 
the painting is placed, is by Minorello, 
and worthy of his master Luca of Beggio. 
A small painting of St. Peter and St. 
John Baptist is curious from its anti- 

The college of Padua, called the Se- 
minary, is justly celebrated for its print- 
ing-office, its Latin, and its library. The 
presses are eight in number and seem to 
have work enough. The library has 
about fifty-five thousand volumes, eight 
hundred manuscripts, and the valuable 
collection of prints, a legacy to the 
Seminary in 1829 from general mar- 
quis Federico Manfredini, a man of ex- 

* Buonamico was at Rome when the troops of 
the constable of Bourbon sacked that city; he nar- 
rowly escaped with his life, and lost all his boots 
and manuscripts. 




[Book VII. 

tensive knowledge, formerly the go- 
vernor of Leopold's sons, and a great 
friend of Morghen. This collection, im- 
properly classed by nations instead of 
epochs, is difficult of access, or rather 
almost buried, on account of some en- 
gravings of a licentious character. The 
library of the seminary contains some 
rare flrst editions of the Florence Homer, 
and the Venice Pliny ; a copy of the third 
edition of the same, on vellum paper (Ve- 
nice, 1472); another Pliny with marginal 
notes by an unknown person (Venice, 
Bernardino Benalio, 1497); Cicero's 
Letters, the first book printed at Venice; 
some line manuscripts of Petrarch and 
Dante. An autograph Letter from Pe- 
trarch to his physician and friend Gio- 
vanni Dondi, 1 De quibusdam consiliis 
medicince, is curious; ! it is dated from 
Arqua, and may be regarded as a very 
sensible little treatise on hygiene; Pe- 
trarch was seventy years old when he 
wrote it. After the common places on 
the necessity of yielding lo time, as every 
thing in nature does, Petrarch consents 
to abandon the use of fish and salt meat ; 
but he defends his regime of fruits and 
vegetables, the habit contracted in his 
boyhood of drinking nothing but pure 
water, and that only once a day, and of 
strictly fasting one day a week on bread 
and water. Dondi, on the contrary, 
wanted him to take wine, and spirits ; to 
eat partridge and pheasant, and opposed 
his fasts, notwithstanding the example of 
the hermits of the Thebaid cited by Pe- 
trarch. 3 There is also in the library a 
copy of the Dialogues of Galileo, with 
notes by himself: the alterations were 
given in an edition of his works printed 

' Son of Jacopo, a physician and astronomer, 
and maker or tbe famous clock placed in the palace 
lower at Padua, Id 1344. Giovanni was also at the 
same time an astronomer and physician. He In- 
vented and executed with his own hands another 
clock put up iu Hie library of Giovanni Galeas Yis- 
conti at I'avi.i. Hence did the Dondi family derive 
the name of tleyli Orolcgi. 

'' It wes published In (80S by the professors of 
the Seminary at Padua, but a hundred copies only 
were printed. This Idler, the tirst of book mi. of 
ihe Seniles, as printed In I lie different editions of 
Petrarch, is full of egregious errors, which are 
pointed out and corrected at the end of the volume 
In the Seminary edition. 

3 I'elrarch was not less prejudiced against me- 
decine and lis professors than Montaigne, Moliere, 
and Housseau. See in the Senit. lib. in. the 
Epistles I and s, addressed to Giovanni of Padua, a 

at the Seminary (1745, in four volumes 

I could not contemplate without a 
feeling of respect the manuscript in ten 
folio volumes of Forcellini's great Latin 
Dictionary, a monument of the learning; 
perseverance, and modesty of that holy 
and erudite priest. < It is true that we 
can scarcely expect to find the scnlh 
menial and pathetic prefatory to a folio 
Latin lexicon ; nevertheless I know no- 
thing more affecting lhan the words of 
Forcellini, addressed to ihe pupils of the 
Seminary at Padua, in which he reminds 
them, wilh great simplicity, of the time, 
application, and efforts that he devoted 
to his work for nearly forty years; Ado- 
lescens manum admovi; sencx, dum 
perficerem, factus sum, ut videtis. 5 I 
asked to see the authors he had used in 
his researches ; they were worn almost 
to destruction, so many limes had he 
turned their leaves over and over again. 

The church of the Seminary, a good 
building of the early part of ihe sixteenth 
century, has some fine paintings: ihe 
celebrated painting by Bassano repre- 
senting Christ dead, and carried to the 
tomb by torchlight by Joseph and Nico- 
demus; the expression of grief in the 
Virgin and Ihe olher women is admi- 
rable ; Ihe painter has made Ihis master- 
piece almost a family picture : the old Jo- 
seph is himself, the Virgin his wife, one 
of the Marys his daughter ; the Virgin 
on a throne with the infant Jesus, and 
below the Sts. Peter, Paul, John the 
Baptist, Catherine, and two angels, one 
of Bartolommeo Alontagna's best works; 
the Adoration of the shepherds, by 
Francesco Bassano, or bis brother Lean- 

celebrated physician. An inhabitant of that town 
offered to raise n statue to Petrarch at his own ex- 
pense In the I'rato delta Valle (See the next chap- 
ter), but on the condition of inscribing thereou 
tin se words : 

Francisco Pelrarcbae 
Medicorum bosll lufensissimo. 

This strange proposal was not accepted. 

4 The third ediliou of Forcellini's Dictionary, 
begun in 182" and finished In 18:ii, was superin- 
tended by the abbe Giuseppe Furlanetlo, or the Se- 
minary of Padua, whom I have had Ihe honour of 
vlsiling, a gentleman every way worthy, from his 
learning mid diligence, of completing that impor- 
tant work. The new edition, in four large 'iln vo- 
lumes, presents more lhan ten thousand rorreo» 
lions and about live thousand new words. 

5 T»t,us hUinitatts Lexicon, 1. 1, nvi. 

Chap. VI.] 



dro, is excellent; ihe Virgin, the In- 
fant Jesus, St. Jerome, and other saints, 
a painting unfinished, but very much 
esteemed ; the author was Lamberto 
Lombardo, a painter of Liege, for some 
time resident at Venice, who did several 
of the landscapes in the paintings or Ti- 
tian, his master and model, and likewise 
in those of Tintoretto; a great Cruci- 
fixion, which, despite the injuries of 
time, from its pathos and abridged in- 
scription, may possibly be by Paolo Ve- 


Palace del Capitanio.— Palace of tbe Podesla.— 
Saloon.— Lapis vititperii.— Prisoners for debt — 
Belzoui. — Italian travellers.— Prato delta valle. 

The architecture of the palace del 
Capitanio, by Falconetto, is majestic. 
Under the portal are some colossal frescos 
by Sebastiano Florigei io, a clever painter 
of the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
and pupil of Mailino of Udina. So noble 
and elegant are the staircase and its cu- 
polas, that it has been erroneously in- 
cluded among the unpublished works of 
Palladio; it appears to be by Vincenzo 
Dolto, a good Paduan architect of the 
end of the sixteenth century, whose edi- 
fices sometimes recall the grace of that 
great master. 

Some parts of the exterior of the Po- 
desla palace have been thought worthy 
of Palladio. The statue of Justice hold- 
ing a naked sword, at the entrance, by 
Titian Minio, is inferior to the elegant 
and aerial winged figures of the front, 
also attributed to him. The rooms of 
the Podesta palace contain some good 
paintings of the Venetian school, some of 
which relating to the history of Padua, 
are particularly flattering to municipal 
authority ; the Rector of the town, Ca- 
valli, accompanied by St. Mark, and 
the four Protectors of Padua, present- 
ing himself before the Saviour, a chef- 
d'oeuvre of Boinenico Campagnola ; an- 
other great painting of the Virgin with 
St. Mark and St. Luke, by the same; the 
Hector Maximus Valieri giving up the 
keys of the town to his brother Sigis- 
mund, by Damini; the League concluded 

1 Ginyuane lias erroneously stated ( article on 
I'ietro d'Abano, in the Biographie universelle) thai 
tbe figure; of Plelro d'Abano, destroyed by Ihe 

between Pius V., the king of Spain, and 
Doge Ludovico Mocenigo, by Darius 
Varotari ; a great painting of Jesus Christ 
between Justice and Plenty with Sts. Pros- 
docimus and Anthony, who present to 
him the rectors Soranzo, by Palma; a 
small Flagellation of Jesus Christ, by 
Orbetto ; a Bacchanal, by Francesco Cas- 
sano, a vigorous artist of the seventeenth 
century ; Two cocks fighting, by his son 
Agostino Cassano, who excelled in ani- 
mals; Lot and his daughters, by Liberi; 
an Adulterous woman, very fine, by Pa- 
dovanino; his portrait by himself, the 
altitude of which combined with various 
objects there represented show that this 
charming painter was also a lover of 
letters and the sciences; a Last Supper, 
one of Piazzelta's best works. The 
bronze medallions of Fracastor and An- 
drea JXavagero are highly finished per- 
formances of the clever and perfidious 

The saloon, formerly the audience 
court of the palace of Justice ( pa- 
lazzo della Ragione), is only used when 
the lottery is drawn; it is certainly the 
most spacious temple that Fortune ever 
had, and it is far from being surpassed 
by the Bourse of Paris. Neither West- 
minster nor the hall of the old palace at 
Florence are even so large as this im- 
mense room, the greatest construction of 
the kind in Europe ; its famous roof is 
another proof of the daring genius of Fra 
Giovanni, the architect of the church of 
the Hermits. 

The frescos of the upper part, divided 
into thirty-nine compartments offering 
many subjects taken from the life of the 
Virgin and Scripture history, with many 
astrological figures, were imagined by 
the famous Pietro d'Abano, and executed 
by Giotto, and perhaps by other painters 
still older ; ' they have been retouched se- 
veral times, in the last instance in 1762 
by Francesco Zannoni, an incomparable 
artist for this kind of work, and capable 
of disarming the most inveterate enemies 
of restorations. A very well executed 
monument has been erected to Titus Li- 
vius ; it contains his supposed coffin : on 
either side are the two small bronze sta- 
tues of Minerva and Eternity with the 
Tiber and Brenta under them, while the 
bones of the Latin historian are over a 

burning of tbe saloon in 1420, were repainted by 
Giotto ; be died nearly a century before, in 1336. 



I Book VII 

door not far distant. There may be 
biended with love of country such a spirit 
of exaggeration and superstition that we 
are no longer touched thereby, because 
it closely approaches charlatanism and is 
at variance with both good sense and 
truth. The monument of Sperone Spe- 
roni, with his bust, is of 1591. There is 
another monument, which differs from 
these two literary ones; it is sacred to 
the memory of the marchioness Lucrezia 
Dondi d;ill' Orologio, a lady worthy of 
her baptismal name, who because she 
would not yield to the passion of a lover, 
was assassinated in her chamber in the 
night of November 16, 1654. 

In the saloon is now kept the stone 
(lapis vituperii) seen by Addison at the 
town hall, by which any debtor was de- 
livered from the pursuits of his creditors, 
on swearing, after having been seated on 
it bare-breeched three times by the officers, 
before the assembled crowd, that he had 
not the value of five francs. It is a kind 
of stool of black granite, not in the least 
worn ; this usage had not been followed 
for twenty-four years when Addison 
was there in 1700. From the intre- 
pidity with which certain debtors of our 
times show their faces, one might very 
well believe, that they would hardly 
blush to show the rest, and the stone 
would be much more in request. Such 
stones existed in the middle ages in se- 
veral Italian towns, such as Verona, Flo- 
rence, • Siena; the only difference was 
in the ceremonial. 4 The debtors' stone 
of Lyons was also often cited. This 
practice gave the French tongue a fami- 
liar expression, which continued in use 
even after the reign of Louis XIV., as 
may be seen by this phrase ofSaint Simon 
on the decree of the council of stale, 
which definitively diminished one half 
per annum the shares and bills of the 
Mississipi company : "Cela fit, ce qu'on 
appelle en matiere de finance et de ban- 
queroute, montrer le cul." Notwith- 

' In the burlesque hell of his Matmantile I.ippi 
lias introduced the Florentine ladies who, by I heir 
extravagance in dress, had brought their husbands 
to the debtors' stone : 

Donne, rhe feron gla per amblzione 
D' apparlr gioiellate e luccicanti, 
Dere il cul al uiarilo In su! laslrone. 

Caul, vt, ":t. 

' At SWna, these debtors paraded round the 

standing the oddity of this proceeding, 
it was not so very unreasonable, as it 
supplied a means of escaping those 
eternal prisoners for debt, one of the 
embarrassment of our civilisation and 
jurisprudence; and such an exposure to 
ridicule and shame was perhaps more 
beneficial than some of our decrees for 
declaring people insolvent. 

Over two fine Egyptian statues in gra- 
nite, with lions' heads, given by Belzoni 
to his native town, is the medallion in 
Carrara marble of this courageous but 
unfortunate traveller, by Rinaldo Ri- 
naldi. If the Italians, owing to the po- 
litical weakness produced by the division 
of their country, can no longer conquer 
the world, they discover it; the first navi- 
gators were Italians, Marco Polo, Colum- 
bus, Vespucio, Giovanni and Sebastiano 
Gabotto, Verazani, Pietro della Valle, 
GemelloCarreri; in our day, Belzoni as- 
cended the Niger, and Beltrami, going 
toward Hudson's Bay, discovered the 
sources of the Mississipi and the communi- 
cation between the Frozen Sea and the 
Gulf of Mexico. Italian genius, ever 
adventurous and intrepid, has only 
nged its element and direction. 

So vast are the dimensions of the saloon 
that a charming Jete was given in it in 
December 1815, to the emperor Francis 
and his daughter Maria-Louisa, under 
the skilful superintendence of Japelli, 
architect, of Padua : the saloon was me- 
tamorphosed into a garden, with a ball 
room and a receiving room for their ma- 
jesties : the trees were planted in the 
ground and formed thick illuminated 
masses; a small opera was performed, 
and there were even undulations of sur- 
face in this within-doors garden. 

The Prato della valle, a celebrated 
square and promenade, is a kind of Pan- 
theon in the open air, where are exposed 
the statues of the Paduan great.from that 
of Antenor the Trojan, reckoned its 
founder by Virgil, down to Canova. 3 

square for three mornings while the palace bell 
was ringing; they were attended by sbirrl, and 
very nearly naked ; the last day, they struck the 
stone like the debtors of Padua, and pronounced 
the following formula required by law : " 1 have 
consumed and dissipated all ray goods; and now 
I pay my creditors in the way you behold.'' 

3 Canovu's statue was erected to him during his 
life, in 1796, by the procurator of S.iint Mark, 
Antonio Capello. To avoid an infringement of the 
established rule, which did not allow the statues 

Setup, vil.] 


There are two statues by this great ar- 
tist; one of Giovanni Poleni, the work 
of his youth: he began it when twenty- 
two, and returned expressly from Rome 
to finish it somewhat too hastily, so 
great was his longing to revisit that ca- 
pital of the arts which he had only caught 
a glimpse of, but enough for its master- 
pieces to show him what true sculpture 
was; the other statue is that of Antonio 
Capello. It was originally intended to 
put statues of Paduans only in the Prate 
delta Valle ; but it was found necessary 
to have recourse to other illustrious Ita- 
lians, and even foreigners, as Padua, 
i with all its merits, could not supply 
enough great men to furnish this vast 
enclosure; the trees therein are low and 
loo few in number, and the canal round 
it seemed to me almost dry in summer. 
Two of the gates of Padua, those of 
Saint John and Savonarola, are by the 
great old architect Falconetto. The 
former, which proves the popularity that 
ihc celebrated Dominican ofFlorence en- 
joyed even at Padua, from which he ori- 
ginally sprung, has been justly praised 
Iby Vasari, Maffei, Temanza; and the 
i erudite commentator of Vitruvius, the 
i marquis Poleni, who has given the plan 
■ if it, esteems it one of the most perfect 
models of city gates. The more orna- 
mented gate del Portello, attributed to 
juglielmo Bergamasco, is almost a tri- 
umphal arch. 


fappafnva house. — Fall of angels. — Capodilista, 
GiuslinlanI, and Falconetto houses.— L. Cornaro. 
I — I-azzara and Venezze houses. — Colossus of Arn- 
manato. — Statues.— redrocchi coffeehouse. 

(The palaces of Padua, after Venice, 
appear but little curious or magni- 
ficent. The house of the honourable 
•ounts Trenlo Papafava, the finest in 
Padua, presents a horrible group of sixty 
lemons interlaced together in the form 
if a pyramid. This fall of the angels, a 
work of the last century, by Agostino 
L r asoIato, whimsically imagined and com- 
posed, is admirable for its mechanism 
ind workmanship. A Last Supper, an 

old fresco by Stefano dall' Arzere, is 
remarkable for the beauty of some heads 
and their closeness to nature. The new 
frescos of mythological subjects which 
cover the walls of a room in the countess 
Alessandra's apartment, together with 
an Aspasia, are pleasing performances 
by Signor Demin, one of the best living 
painters of Italy , especially in fresco, 
who for a long time remained unknown 
at Padua, and was called to Rome by his 
fellow-countryman of Rellona, Pope 
Gregory XVI. In the garden is the 
remnant of an antique column, proceed- 
ing from the ruins of a basilic discovered 
when the foundations of the Pedrocchi 
coffeehouse were laid. 

The Capodilista house possesses the 
huge fragments of a wooden horse by 
Donatello, the most stupendous in exis- 
tence, and which might be taken for 
the remains of that of Troy, brought 
thither perhaps by the Trojan Antenor, 
whom we mentioned above as the founder 
of Padua. There were many of Dona- 
tello's works in this town; and he was 
so much beloved that the inhabitants 
wished him to settle there and become 
their fellow-citizen; but the artist, with 
rather more than ordinary prudence, 
feared the effect that such excessive par- 
tiality might have on his talent. 

The house of Giustiniani al Santo is 
a celebrated edifice constructed in 152+ , 
as the inscription informs us, by the Ve- 
ronese architect Giovanni Maria Falco- 
netto, a great artist, formed by the study 
of Vitruvius and ancient monuments ; he 
was the first that introduced into this 
country a good architectural taste, pre- 
vious to the school of Sansovino and Palia- 
dio. Falconetto died ten years after in 
this very house, the guest of his patron 
Count Ludovico Cornaro, a distinguished 
writer, and author of the famous Discorsi 
delta vita sobria, for whom he built it. 
The discourses of Cornaro, begun when 
more than eighty, and finished in his 
ninety-fifth year, were practised by him 
from the age of forty-six; till then he 
had always been sickly, and his adhering 
to this system prolonged his existence to 
ninety-nine years. The severe ascetic 
regime he prescribes, is nownoimng but 

)f living men lo he placed- in the Prato, Canova 
las represenied in the act of making the statue of 
mother Antonio Cajiello, an able negociator and 
general nf the sixteenth century, likewise procu- 

rator of Saint Mark, and ancestor of the one v\ho 
creeled the statue; the Inscription praises and 
adroitly designates Canova without naming him. 



[Book VII. 

a kind of hygeian Utopia, but it had 
many followers so late as Louis XIV., and 
Saint-Simon states that it was followed 
by two worthy friends of Fenelon, the 
dukes of Chevreuse and Beauvilliers; it 
bad, however, killed many others, and 
among them the celebrated minister of 
slate Lyonnc. Such is the elegance and 
harmonious construction of Falconetto's 
work, and its beautiful loggia that, ac- 
cording to Maffei. it served as model to 
Palladio for the Capra casino. The ex- 
cellent stucco basso-relievos of the small 
saloon and other rooms, are probably by 
Falconotto. and there are some charming 
frescos painted from Raphael's cartoons, 
by Domenico Campagnola. 

A distinguished Paduan lawyer, Doctor 
Piazza, has thirteen precious basso-re- 
lievos by Canova in the rich collection he 
has formed, and which he patriotically 
intends leaving to the town : the Offering 
of the Trojan women, Socrates parting 
from his family, Socrates drinking the 
hemlock, Socrates dying. Justice, Good 
Works, the Good Mother, Death of 
Priam, Briseis delivered to the heralds 
by Patroclus, the Return of Telema- 
chus, the Dance of the sons of Alci- 
nous, Hope, and Charity; sculptures 
very well described by the Abbe Mene- 
ghelli, who has been equally successful 
in explaining their artistic merits and 
rendering their respective expression and 

Some ingenious and original construc- 
tions by Japelli embellish the not very 
extensive garden of the Baron Treves, an 
opulent and magnificent Jew ; they con- 
sist of a summer-house, a pagoda on the 
top of a rock, a rich aviary, an alchemist's 
laboratory with all the emblems and im- 
plements of the cabalistic art, a superb 
hot-house in the form of a tent, and a 
gothic hall of a chapter of knights. 

The house of the late Count Giovanni 
de Lazara ■ (at San Francesco), a man 
of distinguished taste in letters and the 
arts, is almost a museum of painting, 
sculpture, and antiquities. It contains 
Etruscan and Roman inscriptions, dis- 
cussed by the learned ; a precious papyrus 
mentioned by Gaetano Marini ; the ar- 
morial bearings of Eccelino, the old 
tyiant of Padua, with a fine inscription 
by Lanzi. The gallery presents paintings 
by Carletto Caliari, Tintoretto, Padova- 

1 Died the nth of February, 1833. 

nino, Marconi, the younger Palma ; some 
works of the ancient masters of the Ve- 
netian school ; an Angel, a small painting 
by Guarien'.o, with a St. Jerome and 
Madonna by Squarcione. The collec- 
tion of Italian copperplate engravings of 
the fifteenth century and of the beginning 
of the sixteenth is very valuable. Four 
bronzed figures of burnt clay are models 
of busts of Giovanni Mazzn, founded by 
theAlberghetti for general Schulemburg; 
and a too much extolled sculptor of the 
last century, Francesco Bertozzi, bas 
executed the two basso-relievos of the 
four elements. 

The Venezze house, built by the illus- 
trious professor Renavides and now oc- 
cupied by the prince of Aremberg, has 
some remnants of frescos by Gualtieri 
and Domenico Campagnola. There are 
two remarkable works byAmmanato: 
the immense colossus of Hercules, com- 
posed of eight parts skilfully joined 
together, a naked and bold performance 
of his youth ; and the superb garden 
gate, resembling a triumphal arch, and 
decorated with statues of Jupiter and 

Although I pay more attention to the 
monuments of the past than of the pre- 
sent moment, I cannot possibly pass over 
in silence a structure which was in active 
progress the last time I was at Padua. 
This elegant and spacious edifice, the 
work of Japelli, to whom the town is in- 
debted for its new slaughter-houses, an- 
other excellent building differing in kind, 
was executed for the owner of the Pe- 
drocchi coffeehouse, who purposed trans- 
fering his business thither. It is also 
intended to serve as an assembly-room 
and casino, and will certainly be one of 
the most magnificent in the world : all 
the columns, the walls, and pavement 
are marble ; there is not even a bit of 
stucco, and unless a person were ap- 
prised of the reality, such a building 
would appear to him much more like a 
palace or temple than a coffeehouse. The 
cost will be 6000 pounds sterling ; but a 
Parisian architect would not get through 
it with iO.OOOZ. It is a fact that the 
works are singularly managed ; there is 
neither master-mason, contractor for 
joiners' or smiths' work, nor other 
powers; there are only the architect who 
gives orders in the morning, and the 
master who pays at night. This beau- 
tiful construction, with its capitals and 

Chap. VIH.l 

every individual part executed and fi- 
nished off with the utmost nicely, will, 1 
believe, be finished without leaving a 
i single account to settle, a prodigy which 
probably has not been seen since the 

Qu'aui accords d'Ampbion lespierres se mouvaient, 
El sur )es mur> Uiebuins en ordre s'elevalent. 

An antique basilic was found while 
I digging the foundations ; part of its marble 
was used in pa\ing this lemonade shop, 
so frequently may the vestiges of Italy's 
jlden glory be found where least ex- 


:ataio.- Euganean hills.— Arqua.— Petrarch's house 
aud tomb. 

Arqua, four leagues from Padua, is 
:elebrated as the burial-place of Petrarch. 
)n the road is a great picturesque manor- 
iouse called Cataio, formerly noted for 
he paintings of Zelotti and its museum 
pf antiquities. The Cataio now belongs 

the duke of Modena, to whom the last 
narquis Obizzi bequeathed it with his 
ther property, a vainglorious legacy, 
\ hich the marquis thought would make 
im seem a relative of the house of Este. 
i rare book by Giuseppe Bctussi of Bas- 
ano, entitled : Ragionamento sopra il 
'atajo luogo del Sig. Gio. Enea Obizzi; 
nPadova, per Lorenzo Pasquati, 1573, 

1 8vo, was singularly mistaken by Len- 
let-Dufresnoy, in his Supplement "to the 
lethod of studying History, for a work 
n Cathay or China, and classed accord- 


Ihe situation of Arqua amid the Eu- 

anean hills, so often sung, but little 

own, is delicious. a Childe Harold and 

s notes contain a poetical and minuie 

scription of the site ; but, while describ- 

ig the beauty of the orchards of Arqua, 

c ad of its little groves of mulberry-trees 

I ad willows, interlaced with festoons of 

> Tbe Pedrocchi coffeehouse was 0nisbedirH83i. 

Japelli made an Artesian well there in 1832, a 
I scovery which, according to the editor of the 

ioa Vilnwius (1830-32), S. Qulrico VivianL, and 
I e researches of M. Arago, was well known to the 
I cients. M. dc Lamanlne was inclined to think 
I 3t the three famous Wells of Solomon in the plain 
I Tyre were of this description. 
|.' Tbe Euganean bills, celebrated hy all poets 
'■in Petrarch to Cesarotti, Foscolo, and Cesare 


ARQUA. 215 

vines, it would perhaps have been just to 
mention (in the notes at least ) its excel- 
lent figs, which enjoy a well merited 
reputation in that country. 

Petrarch's house is at the end of the 
village ; that house, in which he received 
the frequent and familiar visits of Fran- 
cesco Carrara, sovereignof Padua, isnow 
inhabited by peasants and much da- 
maged : 

O di pensier soavemenle mesti 
Solitario ricovero giocondo; 
Di quai lagrime amare II petto inondo, 
Sel veder eh'oggi Inonorata resti. 3 

On the walls of the chambers are some 
coarse paintings relating to his love, taken 
from the first canzone ; he is seen lying 
under a tree, and making a brook with 
his tears; the adventure of Laura, who, 
being surprised by Petrarch when bathing 
in a fountain, splashed the water about 
with her hands to conceal herself from 
his view, is so oddly represented that one 
would think she was, without much re- 
gard to modesty, throwing water in his 
face, though he continues to approach her 
with imperturbable gravity; he appears, 
too, almost metamorphosed into a stag; 
it is Acteon in archdeacon's robes. The 
little white cat loved and sung by Petrarch 
may be seen, stuffed, in a niche; but I 
do not believe it the real one; it looks 
quite new, and I have learned that, as 
sentimental strangers were always eager 
to possess some portion of this illustrious 
cat, it was renewed every year, like the 
laurel at Virgil's tomb, when the season 
for travellers drew near. Some enthu- 
siastic admirers of Petrarch maintain the 
authenticity of the cat, and Tassoni, who 
so severely handled Petrarch in his com- 
mentaries, wrote the following pretty 
verses on Arqua and this animal : 

E '1 bel colle d' Arqua poco in disparte, 

Che quinci il mente e quindl il piun vagbeggia; 

Dove giace colui, nellc cui carte 

L' alma fronda del sol Mela verdeggia ; 

Arrici, abound with excellent hot springs, varying 
in heat from twenty-four to eighty degrees (Keau- 
mur). Bathif,r;-houses have been established at 
Abano and at the springs of Monte Orlone, San 
Pielro Monlagnone, Moutegrotto, San Barlolommeo, 
Santa Elena, near llattaglia. These hills are more- 
over a very inleresling geological study. Count da 
Itio's mineralogical cabinet, at Padua, is curious 
as far as concerns the Euganean bills. 
3 Alfieri, Son. LVI1I. on A'viua. 

246 ARQUA. 

E dove la sua gatla lu seeca spoglia 
r.iiarda dui topi aucor la dolta soglia. 

A questa Apollo gia fe' privllegi, 
CUe rimanesse ioconlro al tempo intalta, 
E clio la fama sua con varj fregi 
Elerna fosse in millc carnji falta : 
Onde i sepolcri de' superbi regi 
Vince di gloria un' insepolla gatta. 

fBooK VII. 

A register (codice) is kept in the house 
to receive the names of visitors, and their 
thoughts, if they happen to have any. 
This volume has even been printed ; but 
I doubt whether the desire of creating 
enthusiasm ever prompted a less felicitous 
expedient. Our grenadiers and voltigeurs 
have also been to -write their names in 
this book, but they are neither fools not 
ridiculous. Granting that they did nor 
exactly know what Petrarch was, it is 
evident that they were impelled by a kind 
of instinctive passion for glory, though 
their comprehension of it was not very 
complete : this sentiment is touching 
because it is true, and in it lies the secret 
of their victories. 

I confess, however, that I am no great 
partisan of those eternal inscriptions 
which so many travellers seem to think 
almost obligatory. It appears to me that 
the multitude of vulgar names, which 
crowd around the tomb of a great man, 
or on the walls of his dwelling, intrude 
on the calm of the grave and the silence 
of the retreat where he lived. It is, 
besides, a want of respect in mediocrity 
thus to assume familiarity with genius, 
and rush into its very sanctuary. Such 
homage is offensive, almost sacrilegious; 
the worshipper at this shrine must not 
be too far below the divinity, nor make 
with it a too striking contrast. This 
inscribing vanity, like that of the world, 
has its selfishness and vandalism; the 
lodges of Raphael, the frescos of Giulio 
Romano at Mantua, and of other great 
masters, already so much injured by age, 
are still farther spoiled and disfigured by 
the list of all these proper names. 

Petrarch's tomb, erected to his memory 
by his son-in-law Brossano, is on the 
other side of Arqua facing the church. 
Petrarch is perhaps, with Voltaire, the 

< See bis Canzooi, 2 and *, 

Spirlo genii! che quelle membra reggt. 
llalia rula, beuche '1 parlor sia indaruu. 

" Whenever I address your majesty on affairs 
partaking of the serious," be writes to Frederick, 

greatest literary character of modern 
times; courted by kings and republics, 
popes and universities, a friend of the 
cardinals, great lords, and the sham chi- 
merical tribune of modern Rome, he held 
absolute sway over that empire of letters 
which he had in a manner founded, 
whilst Voltaire extended and renewed it. 
If Petrarch had already the vanities and 
weaknesses of a man of letters properly 
speaking, he raises himself by his attach- 
ment, his enthusiasm for his country, by 
the profound pity he felt for its misfor- 
tunes,' and his affecting friendship for 
Boccaccio ; Voltaire, on the contrary, was 
the enemy of Jean-Jacques; he threw 
ridicule on his country as on every thing 
else, and made a jest of its reverses." 
Greatly resembling each other in their 
manner of life, both guests of a philoso- 
phical king (Petrarch of the good Robert 
of Naples, a somewhat freer liver than 
Frederick), beloved by illustrious women, 
tormented by the spleen of critics, hold- 
ing with their contemporaries, even the 
most eminent, an immense correspon- 
dence which makes their letters like 
annals of their day, transporting their 
widespread fame to a thousand different 
places, their death presents a singular 
contrast : Voltaire expires in the middle 
of Paris, overwhelmed with glory, sur- 
rounded by the homage of the Academy, 
amid the clamour of theatrical applause 
and the acclamations of the people ; 
Petrarch died peacefully in his asylum 
at Arqua, the gift of the Paduan tyrant, 
which he preferred to the tumultuous 
life of a citizen of Florence. 

Petrarch's real or metaphysical love 
for Laura is perhaps one of the most con- 
troverted and least explained questions 
in history. Professor Marsand, of Padua, 
editor of the best edition of Petrarch, and 
collector of a curious library of nine 
hundred volumes about that celebrated 
man (which in 1830 was added to the 
king's private library at the Louvre), after 
making the life of Petrarch his study for 
twenty years, has re-adopted the opinion 
of Laura's celibacy ; he pretends, not- 
withstanding the imposing authority of 

"I tremble like our regiments at Rosbach.'' And 
in another place : " They fled like tbe French be- 
fore your majesty.". . . "1 wauled," said he again 
to Frederick, " tbe king of Prussia for ray master, 
and the English people for my fellow-citizens," and 
many other such expressions.— Correspond, of tun 
kingof Prussia. Let. LIX,LXXXIII, CXIV,CXXII,CXXIX. 

Chap. IX.] 



totil) ; 

tart.' "* 

Tiraboschi, Baldelli, Ginguene% and the 
author of the remarkable article on Laura 
in the Bioqraphie univcrselle, that no au- 
thentic proof of her marriage with Hugues 
de Sade can be adduced. I own that I 
would willingly yield to an opinion so 
much in conformity with the spirit and li- 
terary manners of the time, and that I 
should rejoice to see such a poetical cha- 
racter delivered from those eleven chil- 
dren so indelicately bestowed on her by 
the vanity of the abbe" de Sade. Despite 
her high birth so much boasted by Pe- 
trarch, Laura may very well have been no 
extraordinary person ; he even tells us 
that she was so much occupied in house- 
hold affairs as never to pay any attention 
to poetry or literature : 

E non cur6 giatnmai rime ne versi. 

Petrarch, from his labours, discoveries, 
encouragements, and sacrifices, must be 
regarded as the real creator of letters in 
Europe. When I contemplated on the 
hill of Arqua the vast sepulchre of red 
marble, supported by four columns, in 
which his ashes repose, I fancied it less 
the receptacle of mortal remains than a 
monument erected to the intellectual 
powers, a trophy attesting the triumph of 
civilisation and learning over barbarism 
and ignorance. 


Kovigo.— Khodiginus. — Ponte di Lagoscuro.- Cus- 
tom-house.— Cus'om-bouse criticism! 

Rovigo is a small and rather noisy 
town, with a great square in which stand 
several tall red masts. One of the first 
men of the revival, the celebrated CajJius 
Rhodiginus, whose Italian name was 
Ludovico Celio Ri